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   1999| April-June  | Volume 17 | Issue 2  
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Spectrum of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected cases in a tertiary care hospital
A Ayyagari, AK Sharma, KN Prasad, TN Dhole, J Kishore, G Chaudhary
April-June 1999, 17(2):78-80
ABSTRACT: Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) usually suffer from opportunistic infections leading to high mortality and morbidity. The types of pathogens in such infections vary from region to region. The spectrum of these pathogens in HIV infected patients is not clear in northern India. A total of 46 HIV infected patients were screened for various pathogens. These patients were HIV positive by at least two of the following enzyme immuno assay kits; Span, Merind, Span Dot Blot. They presented with diverse symptoms like weight loss, prolonged fever chronic diarrhoea and, dysphagia. Male to female ratio was 20:3. Majority of the patients (n=35) were between 21-40 years of age. A total of 36 pathogens were detected in 28 (61 percent) of patients, 21(75 percent) patients had single pathogen and 7 (25 percent) had dual pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis was the commonest isolate (13/36; 36 percent) followed by Candida species (10/36; 27.8 percent), Isospora belli (6/36; 16.6 percent). The present study shows that tuberculosis is the commonest opportunistic infection among HIV infected among HIV infected patients followed by candidiasis, isosporiasis and cryptococcosis.(78-80)
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Evaluation of elisa test using antigen 60 in the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis
J Kaur, DR Arora, R Sikka, KB Gupta
April-June 1999, 17(2):72-73
ABSTRACT: Serum samples from 100 tuberculosis patients and 50 controls were evaluated for the presence of IgA and IgG antibodies against antigen 60 by ELISA method using a commercial kit. The sensitivity and specificity of the test, considering cut-off values provided in the kit i.e. 350 for IgA and 225 units for IgG were determined. The sensitivity and specificity of the test for IgA were 43 percent and 90 percent respectively, whereas for IgG antibodies these values were 66 percent and 82 percent. When the cut off values were decreased to 200 units, the sensitivity of the test for IgA was 64 percent and for IgG 70 percent, and the specificity was 82 percent and 80 percent for IgA and IgG antibodies respectively.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Concomitant high level resistance to penicillin and aminoglycosides in enterococci at Nagpur, Central India
VA Agarwal, YI Jain, AA Pathak
April-June 1999, 17(2):85-87
ABSTRACT: A total of 150 enterococci were speciated (129 enterococcus faecalis, 21 E. faecium) and studied for their susceptibility to penicillin, aminoglycosides and vancomycin by the disc diffusion test and agar dilution method. High level penicillin resistance (HLPR) with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) - 200 gm/ml was found in 32 percent of the enterococci. High level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) with MIC - 2000 gm/ml was found in 12 percent, 38 percent and 24.7 percent enterococci for gentamicin, kanamycin and streptomycin respectively. Concomitant HLPR and HLAR was found in 16 percent of the enterococci. Low level vancomycin resistance (LLVR) with MIC - 16 gm/ml was also encountered only in 3.3 percent enterococci that were not associated with HLPR or HLAR. Emergence of enterococci with concomitant resistance to penicillin and aminoglycosides emphasizes the need for a more restricted use of antimicrobials.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Adaptive acid tolerance in klebsiella pneumoniae
P Aghi, S Chhibber
April-June 1999, 17(2):81-84
ABSTRACT: Klebsiella pneumoniae acquired an increased acid tolerance during exponential growth upon exposure to sublethal acid stress, a response designated as acid tolerance response (ATR). Maximal acid resistance was seen when the organism was exposed to pH 5.0 (pre acid shock) prior to challenge at pH 3.5 (acid shock). In the presence of organic acids the organism was also able to survive the acidic stress. These results indicate that ATR mechanism is operative in this selected strain of K.pneumoniae (CH). It was observed that protein synthesis is essential for the development of this mechanism. the significance of development of ATR in this pathogen is discussed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  1,546 0 -
Invasive bacterial infection surveillance
K Thomas, MK Lalitha, MC Steinhoff
April-June 1999, 17(2):66-71
