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   1998| July-September  | Volume 16 | Issue 3  
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Rubella specific IgM Positivity during pregnancy
P Yasodhara, BAR Lakshmi, L Raman, N. Naidu
July-September 1998, 16(3):121-122
ABSTRACT: A study of Rubella specific IgM serology in pregnant women showed that a significantly higher percentage of women with previous obstetric losses were seropositive compared to those with normal delivery. Although seropositivity was higher in those with premature delivery (PMD), abortions and congenital malformations, it was not significantly different from those with normal deliveries. This study reemphasizes the need for vaccination of prospective mothers - the adolescent girls and also screening of women with recurrent foetal losses.
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Inhibition of bacteria isolated from human sources by dahi filtrates
SY Shin, E Mathai, TJ John
July-September 1998, 16(3):115-117
ABSTRACT: Dahi is an integral part of Indian diet. Antibacterial activity of dahi was tested using 12 bacterial isolates. Filtrates of dahi inhibited all intestinal pathogens tested, maximum inhibitory effect was seen on cholera vibrios. pH of the Dahi influenced the killing effect. However, this not the only mechanism for antibacterial activity of dahi.
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Detection of microfilaria carriers in bancroftian endemic area using the secretory acetylcholinesterase of setaria cervi microfilariae : a pilot study
S Sharma, TM Mohapatra, S Rathaur
July-September 1998, 16(3):108-111
ABSTRACT: The efficacy of the secretory acetylcholinesterase of microfilariae of bovine filarial parasite Setaria cervi for the detection of asymptomatic microfilaraemic carriers was evaluated in Wuchereria bancrofti infested endemic areas using ELISA. The affinity purified AChE when used as antigen in ELISA, the mean O.D. for asymptomatic sera was found to be 3.5 times higher as compared to the endemic normal human sera. This heterologous antigen showed marked specificity in ELISA for filarial infections only. The study carried out in two bancroftian endemic areas near Varanasi, displayed an immunological sensitivity of 94 percent and 96 percent in Sunderpur and Chiraigaon area, respectively. It appears that S. cervi AChE antigen could detect the asymptomatic microfilaraemic carriers for the seroepidemiological surveys.
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Transmission of blood borne pathogens from health care workers patients
T Cherian
July-September 1998, 16(3):101-104
ABSTRACT: Blood borne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may potentially be transmitted from health care workers (HCWs) to their patients. However, the risk of transmission of HBV is low and of HCV and HIV is extremely low. While there are several reports of transmission of HBV from HCWs to patients, there are very limited reports of such transmission of HCV and HIV. Available data on HBV transmission suggest that certain invasive procedures are associated with a higher risk of transmission than others. While the use of universal precautions has been shown to limit the transmission of infection from HCW to patient, transmission has occurred even when such precaution were taken. The risk of transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV from HCWs to patients are reviewed and guidelines for the prevention of such transmission are suggested.
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Immunoblot reactivity in relation to human immunodeficiency virus disease progression
P Srikanth, GP Babu, G Sridharan, TJ Johan, D Mathai
July-September 1998, 16(3):118-120
ABSTRACT: The immunoblot band pattern of reactivity of 119 HIV-1 antibody positive3 subjects in different stages of HIV disease were studied. The intensity of antibody bands were graded as strong, faint or absent and 'Z' test of significance was done for comparison of band intensities between three clinical categories namely, asymptomatic but not AIDS and AIDS. The symptomatic but not AIDS category was associated with loss of strong reactivity to the gag gene products of p55 and p17. In addition to this, the loss of strong reactivity to p24 and to the pol gene products of p66, p51, and p31 were associated with AIDS. In India, in the centers with facilities for Western Blot testing, it can be used not only for diagnosing HIV infection, but also for monitoring HIV disease progression by carefully analysing the band pattern of reactivity.
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Hepatitis G virus
A Chakravarti, N Berry, N Mittal
July-September 1998, 16(3):96-100
ABSTRACT: Recently, the hepatitis viruses designated by alphabets have been extended to include the hepatitis G virus (HGV or the GBV - C agent). Although it has not been visualised, it has been cloned and now considered to be a member of the virus family. Flaviviridae. The virus is transmitted primarily by the parenteral route and it has been detected in post-transfusion acute and chronic liver disease either alone or as a coinection with HBV and or HCV. The role of HGV in the pathogenesis of liver disease is not yet clear. Worldwide prevalence of HGV has been reported.
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Cryptosporidium carriage in asymptomatic rural South Indians
G Kang, S Shanthakumari, BS Ramakrishna
July-September 1998, 16(3):112-114
ABSTRACT: A sudden increase in Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion in a community under surveillance for intestinal parasite carriage was investigated. Intermittent oocyst excretion was seen in 11 individuals who remained asymptomatic over a period of four months. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in one water source and in buffalo dung. While oocyst excretion by asymptomatic individuals has been reported earlier, oocyst passers have not been followed up to determine whether they remain asymptomatic or develop diarrhoea. This is the first documented confirmation of repeated excretion over a prolonged period, indicating asymptomatic colonization by Cryptosporidium.
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Cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS : a case report
PK Rajesh, BD Arvind, SD Ajit, MS Sunita, RA Anoopkumar, RM Sanjay
July-September 1998, 16(3):126-127
ABSTRACT: A 44- year-old male with Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection was investigated for meningitis. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated. Its pathogenicity was proved by phenol oxidase activity on nigerseed agar and mouse pathogenicity test.
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Crushed christensen agar method for detecting urease of cryptococcus neoformans.
UM Tendolkar, AS Gogate
July-September 1998, 16(3):130-130
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Prevalence of infection in aligarh
A Malik
July-September 1998, 16(3):123-125
ABSTRACT: The study showed an increasing trend in the prevalence of HIV infection in the last 10 years from zero in 1987 to 5.2 per thousand in 1997. A total of 6041 persons were screened for HIV infection. 29 cases were found HIV seropositive. Out of these, 26 cases were HIV-1 positive while 3 cases were found positive for HIV-2, 55.1 percent of the total seropositives were detected in sexually active age group of 21-30 years. In the paediatric age group 4 of 89 (44.9/1000) children considered to be at risk of having HIV infection were found positive.
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Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among 143001 India
U Mohan, N Jindal, M Kaur
July-September 1998, 16(3):105-107
ABSTRACT: A total of 400 intravenous drug users were screened for the presence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies by 2 separate ELISA kits and confirmed subsequently by Western blot test. Thirty (7.5 percent) drug users were positive for HIV-1 antibodies and none for anti HIV-2 antibodies. Twenty five (83.3 percent) seropositives were using drugs for less than 5 years and 5(16.6 percent) for more than 5 years; 21 (70 percent) reported sharing of syringes and 8 (26.6 percent) had multiple sexual partners. HIV status was not statistically related to any specific risk factor (drug use duration, needle sharing and multiple sexual partners) through sexual risk behaviour appeared to be a significant factor.
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The persistence of multidrug resistant salmonella typhimurium.
MV, Jesudason
July-September 1998, 16(3):128-129
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Antibody to HIV 1 and HBsAg in the sera of leprosy patients
S Srivani, V Jayapal, NR Mini, SP Thyagarajan, S Subramanian, V Deranbu, M Mathews
July-September 1998, 16(3):131-131
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Vibrio Cholerae O 139 in Lucknow
KK Lahiri, A Ayyagari
July-September 1998, 16(3):133-133
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2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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