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   1993| July-September  | Volume 11 | Issue 3  
    Online since November 3, 2009

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Rapid Diagnosis Of Typhoid Fever By A New Elisa Test With Porin Antigens
Jayasimha Rao, M Raghunath, Nandan Singh
July-September 1993, 11(3):191-196
A double antibody sandwich ELISA has been developed for porin antigens isolated from Salmonella, typhi using polyclonal antibodies raised in New Zealand white rabbits. Screening by the ELISA, of serum samples collected at a single time point from 91 patients with typhoid fever, 27 with Pyrexia of other causes; and 29 healthy controls, gave significantly higher porin values for typhoid patients compared to healthy controls (P<0.001) or other pyrexial cases (p<0.01). Application of this method to 14 paired blood samples collected during days 1-7 and 10-15 of fever showed no differences between first and second week samples in their identification as positive or negative for porins. Based on the data from healthy control and several Widal negative and positive pyrexial blood samples the following characteristics were computed for the present ELISA method. Sensitivity 92.9%, specificity 89.7%, accuracy 90.7%, positive predictive value 81.3% and negative predictive value 96.3%, respectively. The data suggests the usefulness of the ELISA in screening of patients for typhoid by serodiagnosis, as well as its probable utility in early serodiagnosis of the disease.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,118 152 -
Role Of Mycobacterium Leprae Particle Agglutination (MLPA) Test In The Diagnosis Of Leprosy.
Deepjyoti V Gadre, N. P Singh, V Talwar, R. K Gautam
July-September 1993, 11(3):187-190
Serodiagnosis of leprosy is useful for clinical practice and epidemiological studies. The natural phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) antigen which is routinely used for serological tests in leprosy is extremely hydrophobic in nature. In this study, mycobacterium Leprae practical Agglutination (MLPA) test was performed by using the Natural Trisaccharide phenyl propionate/Bovine serum Albumin (NTP-BSA) antigen coated on gelatin particles for detection of anti-PGL-I. The slit smears from 104 cases of clinically diagnosed ziehl Neelsen’s staining form the presence of Mycobacterium leprae. 32/104 cases were multibacillary. The positivity rates of MLPA were 78% in Lepromatous and 22% in tuberculoid cases, making it reliable to detect-anti PGL-I antibodies in multibacillary cases. Higher titers were observed in new untreated lepromatous cases as compared to old treated lepromatous cases. MLPA was found to be a simple, rapid test and could be helpful in monitoring chemotherapy.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,158 77 -
Mycotic Keratitis : A Five Years Study From Chandigarh.
Jagdish Chander, A Chakrabarti, Ashok Sharma, J. S Saini
July-September 1993, 11(3):218-222
Corneal scrapings form 632 corneal ulcer patients were investigated for evidence of any infection. Fungi were detected by direct microscopy and/or by repeated culture in 47 (7.43%) patients. The infection was predominantly seen in the age group of 51-60 years. Men were frequently affected than women. Aspergillus fumigatus was the commonest isolate; 8 (16.00%) followed by A. flavus 7 (14.00%). A. glaucus 2 (4.00%), other Aspergillus species 3 (6.00%), Fusarium 7 (14.00%), Curvalaria 5 (10.00%) and Candida albicans 5 (10.00%). The other fungi isolated were Acremonium 4 (8.00%), paecilomyces 3 (6.00%). Penicillum 2 (4.00%), Alternaria, Drechlera, Aureobasidium and fonsecaea 1 (2.00%) each. Direct microscopy was also positive with sterile culture in 3 whereas culture alone was positive in 7 patients. Calcofluor white stain was found to be more sensitive method than KOH wet mount for demonstration of fungi in the direct smear.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  733 84 -
Bacteriology Of Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis With Special Reference To Anaerobes
Rajiv Arora, Neerja Jindal, Satya Arora
July-September 1993, 11(3):206-209
One hundred specimens from cases of chronic maxillary sinusitis were cultured for the isolation of Anaerobic and Aerobic bacteria. Positive cultures were obtained in 75%; anaerobic bacteria alone were present in 20%, aerobic alone in 28% and a combination of both in 27%. The anaerobes isolated were Bacteroides 51.9%, Anaerobic gram positive cocci 38.4% and Clostricium perfringens 3.8%. Aerobic bacteriology showed the predominance of Escherichia coli (40%). Metronidazole was found to be most effective drug against Anearobes and Gentamicin against aerobes.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  645 70 -
HLA B27 - Risk Factor In Families Of Ankylosing Spondylitis In South India.
