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   1998| January-March  | Volume 16 | Issue 1  
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Conjunctivitis and acute retinal inflammation : a review of virological investigations at sankara nethralaya, Chennai
HN Madhavan
January-March 1998, 16(1):12-15
ABSTRACT: Several groups of viruses cause ocular infections. This article is based on virological investigations of conjuctivitis and acute retinal inflammations at our institute. In a prospective study during the period from 1990 to 1997, 903 patients with conjunctivitis, adenovirus, herpes simplex virus (HSV) and C. trachomatis were detected in 120 (13.3 percent), 21 (2.3 percent) and 207 (22.9 percent) patients respectively. Investigations revealed epidemics due to adenovirus serotype 4 in 1991, serotype 3 in 1993 and serotype 7a in 1996. We compared polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with standard virological methods for detection of adenovirus in 74 clinical samples. Inclusion of PCR increased the sensitivity of the detection rate from 14.9 percent to 53.8 percent. Acute retinal necrosis and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis are vision threatening disease often occurring in immunocompromised persons. Intraocular fluids [aqueous humor (AH) or vitreous fluid (VF) from 24 patients with acute retinal inflammation were tested for the presence of HSV, Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and CMV during 1991-97. In 14 patients the viral cause was confirmed by viral antigen detection or virus isolation or both (HSV :4 VZV: 6 and CMV: 4). Four patients had serological evidence of virus infection (HSV:3 and VZV:1).
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Control of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care centre : a five year study
AP Mehta, C Rodrigues, K Sheth, S Jani, A Hakimiyan, N Fazalbhoy
January-March 1998, 16(1):31-34
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus in regarded as a major source of hospital acquired infection. We undertook a surveillance study of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from January 1992 to December 1996 to evaluate the incidence in patients and in the event of an epidemic to assess the carrier state of the health care workers. Out of the 5423 strains of staphylococci isolated form 26261 clinical specimens, 1604 (29 percent) were found to be MRSA which included 159 strains from 1194 health care workers (13 percent carrier rate) screened during this period. The main source of MRSA was from wounds and intravascular cannulae followed by respiratory tract, blood and urine. A study of the antibiogram showed that all strains were uniformly susceptible to vancomycin. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and netilmicin showed a decrease from 71 percent and 88 percent in 1992 to 32 percent and 57 percent respectively in 1996 for the strains from patient population. The susceptibility to rifampicin has shown a marginal increase from 77 percent to 81 percent in strains isolated from patients from 1992 to 1996. During our study a marked decrease in MRSA isolation from 31.8 percent in 1992 to 17 percent in 1996 was noted. This may be due to aggressive surveillance measures undertaken and an increased awareness among health care workers regarding good infection control practices.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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HIV and hepatotropic viruses : interactions and treatments
Carron B Mc, SP Thyagarajan
January-March 1998, 16(1):4-11
ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may interact directly or indirectly with concurrent infections to alter the natural history and treatment outcomes of both disease. At a molecular level, interactions between HIV and hepatitic viruses may potentiate HIV replication but clinical studies have been inconclusive. However, HIV appears to influence the natural history of infections with certain hepatitis viruses. In patients infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV), chronic HBV carriage is more common and HBV DNA levels are increased although hepatic necroinflammation is reduced. Infections with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis D virus (HDV) results in a higher viral load of the hepatitis virus and greater liver cell damage. The antiviral effect of alpha-interferon in liver cells in reduced in patients with concurrent HIV infection. In a small study of HIV infected patients post liver transplantation survival was reduced and HIV progression was increased.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Prevalence of HIV-2 and the mode of transmission in West Bengal
DH Neogi, N Bhattacharya, T Chakrabarti, KK Mukherjee, SC Hazra
January-March 1998, 16(1):26-28
ABSTRACT: 17814 samples of serum were collected between May 1994 and June'97 from people of different high risk groups. A total of 522 were found HIV seropositive by ELISA test, of which 507 were confirmed by Western Blot Assay. Overall HIV-2 infection could be detected in 7.1 percent (n=37) among the Western Blot confirmed cases, whereas HIV-2 alone was noted in 2.16 percent (n=11) and concomitant HIV-1 & 2 infections were observed in 5.12 percent (n=26) cases. Highest HIV-2 seropositivity could be detected among blood donors, 13.8 percent of Western Blot confirmed cases followed by 13.3 percent and 11.1 percent among patients of AIDS/ARC and recipients of blood and/or blood products respectively.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Modified transport medium for better recovery of microorganisms from diabetic foot wounds
NA Pathare, GV Talvalkar, DU Antani, A Bal
January-March 1998, 16(1):35-38
ABSTRACT: In patients with diabetic foot wounds, there is a possibility of diminished or inadequate recovery of causative microorganisms, due to the lingering effects of local bacteriostatic therapy. We evaluated the role of 0.05 percent lecithin with 0.05 percent tween-80, as quenching agents to prevent the bacteriostatic activity of these compounds, while the specimen was being transported, in our modification of the Stuart's medium. This was found to give a 16.76 percent [p=0.05) higher yield of the causative pathogens, when studied in parallel with the standard Stuart's medium.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Induction of resistance to ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones in clinical and environmental isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa
BS Nagoba, SR Deshmukh, BJ Wadher, UG Gude, AV Gomashe, PM Tumane
January-March 1998, 16(1):29-30
ABSTRACT: An attempt was made to induce in vitro resistance to ciprofloxacin in clinical (04) and environmental (02) isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC 0.4 to 08 miu g ciprofloxacin/ml) by 14 serial passages through media containing increasing concentration of ciprofloxacin. This in vitro manipulation of strains resulted in increase of MIC of ciprofloxacin from 0.4 to 0.8 miu g/ml of original strains to 9.5 to 12.0 miu g/ml indicating development of resistance to ciprofloxacin and a major decrease in the zone diameters to norfloxacin, pefloxacin and ofloxacin indicating development of cross-resistance to these agents. Results indicate that induced resistance to ciprofloxacin can promote the development of resistance to other fluroquinolones. This suggests that caution should be exerted in the use of fluroquinolones for the treatment of pseudomonal infections.