ABSTRACT: The epidemiologic characteristics of invasive pneumococcal infections in 6 hospitals in India over 4 years, in patients with suspected pneumonia (3686), pyogenic meningitis (1107), septicemia (257) or localized pus forming lesions (688) were studied. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or other body fluids were cultured and CSF tested for pneumococcal antigens. There were 5798 subjects, among whom 93 percent were children below 12 years. All pneumococcal isolates were serotyped and their antimicrobial susceptibility tested, by standard methods. S.pneumoniae was isolated from blood, sterile body fluids or deep pus in 307 subjects and antigen detected in the CSF in an additional 7 subjects. Overall 70 percent of the isolates belonged to serogroups/types (SGTs) 1,6,19,7,5,15,14,4,16, and 18 in that order of frequency. The most common SGTs in children under 5 were 6,1,19,14,4,5,12,23 and 7. Three hundred and three isolates were susceptible to penicillin and 4 (1.3 percent) showed intermediate resistance. Resistance to cotrimoxazole and chloramphenicol was seen in 48 percent and 16 percent, respectively. Invasive pneumococcal disease in an important cause for hospitalization and of death in all groups in India. SGTs 1 and 5 are no longer common in the developed countries, but accounted for 29 percent of disease in our study. One hundred and twenty one Haemophilus influenzae were isolated mostly from children with meningitis (68 percent) and (97 percent) were type b. Four were picked up by the antigen detection test. H.influenzae showed high degree of resistance to ampicillin (41 percent) and chloroamphenicol (55 percent) , thereby necessitating a change in treatment policies.(66-71)
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Cutaneous anthrax involving the eyelids
S David, GO Valentina, MK Lalitha
April-June 1999, 17(2):92-95
ABSTRACT: Anthrax is still endemic in India. We report four cases of cutaneous anthrax of the eyelids that occurred recently. Eyelid anthrax can cause cicatricial ectropion, corneal scarring and uveitis. One of the cases is presented in detain and relevant literature is reviewed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Correlation of morphotyping and extra cellular proteinase production as virulence markers in candida albicans
DK Kakru, MA Thoker, BA Mir Sofi
April-June 1999, 17(2):74-77
ABSTRACT: Characterization of 45 strains of Candida albicans from symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals by morphotyping and proteinase production was done to establish a correlation between disease producing capability of a strain of C. albicans and its physiological properties. Of the 45 strains tested isolated from skin had the lowest proteinase activity while the strains isolated from blood had the highest proteinase activity and the strains isolated from oral cavity and genito-urinary tract had intermediate proteinase activity. Morphotype pattern of the four groups of strains showed a correlation with proteinase production, morphotypically virulent strains had higher extracellular proteinase production capacity.
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Current status of enteric Vaccines
MD Mathur, S Kakar, N Berry
April-June 1999, 17(2):58-65
ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal infections are an important cause of preventable mortality, affecting mainly infants and children in endemic countries as also travellers from developed countries. The Diarrhoeal Disease Control Programme of the WHO has focussed on the development of new or improved vaccines against these pathogens. The current status of vaccines against important enteropathogens is discussed, with emphasis on those which are safe and immunogenic.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Human immunodeficiency virus infection in a health care worker (HCW) as an occupational hazard : an eye opener
B Ravikumar, N Kumarasamy, M Purnima, S Solomon
April-June 1999, 17(2):96-96
ABSTRACT: We report a history of a health care worker (HCW) infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquired through unsafe health care procedures. This is the first report in Indian literature. This alerts HCW to the risk of acquiring HIV infection due to nonpractise of universal precautions.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Anaerobic bacteremias
RP Karyakarte, AB Deshmukh, VP Baradkar, AR Anvikar, AS Damle, NS Patwardhan
April-June 1999, 17(2):91-91
ABSTRACT: A total of 498 patients were evaluated for the presence of anaerobic bacteremias. Anaerobes could be isolated from four patients with an increase of 0.8 percent. The isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and metronidazole.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Pattern of multidrug resistance and phage types in salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype typhi in Varanasi during 1979-1997
G Kumar Nath
April-June 1999, 17(2):97-98
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Need for protection against rubella in young girls
A Chakravarti
April-June 1999, 17(2):102-102
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  950 0 -
Immune function assessment in individuals with hepatitis C virus infection
VM George, R Sujatha, Babu P George, G Sridharan
April-June 1999, 17(2):99-100
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Emergence of vibrio cholerae serotype 0139 during May-Aug 1997 at ambajogai (Maharashtra)
S More, SK Deshpande, SL Nilekar
April-June 1999, 17(2):101-101
Full text not available   
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2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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