Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology IAMM  | About us |  Subscription |  e-Alerts  | Feedback |  Reader Login  
  Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 Home | Ahead of Print | Current Issue | Archives | Search | Instructions  
Users Online: 705 Official Publication of Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists 
  ~   Site Statistics 
  ~   Addresses 
  ~   Search 
  ~   My Preferences 
  ~   Online Submission 


Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2002| October-December  | Volume 20 | Issue 4  
  Archives   Previous Issue   Next Issue   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
Hypochlorite (1%) is inefficient in decontaminating blood containing hypodermic needles
V Chitnis, DS Chitnis, S Patil, S Chitnis
October-December 2002, 20(4):215-218
Infectious biomedical waste and sharps have a potential hazard of transmission of pathogens. Among sharps, used needles form a major share and disinfection by 1 % hypochlorite is recommended in biomedical waste management rules of India. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of hypochlorite for the decontamination of needles. Needles (16 g) filled with suspensions of standard strains and clinical isolates of gram positive and gram negative bacteria in plain normal saline and in human blood containing anticoagulant, were exposed to 1% hypochlorite and the surviving bacteria were subjected to viable counts. The observations indicated that 85 - 90 % of the needles filled with bacterial suspensions in saline are disinfected to a level of >5 log bacterial reduction (standard disinfection) on exposure to hypochlorite but only 15 to 30% needles contaminated with the challenge bacteria suspended in blood showed >5 log reduction in viable counts. Thus, hypochlorite treatment is inadequate for disinfecting needles contaminated with pathogenic bacteria in presence of blood and should not be recommended as an option for disinfection of the needles.
  71,592 373 -
Uncultivable bacteria: Implications and recent trends towards identification
S Bhattacharya, N Vijayalakshmi, SC Parija
October-December 2002, 20(4):174-177
Diseases due to uncultivable bacteria could represent emerging infectious diseases. However, the growing importance of these pathogens remains ill understood and undefined. Non-culture based approaches, especially molecular genetic methods are evolving as the most important tool in our understanding of these enigmatic pathogens. This article attempts to discuss the scientific implications of the evolution of uncultivable bacteria, review the recent trends in identification, and highlight their relevance in clinical medicine.
  18,899 658 -
Risk of needle stick injuries in health care workers - A report
M Rele, M Mathur, D Turbadkar
October-December 2002, 20(4):206-207
Health care workers (HCW) are at a risk of occupational acquisition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, primarily due to accidental exposure to infected blood and body fluids. In our general public hospital, over a period of one year (June 2000 - 2001) a total number of 38 self reported incidences of needlestick injuries and other exposures to patient's blood and body fluids were reported by HCWs. A greater incidence of occupational exposure was seen in surgery residents as compared to medicine residents. Till date, i.e. in one and a half-year follow up period, no seroconversion was seen in any of the reported accidental injury cases. This data emphasizes, that needle stick injuries present the single greatest risk to medical personnel and the importance of increased awareness and training in universal safety precautions (USP), for prevention of nosocomial infection.
  15,071 501 -
Evaluation of an indigenous western blot kit for human immunodeficiency virus
V Lakshmi, S PD Ponamgi
October-December 2002, 20(4):200-205
PURPOSE: The Western Blot test is considered a gold standard test for the confirmation of an ELISA and/or rapid assay screened reactive sample in the diagnosis of HIV infection, especially in the low risk population. In this study, an indigenously developed HIV W. Blot kit (J.Mitra & Co., New Delhi, India) was compared for its performance characteristics with a widely used Western Blot kit, HIV Blot 2.2 (Genelabs, Singapore). Antigens of both HIV-1 and the indicator antigen gp36 of HIV-2 are included in the strips. METHODS: A panel of 150 clinical serum samples was used in the evaluation. All the sera were tested simultaneously by both the kits. RESULTS: The HIV W. Blot kit had high performance characteristics (100% sensitivity and 100% specificity), like the HIV Blot 2.2. The test procedure was easy to perform. There was clear delineation of the bands. CONCLUSIONS: The interpretation of the results on the HIV W. Blot was less prone to subjective errors. The test gave positive bands at even very high serum dilutions in the test kit. This fact indicates that HIV W. Blot probably has a potential application in early phases of infection, when the antibody concentrations are still very low.