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Mycetomas in exposed and non-exposed parts of the body : a study of 212 cases.
PK Maiti, PK Haldar
January-March 1998, 16(1):19-22
ABSTRACT: Epidemiological information generated from retrospective analysis of 212 mycetoma cases attending Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine during 1986 to 1997 revealed that mycetomas occurred on ' covered parts' of body significantly differed from mycetomas occurring on ' exposed part', 'Covered area' mycetomas were almost always actinomycetomas with remarkably lower incidence on Nocardia caviae, Actinomadura sp. and Madurella grisea infections, as compared with 'exposed area' where there was a preponderance of incidence among sedentary working people (p0.05). 'Covered area' cases predominantly occurred antecedent of inapparent micro-injuries (p0.01). the male-female case rations of the two parts of body also significantly differed with P value 0.02. The might be due to more incidence of occupational trauma in 'exposed area' cases than accidental injuries (P0.05). The difference of infection rate of different mycetoma agents in two parts of body might be due to differences in local factors like sweating, temperature and bacterial flora.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Endo carditis caused by high level gentamicin resistant enterococci : a case report
B Khanal, BN Harish, KR Sethuraman
January-March 1998, 16(1):41-42
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Evaluation of two immunochromatographic assays in relation to `RAPID' Screening of HBsAG
P Abraham, R Sujatha, S Raghuraman, T Subramaniam, G Sridharan
January-March 1998, 16(1):23-25
ABSTRACT: Two immunochromatography based assays used for purposes of rapid screening for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAG) were compared to our in-use third generation HBsAG ELISA, using a panel of 50 sera. Both assays yielded a similar sensitivity and specificity of 90 percent and 100 percent respectively. However, when both assays were evaluated independently using two sets of 400 consecutive sera, the Quickchaser and Virucheck assays yielded a sensitivity of 77 percent and 79 percent respectively and specificity of 99 percent and 97 percent respectively. the HBsAG positive sera missed by the Quickchaser assay were of significantly lower reactivity compared to those HBsAG containing sera that were positive by this assay and the ELISA, whereas for the Virucheck assay there was no such significant difference. The difference in evaluation results while using a smaller evaluation panel of 50 sera and large evaluation panel of 400 sera could be explained by a difference in the range of reactivities within both the panels and also a difference in panel size. This study reveals the need for a large panel of sera while evaluating tests to avoid overestimating the accuracy indices.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Characterisation of penicillin resistant enterococci
MV Jesudason, VL Pratima, R Pandian, S Abigail
January-March 1998, 16(1):16-18
ABSTRACT: Enterococci are commonly encountered pathogens in our laboratory. However penicillin resistance among them is not as high as is recorded in western literature or as it is reported from elsewhere in India. Between January and June 1996, 10.2 percent of Enterococci from urine cultures were penicillin resistant. Representative resistant strains were speciated and penicillin and ampicillin resistance was studied.
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Seroprevalence of HIV and hepatitis markers in a select group of health care workers (HCW)
R Gur, R Kaur, VK Sharma, SK Jain, MD Mathur
January-March 1998, 16(1):39-40
ABSTRACT: In this study, a total of 120 sera from health care workers were screened for markers of hepatitis B, C and immuno deficiency viruses. HBsAG was detected in 5.8 percent health care workers. Anti HBs IgG was present in 4.2 percent and anti HBc IgM in 2.5 percent of the HCW tested. The total seroprevalence of HBV was observed to be 12.5 percent. None to the sera tested were positive for anti HCV and anti HIV antibodies.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Coinfection with HBV and HIV in HCV infected chronic liver disease [Letter]
N Berry, A Sharma Chakravarti, MD Mathur
January-March 1998, 16(1):44-44
Full text not available   
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Agents of endogenous endophthalmitis [Letter]
A Chakrabarti
January-March 1998, 16(1):43-43
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Human immunodeficiency virus : 2 in eastern part of Northern India [Letter]
AK Gulati, G Nath
January-March 1998, 16(1):45-45
Full text not available   
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2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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