A. N Chandrasekaran, Radha Madhavan, Lt.Col. K Achuthan
July-September 1993, 11(3):164-169
The association between Class I HLA antigens and Ankylosing spondylitias (A.S) among 42 first degree relatives of 20 AS probands and 40 unrelated A.S patients of South India was studied in Government General Hospital, Madras. 50 healthy persons served as controls. HLA B 27 and CW2 were not found in healthy controls whereas 85% of unrelated AS Patients and 92.3% of affected relatives of A.S probands were positive for B27. CW2 was present in 57.5% and 30.7% among unrelated patients and affected relatives respectively. Significant positive association (p<0.001) was observed with B27. CW6 was negatively associated with the disease. (P<0.1) No specific HLA marker could be identified among B27 negative A.S Patients. The incidence of A.S was more (34.2%) among B27 positive probands than among those of B27 negative probands (14.3%).
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  626 55 -
Onychomycosis In Coastal Karnataka
Rama Ramani, G. R Kumari, P. G Shivananda
July-September 1993, 11(3):223-225
Onychomycosis is a frequent cause of nail disease. It is caused by various species of dermatophytes, candida and moulds. The relative incidence of onychomycosis varies from place to place. We studied 100 patients with nail infection at coastal Karnataka, where moisture and warmth enhance the infection. The infected nail plate was nipped and cultured. The aetiologic agent was identified by standard methods. A fungus could be isolated in 43 percent of cases, out of which dermatophytes accounted for 18 percent, candida 16 percent, other 9 percent and mixed infection in 4 percent. The treatment of these infections includes the removal of promoting factors, elimination of the infested keratin and the local or general use of antimycotics.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  534 111 -
In Vitro Susceptibility Of Filamentous Fungi To Antifungal Agents
Pankajalakshmi, V Venugopal
July-September 1993, 11(3):214-217
Antimycotic susceptibility testing of 25 clinical isolates of filamentous fungi were carried out against six antifungal drugs, viz. Ketoconazole, miconazole, econazole, itraconazole, naftifine and terbinafine agar dilution technique. Terbinafine was the most effective drug inhibiting 50% (MIC 50) of the isolates of Aspergillus sp., at a concentration of 0.1 pg/ml. The MIC 50s for econazole and itraconazole and MIC 90s for terbinafine were 0.5 pg/ml. The MIC 50s for naftifine and ketoconazole and MIC 90s for econazole were 1 pg/ml. Itraconzole and miconazole required 2.5 and 10 pg/ml respectively for inhibiting 90% of the isolates tested. For the hyalohyphomycetes, econazole was most inhibitory with an MIC range of 0.5 - 1 pg/ml, followed by itraconzole, terbinafine, ketoconazole and naftinife. The dematiaceous fungi also were more susceptible to econazle (MIC range 0.01-0.5 pg/ml) followed by itraconzole, ketoconazole, terbinafine and naftinfine. Miconazole was not effective against these two groups as its MIC 50s were 100 pg/ml. The zygomycetes were susceptibile only to econazole (MIC rang 0.1-5 pg/ml). The MIC 50s for ketoconazole and the other drugs were 10 and 100-1001 pg/ml.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  578 64 -
Leprosy Bacillus - A Soil Chemoautotroph Which Had Evolved As A Human Pathogen
G Dastidar Sujata, A. N Chakrabarty
July-September 1993, 11(3):159-163
A correlation has been found to exist between the prevalence of leprosy and distribution of fossil fuels (FF) and their surface soil seepages at global, regional as well as individual country levels. This could be accounted for by the occurrence of FF metabolizing soil bacteria which were indistinguishable from those isolated from human leprosy cases. The factors which appeared to determine the final outcome of the endemicity of leprosy could be: a man-to-man, and soil-to-man infections. These, in turn, seemed to depend on overcrowding, consanguinity and clustering of populations, quality of living standards and hygiene, and mode of tilling of lands, assessed on the basis of comprehensive information. The origin of leprosy in the world, as well as, that of indigenous leprosy cases in the leprosy-free countries like USA and Russia, can be considered to be due to a soil-to-man infection. The possibility of indigenous origin of leprosy in different FF rich countries of the New World, independent of being imported form outside, explains the numerous findings of leprosy-like faces and figures in various paintings, and engravings on metals and stones, and pottery works etc. in the pre-Columbian Maya and Inca civilisations and the Aztec empire in the Americas. These had been accurately recorded by early Jesuit missionaries as frequent occurrences of florid leprosy among the Mayan and Incan Indians who must have had this infection long before the Columbian era.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  588 44 -