  12,059 274 -
Evaluation of a new phage amplification technology for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis
S Shenai, C Rodrigues, AP Mehta
October-December 2002, 20(4):194-199
PURPOSE: Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis is essential to initiate timely and appropriate treatment to curb the spread of this potentially life threatening disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a phage amplification technology viz., FASTPlaque TB,™ for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical utility of this new assay by analyzing 50 respiratory and 40 non-respiratory specimens, using FASTPlaque TB™ kit (Biotec Laboratories, UK) and the performance was compared with TB Bactec 460 semi-automated liquid culture system and conventional LJ culture method. RESULTS: In case of respiratory specimens phage assay gave good specificity (100%) compared with TB Bactec whereas with respect to LJ method the sensitivity and specificity were 93.1% and 88.2% respectively. In case of non-respiratory specimens comparison of results obtained by phage assay showed sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 88.8% with respect to TB Bactec and 87.5% and 93.8% with respect to LJ method. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this new low cost assay may have widespread applicability, especially in developing countries, due to its manual format and rapid reporting of results.
  8,262 394 -
Prevalence of HIV infection in HBsAg positive cases
M Mathur, D Turbadkar, M Rele
October-December 2002, 20(4):225-225
  8,203 205 -
Pneumolysin in urine: A rapid antigen detection method to diagnose pneumococcal pneumonia in children
B Rajalakshmi, R Kanungo, S Srinivasan, S Badrinath
October-December 2002, 20(4):183-186
PURPOSE: Etiological diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia is difficult in small children in whom blood culture cannot be done or who have already been started on antibiotics. A simple technique which can be applied at the bedside or in the outpatient department may help in obviating this problem. Detection of pneumolysin, a product of invasive pneumococci is being exploited as a diagnostic tool. METHODS: An attempt was made to detect this protein in urine of seventy children, clinically suspected and radiologically diagnosed cases of pneumonia. Seventy age and sex matched controls were included in the study. Purified pneumolysin was prepared from clinical isolates of invasive pneumococcal infections. This was used to raise polyclonal antisera in rabbits. The antisera was used to sensitise Cowan 1 Staphylococcus aureus (CoA). A slide agglutination was performed with 25 µL urine and equal quantity of the reagent. RESULTS: Results were compared with CoA reagent sensitised with antisera raised against a genetically derived pneumolysoid and capsular polysaccharide for antigen detection in the urine. Pneumolysin could be detected in 42.9% (30/70) urine samples from cases with pneumonia by the genetically derived antigen and in 37.1% samples by the in house prepared antigen, in contrast to 2.1% in healthy controls and 4.2% in children with infections other than pneumonia. The result was statistically significant. Detection of pneumolysin was slightly better than detection of capsular polysaccharide antigen in urine although the result was not statistically significant. Blood culture proved to be positive in only 29.5% cases. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumolysin detection in urine showed promising results and was found to be simple and rapid. It will help in quickening the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia.
  7,761 339 -
Faecal excretion of brush border membrane enzymes in patients with clostridium difficile diarrhoea
R Katyal, C Vaishnavi, K Singh
October-December 2002, 20(4):178-182
PURPOSE: To look for the presence of intestinal brush border membrane (BBM) enzymes in the faecal samples of patients with Clostridium difficile association. METHODS: One hundred faecal samples were investigated for C.difficile toxin (CDT). Simultaneous assays for faecal excretion of intestinal BBM enzymes viz., disaccharidases, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) were also done. RESULTS: C.difficile toxin was detected in 25 (25%) of the samples with a titre ranging from 10 to 160. No significant difference (p>0.05) was seen between the CDT positive and negative groups with any of the disaccharidases studied. However, significant increase (p<0.05) in the AP excretion was observed in the CDT positive patients compared to the CDT negative group. In contrast to this, a significant decrease (p<0.001) in the LAP enzyme excretion was observed in the latter group. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that there is a significant disturbance in the intestinal BBM enzymes in patients with C.difficile diarrhoea.
  7,288 166 -
Cranial vault salmonella osteomyelitis leading to extradural abscess - A case report
K Thakur, DV Singh, A Goel
October-December 2002, 20(4):219-220
A case of rarely encountered Salmonella typhi osteomyelitis of left occipital bone leading to extradural abscess, is reported. The causative organism was not suspected until the culture report was obtained. The patient responded promptly to surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy.
