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   1991| October-December  | Volume 9 | Issue 4  
    Online since January 16, 2010

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Heat Labile Enterotoxin By Various Salmonellae
Manish Pandya, Parukutty K Pillai, Shashi Khare, Manorama Deb, Sudarshan Kumari, Kunti Prakash
October-December 1991, 9(4):193-201
93 strains of Salmonella belonging to 5 different serovars namely S.typhimurium, S.senftenberg, S.bareilly, S.welteverden and S.newport isolated from fecal samples of patients suffering from gastroenteritis were studied for the production of enterotoxin. The enterotoxin production was detected by using CHO, Vero and HeLa cell lines. Out of 93 strains tested enterotoxin production was shown by 63 strains (67.74%) in CHO cell assay, 56 strains (60.21%) in Viro cell assay and 31 strains (33.33%) in HeLa cell assay. The enterotoxin was found to be heat labile as it lost all its activity on cell lines on heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 minutes and at 100 degree centigrade for 15 minutes. The effect of Salmonella heat labile enterotoxin (S-LT) on CHO, Vero and HeLa cell lines was found to be reversible. S-LT was neutralized by monoclonal anticholera enterotoxin. CHO cell assay was found to be a more sensitive assay for detection enterotoxigenicity of 6 additional strain of S-typhimurium and 1 additional strain of S-bareilly which was not detected in other two cell lines.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  799 8 -
Air Microbial Counts In Neurosurgical Operation Theatre (Conventional Ventilation VS Laminar Flow)
Geeta Mehta, Brahm Prakash
October-December 1991, 9(4):202-206
The quantity and types of settling micro-organisms in two neurosurgical operating theatres were compared over a period of ten months. One theatre had conventional exhaust ventilation whereas in the other a laminar air flow unit was fitted. Settle plate counts in the conventionally ventilated theatre were over ten times higher than the counts in the theatre protected by laminar air flow (mean 13.95 and 1.21 fct/ft /min respectively). A variety of micro-organisms were isolated under conventional ventilation while under laminar air flow the organisms were mainly to the coagulase negative staphylococci and diphtheroids. At the resting stage, the number of setting organisms was low under both types of ventilation, However, as activity in the theatre progressed the level of contamination rose sharply to unacceptable levels in the conventionally ventilated theatre. The stage of activity did not influence the level of air contamination in the theatre with laminar air flow ventilation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  788 7 -
Inhibition Of Mycolic Acid Biosynthesis In Mycobacteria By Streptomycin And Isoniazid
M. A Patil, V. M Katoch, B. M Agrawal, K Venkatesan, V. D Sharma, G. V Kanaujia, C. T Shivannavar
October-December 1991, 9(4):224-229
With an aim to create model systems and better understanding the mechanism of action of anti-mycobacterial drugs especially in pathogens like M.leprae, two cultivable Mycobacteria, M.gordonae a Mycobacterium whose mycolic and profile is similar to that of M.leprae and M.fortuitum a human pathogen, have been investigated. The effect of streptomycin was studied on M.gordonse whereas isoniazid was studied on M. fortuitum. The Mycobacteria grown in Sauton’s medium were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, mcg/ml concentrations of Streptomycin and Isoniazid during their mid logarithmic phase for 1, 2, 24, 48 hrs and then were harvested, The ‘bound lipid’ fraction comprising chiefly of mycolic acid was extracted and isolated from the cell wall structure by acid methanolysis and the methyl esters of mycolates were analysed by thin-layer chromatography using aluminum backed HP-TLC plates. Streptomycin was found to reduce methyl mycolate levels of M.gordonae at high concentrations (3,4 mcg/ml). Isoniazid exhibited its inhibitory action over mycolates of M.fortuitum at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mcg/ml. The results of this study and our earlier reported observations show that mycolic acid biosynthesis is affected by various types of drugs eventhough the primary site of activity may be different for them. These observations may have therapeutic significance for developing model system to understand the effect of drugs on biosynthetic processes and degradation of cell wall skeleton on general in pathogenic Mycobacteria.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  633 8 -
Soil-Borne Thermophilic Actinomycetes Associated With Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis In Punjab
M Singh, S Singh, M. S Sandhu, R. K Harchand
October-December 1991, 9(4):247-249