Molecular Approaches In Infectious Diseases
Arti Kapil, Ramesh Kumar
July-September 1993, 11(3):155-158
Infectious diseases constitute an overwhelmingly high proportion of illnesses in clinical practice, more so in the developing countries. Their impact on the morbidly and mortality can be considerably minimized by introducing rational intervention strategies including vaccination and effective therapy. This in turn would depend upon the depth of our knowledge regarding the Etiological agent, pathogenesis of the disease and detailed epidemiology. The germ theory of the disease became firmly established only in the late 19th century. The science of infectious diseases has been progressing steadily since then. The practice of the principles of vaccination environmental control of the diseases, and importance of personal hygiene nutritional management and availability of potable water has resulted in control of several infectious diseases of the past. While not minimising the impact of these contributions in the control of infections diseases, the past. While not minimizing the impact of these contributions in the control of infections disease, the fact remains that the conventional methods of disease diagnosis and epidemiological tools are slow and time consuming. With the advent of molecular biology techniques much more effective tools are now available, the impact to which may be regarded as nothing short of a revolution. The advances have been very rapid and have altered the way we look at the infectious agent. The opportunities to study the microorganism are unlimited, so much so that never before in the history of medicine such optimism has existed about our abilities to quickly and effectively combat infectious diseases in a cost effective manner.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  565 51 -
Leptospiral Antibodies Among Human Beings In Tamilnadu
S Ratnam, C. O. R Everard, J. C Alex, B Suresh, M. A Muthusethupathy, P. S Helen Manual
July-September 1993, 11(3):203-205
A collaborative serosurvey was undertaken between both Medical and Veterinary Universities of Tamil Nadu along with leptospira laboratory. Barbados, West Indies among human beings in few places of Tamil Nadu. The survey revealed leptosprial antibodies among sera screened by microscopical agglutination test (MAT) against 15 serogroups with the titer > 50. The serosurvey revealed the presence of lepto-antibody among patients attending hospitals for various ailments of Madurai (30.6%), Bodi (27.7%), Cumbum (35.3%) and Tirunelveli (20%). In suspected leptospirosis cases of Madras City the samples collected over the period of two months during monsoon (November & December) revealed leptosprial antibodies in 73.2% of cases. The most frequent serogroup observed were Autumnalis (madras, Cumbum & Tiruneveli), panama (Madurai), lcterohaemorrhagiae (Bodi).
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  533 77 -
Prevalence Of Mycoplasma In Non - Gonococcal Urethritis
Subhash Dhuria, Shashi Kanta, Radha Rani Mittal
July-September 1993, 11(3):210-213
Fifty cases of clinically diagnosed NGU in males of 20-40 years age group were investigated for the association of Mycoplasmas in NGU. Fifty age and sex matched cases served as control. Ten cases (20%) of the study group were found to be positive for Mycoplasma supp. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated in 9(18%), Mycoplasma hominis in1 (2%) and other organisms in 18(36%). In the control group, 2 isolates (4%) of U. urealyticum were found, isolation of U. urealyticum was found to be statistically significant (p<0.01) in the age groups of 20-25 years and 31-35 years, while that of o. M hominis was insignificant (p>0.05).
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  505 79 -
Detection Of Virus-Like Particles In Uterine Cervical Carcinoma Cells By Electron Microscopy
V Thankamani, T. V Kumari, D. M Vasudevan
July-September 1993, 11(3):226-230
Eight samples of tumour tissues from clinically diagnosed and histopathologically proved cervical squamous cell carcinoma cases were examined by Electron microscopy. The ultrathin sections showed virus-like particles, enveloped and ranging from 170 - 250nm (app) in size. They were found to be intranucelar and some were cytoplasmic. Viral inclusion-like bodies occurred within the malignant cell nucleus. The tumour tissues showing (?) viral practices were positive for Herpes Simplex Virus type-2 antigens, Human papilloma virus antigens (common genus specific) and Herpes Simplex Virus type - 2 DNA, and, one contained HPV - 16 DNA sequences. The results suggest a strong association between uterine cervical cancer and HSV-2 and HPV viruses.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  532 43 -
Change In Drug Resistance And Phage Types Of Salmonella Typhi In 1991-92 In Rohtak.