  7,032 177 -
Rapid detection of rifampicin resistance in m.tuberculosis by phage assay
A Krishnamurthy, C Rodrigues, AP Mehta
October-December 2002, 20(4):211-214
Increase in multidrug-resistant M.tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has become a great cause of concern and rifampicin resistance is considered to be a good predictor of MDR-TB in many parts of the world. Its rapid detection will allow alteration in treatment regimens in time to reduce the spread of the disease. Detection of rifampicin resistance by phage assay is a useful tool as mycobacteriophages are specific for M.tuberculosis complex and detect viable cells only. In our study, we analyzed 85 samples for rifampicin resistance using a novel mycobacteriophage based test (Phage assay) and radiometric BACTEC 460 TB. Of the 85 samples, 70 (82.35%) were resistant and 12 (14.10%) were sensitive by both methods. Our study yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 80% respectively. A good correlation was observed with conventional LJ proportion method. We conclude that phage assay allows determination of rifampicin resistance within 48 hours from culture, reducing the time taken to define susceptibility results by BACTEC 460 TB and LJ proportion method (5-7 days and 6-8 weeks respectively).
  6,826 317 -
Satelliting streptococci in an adult male with foetal heart
SR Jayakeerthi, R Kanungo
October-December 2002, 20(4):223-224
Prior to the days of surgical correction and antibiotics, endocarditis was one of the leading causes of death in adults with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Satelliting Streptococcus is an important cause of "culture negative endocarditis". There are no earlier reports of this organism causing endocarditis in a case of PDA. Such a unique association, first of its kind, is reported here.
  6,716 119 -
Modulatory effects of salmonella lap-lps on murine macrophages
P Rishi, N Batra, S Sood, RP Tiwari
October-December 2002, 20(4):187-193
PURPOSE: To study the modulatory effects of Salmonella lipid associated protein - lipopolysaccharides (LAP-LPS) on murine macrophages as the intracellular survival within the host macrophages is an important feature for a number of gram-negative pathogens like S.typhi. METHODS: Macrophage functions were studied in two groups of mice immunized with either LPS or LAP-LPS. RESULTS: Comparison of protective efficacy of mice preimmunized with LPS based preparations, against challenge infectious doses, showed higher protection in LAP-LPS complex immunized mice group as compared to the mice group immunized with LPS alone. Aggregation of S.typhi cells was lesser with intestinal mucus extracted from LAP-LPS immunized mice as compared to LPS immunized challenged group. A significant increase in the number of macrophages in LAP-LPS immunized mice was also observed in comparison to control and LPS immunized mice groups. Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) production were also more in macrophages derived from LAP-LPS immunized mice group. Phagocytic uptake studies showed that there was enhanced uptake of bacteria in the LAP-LPS immunized animals in comparison to LPS immunized and controls. Similar trend was observed in intracellular killing of bacteria by the macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated the involvement of protein moiety in LAP on modulation of effects of LPS on macrophages.
  6,347 155 -
Brucellosis in association with HIV infection- A case report
P Sarguna, AK Bilolikar, A Rao, DR Mathur
October-December 2002, 20(4):221-222
An unusual presentation of brucellosis is being reported in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, who sought medical advice for fever of long duration accompanied with myalgia and headache.
  5,050 173 -
Mycobacterial research in India: Successes and challenges
VM Katoch
October-December 2002, 20(4):171-173
  4,757 338 -
SSPE and measles vaccine
Y Paul
October-December 2002, 20(4):226-226
  3,907 186 -
Isolation and identification of Aeromonas from patients with acute diarrhoea in Kolkata, India
P Bhat
October-December 2002, 20(4):229-230
  3,642 132 -
Prevalence of Drug Resistance among M.tuberculosis Isolates in Indore (M.P.)
N Hemvani, DS Chitnis
October-December 2002, 20(4):228-228
  3,267 136 -
Author's reply
S Kannan
October-December 2002, 20(4):230-230
  2,802 64 -
Book Review
R Kanungo
October-December 2002, 20(4):231-231
  2,591 77 -
High resistance rate against 15 different antibiotics in aerobic gram-negative bacteria isolates of cardiology intensive care unit patients
E Küçükates, B Kocazeybek
October-December 2002, 20(4):208-210
Aerobic gram negative bacteria were isolated and examined microbiologically from various clinical samples of 602 patients hospitalized between January 1997 and December 2000 in surgical and coronary intensive care units (ICUs). A total of 827 isolates were obtained from 602 patients. The majority of microorganisms were isolated from the respiratory tract (50.3%) and blood (39.9%). Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequently isolated gram negative species (32.7%), followed by Acinetobacter spp. (24.0%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.4%). High resistance rates to all antibiotics studied were observed. Imipenem and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics against gram negatives.
  2,169 299 -
Authors' reply
DJ Manayani, G Sridharan
October-December 2002, 20(4):226-227
  2,344 79 -
Author's reply
VM Katoch
October-December 2002, 20(4):228-228
  2,297 61 -

İ 2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04