The present study is a maiden report on the prevalence of thermophilic actinomycetes in Punjab soil and the occurrence of precipitins against them in the local population. In all 6 species off thermophilic actinomycetes i.e. Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, T.intermendius, Saccharomonospora. viridis, Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, Thermomonospora fusca and Thm. alba were isolated from 10 different districts of the state and precipitins against them demonstrated in 134 of 1939 persons investigated.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  617 6 -
Bacteriophage Typing And Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern Of Staphylococcus Aureus From Clinical Samples
S. D Bhat, A. B Deshmukh, A. S Damle
October-December 1991, 9(4):173-178
One hundred and thirteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus) isolated from various clinical specimens were subjected for bacteriophage typing. 35(31%) strains were typable. Among the typable strains, 9(7.96%) belonged to phage group I and group III each, 8(7.07%) belonged to phage group II, 6(5.3%) strains belonged to the phages which have not been allocated to any group (Miscellaneous group). 78(69%) strains were untypable. All the strains were tested for antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Only 8(7.07%) strains were sensitive to all the drugs tested. 24(21.23%) strains were found to be resistant to methicillin, gentamicin and all other drugs tested. These 24(21.23%) strains represent the GMRSA (Gentamicin, Methicillin Resistant Staphylocooccus Aureus) strains in our study. 22(91.6%) GMRSA strains were untypable by phage typing while remaining 2(8.4%) GMRSA strains were lysed by phage 81 only.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  599 11 -
Nosocomial Infections Due To Unusual Salmonella Serotypes – A Report From Calicut, Kerala
Lathi Nair, J Sudarsana, Shamsul Karim
October-December 1991, 9(4):242-244
A total of 18 salmonella strains were isolated from Blood and C.S.F. sent from the Newborn nursery, Medical College, Calicut during the year 1988. 8 strains of salmonella isolated during March-May were identified as S.cerro and 1 strain as S.sandeigo. 9 strains of Sl monophasic variant were isolated during June-September. All the strains were sensitive to Cefotaxime, amikacin and Cefazolin. 17 strains (94.5%) showed resistance to Ampicllin, 13 strains (66.3%) to Cotrimoxazole, 4 strains (22.3%) to Chloramphenicol and Kanamycin and 1 strain (5.5%) to Gentamicin. This is the first report of neonatal infections due to unusual salmonellae from Kerala.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  591 4 -
Prevalence Of Torch Complex In Women With Bad Obstetrical History In And Around Ludhiana
H. K Ghuman, P Pearce, J Rai
October-December 1991, 9(4):240-241
83 serum samples of women with bad obstetrical history were tested were by ELISA for IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma Gondii, Cytomegalovirus and Rubella. 28.9% were positive for Toxoplasma gondii, 43% for Rubella and 42.16% for Cytomegalovirus.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  583 9 -
Effect Of Montoux Status On Serum Antitubercular Antibody Levels By ELISA
Baldev Raj, V Saini, H Lal, Ashok Kumar, Jasbinder Kaur
October-December 1991, 9(4):230-233
In this study 25 healthy Montoux negative persons (Group I), 25 healthy Montoux positive person who had received BCG vaccination in the past (Group II), 25 healthy Montoux positive persons who had not received BCG vaccination (Group III) and 25 persons suffering from active pulmonary tuberculosis (Group IV) were studied for IgG (gamma chain specific) reaction to antigen PPD- 298 by ELISA technique to see the effect of Montoux status of the individual on antibody titre. The mean antibody titre in Group III was more as compared to the Groups I and II, but on statistical analysis, the difference was not found to be significant. However, whereas, only one patient from Group I (Montoux negative) had antibody titre more than the cut off value, (absorbance A490 0.08 indicating a particular antibody titre) as many as 7 montoux positive patients (from Group II and III) had antibody titre more than the cut off point.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  560 3 -
Hepatitis B Surface And e Antigen Amongst Blood Donors In Uttar Pradesh
G Nath, M Sarkar, S. C Sanyal
October-December 1991, 9(4):179-182
Specimens of sera collected from 1075 blood donors of which 1000 were voluntary (VBD) and 75 professional (PBD) in and around Varanasi were subjected to detection of hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) and e antigens (HBeAg) by latex agglutination and ELISA respectively. All the sera were screened for HIV antibody as well as by ELISA. The incidence of HBsAg was observed to be 5.5% and 13.3% amongst VBDs and PBDs respectively. HBeAg was detected in 78% and 60% of positive HBsAg sera amongst VBD and PBD respectively. All the sera were negative for HIV antibody. The urban population was having significantly higher HBsAg detection rate than rural population amongst VBDs. Donors at blood bank, thus pose a great risk of HBV transmission in Uttar Pradesh.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  533 4 -