Uma Sabherwal, Rama Sikka, Santosh Saini, Uma Chaudhary
July-September 1993, 11(3):178-180
A fall in the incidence of drug resistant S.typhi was observer in 1992, through MIC levels did not decline. Phage type EI remained the dominant type in 1991 and 1992. However, phage type A was observed more frequently in 1992 in relation to 1991. Some rare phage types like MLI, M4 and 42 appeared in 1991 while others like 40,41 and 46 were seen in 1992. The dominant resistance pattern was A C Co T. Hospitalized patients had more incidences of drug resistant isolates in both the years, though a slight decline was observed in 1992.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  504 33 -
Plasmid-Mediated Gentamicin Resistance In Methicillin Resistant Staph. Aureus In A Nursery Outbreak.
V Kaul
July-September 1993, 11(3):170-177
Gentamicin and methicillin resistant Staph. aureus (Gm - 76) was isolated from pus of a child with recurrent multiple abscesses. This strain spread to the nursery and infected eleven more patients. The Gm - 76 strain was investigated for the genetic determinant responsible for gentamicin resistance. Gentamicin resistant marker from Gm-76 strain was spontaneously lost which increased after treatment with ethidium bromide. This strain was lysogenic and mitomycin - C was effective phage inducer. A high frequency of transduction of gentamicin resistant marker was observed which decreased exponentially with UV - irradiated phage. An immediate phenotypic expression of gentamicin resistance was observed in transductants. As recombination deficient (rec-) strain was isolated after N-Methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine treatment form W 57 strains. The transduction frequency of the marker remained same when this strain was used as recipient. Gentmicin resistant plasmid was-isolated from gentamicin resistant parent strain. These results proved the plasmid nature of gentamicin resistance in Gm - 76 strain.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  497 32 -
Comparison Of Toxigenicity In Aeromonas Strains Isolated From Different Sources
S Sujatha, R Sambasiva Rao
July-September 1993, 11(3):197-202
Fifty-three strains of Aeromonas isolated from intestinal (34) and extra-intestinal sources (19) were studied for the production of cytotoxin in vero cells, hemolysin against rat and rabbit erythrocytes, skin reactive factor in rabbit and enterotoxin in rat and rabbit ileal loop tests with the objective of detecting any differences that might exist in the virulence of faecal and non-faecal isolates of Aeromonas. Irrespective of the sources or species, 92.5% of the strains were found to elaborate one or other toxins. Hemolysin was produced by 84.9%, heat-sensitive skin reactive factor by 67.9% and cytotoxin by 39.6% of strains. The culture supernatants were found to be lethal for rabbits and rats when inoculated in ligated intestinal loops. A. hydophila was more toxigenic than A.caviae and A. sobria. The production of cytotoxin and SPF was found to be significantly different in extra-intestinal and intestinal isolates. Such a difference was not observed with hemolysin production.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  471 38 -
Prevalence Of Totally Resistant Bacteria In A Tertiary Care Hospital
D. V. S Sarma, R. R Rao
July-September 1993, 11(3):181-186
A total of 33,440 specimens for cultures were received from 74,481 inpatients admitted into various units of this Institute from 1987 - 1991. From these specimens a total of 10,194 strains of the different species of bacterial were isolated. Using a computerized programme, data was generated with respect to the prevalence of total resistant strains. It could be seen that there was a fall in the incidence of total resistant strains during the year 1989 which later increased and reached to its original peak as it was found in 1987. There was no significant difference in the rate of isolation of resistant strains with respect to nature of the specimen. majority of the resistant strains could be seen with pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.7%) and Acenitobacter (13.6%) followed by other species. Most of the resistant strains were recovered from the cultures of the patients in post operative wards, intensive care units and in paying rooms indicating that these areas from the potential source of dissemination of infection. The reason for the prevalence of totally resistant bacteria and their significance is discussed. Only 200 strains were showing in vitro sensitivity for the combination of antibiotics that are empirically used in general practice.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  462 45 -

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