Isolation Of Fusarium From Corneal Ulcers – Case Reports
N. S Patwardhan, A. S Damle, M. P Bansal
October-December 1991, 9(4):234-236
Fsarium, a fungus, is one of the aetiological agents of mycotic keraritis. In this paper, we are reporting cases of corneal ulcers, from whom Fusarium was isolated and clinically they responded only to antifungal treatment.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  527 5 -
Bacterial Flora Of Upper Small Bowel In Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome
B. V Bhaskar, K Singh, A Ayyagiri, R Sehgal
October-December 1991, 9(4):207-211
The bacterial flora of small intestine of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was evaluated. Patients were divided into 3 groups:a) IBS with diarrhoea (Group I), (b) IBS with predominantly constipation (Group II) AND (c) IBS with alternating diarrhoes and constipation (group III). One patient of group I had significant colonization of jejunal fluid in group I, while 50% of group II patients had significant jejunal bacterial colonization. The study indicates that alteration of bowel mobility may play a role in the enhanced bacterial colonization in IBS patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  514 7 -
Efficacy Of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines Prepared With Local Indian JE Virus Strains
Dipa Gowal, L. N Rao Bhau, S. N Saxena
October-December 1991, 9(4):212-218
Vaccines prepared from the Indian JE virus strains. Kolar [803835], Bankura (733913) and Dibrugarh (7812474) fulfilled all the requirements for JE vaccine as per Japanese and WHO regulations. The selected JE virus strains were found to be good seed virus for preparation of JE vaccine from mouse brain source. These liquid vaccines demonstrated good thermostability at 40C for 1 week and at 4C upto 6 months. The monovalent JE vaccines prepared from above Indian JE virus strains were found to be effective against other heterologous Indian JE virus strains.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  512 4 -
Anaerobes In Cerebrospinal Fluid From Cases Of Pyogenic Meningitis
S Singh, U Gupta
October-December 1991, 9(4):169-172
A total of 133 patients clinically diagnosed as meningitis were studied for bacterial aetiology. Cerebrospinal fluid from 91 (68.4%) gave negative cultures, while 42(31.6%) yielded positive cultures, anaerobic bacteria were isolated from 7 cases. Direct GLC analysis of CSF was done in 26 meningitis cases and it revealed multiple volatile (2 samples) and non volatile fatty acids in 3 CSF samples with positive culture for facultative aerobic bacteria as compared to 22 samples which were sterile. The predisposing conditions in cases with anaerobic bacterial infection were postoperative trauma and chronic otitis media. Anaerobic bacterial meningitis probably occurs more often than is recognized it optimal methods for recovering anaerobic bacteria are used.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  507 9 -
Urogenital Parasitosis In Northern Nigeria
S. C Sehgal, J.O.S Osisanya
October-December 1991, 9(4):188-192
Sex and age specific infection rates of urogenital parasitoses were studied in unselected population of North Western Nigeria. Urinary schistosomiasis was found to be more common in males and in 10-19 years age group. The association of haematuria and proteinuria with urinary swchistosomiasis was observed. Trichomonas vaginalis infection was more common in women attending the Special Treatment Clinic for sexually transmitted diseases than those attending the out patient departments. The 20-29 years group was affected and a substantial number of them were asymptomatic. Presence of pus cells and epithelial cells in urine were good indicators for infection.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  505 5 -
Isolation Of Campylobacter Jejuni In Acute Diarrhoeal Disease In Ludhiana
A. S Puri, B Gupta, J Rai
October-December 1991, 9(4):237-239
Over a period of twelve months Campylobacter jejuni was isolated as the sole pathogen from the faecal samples of 5% cases of acute diarrhoeal disease but from none of the 100 age sex matched controls.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  500 9 -
Detection Of Genomic Variation In Slow And Fast Growing Mycobacteria By Analysis Of restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) Of Ribosomal RNA Genes
G. V Kanaujia, V. M Katoch, C. T Shivannavar, M. A Patil, V. D Sharma
October-December 1991, 9(4):219-223
Identifying and classifying pathogenic Mycobacteria is time consuming and remains a problem. We have earlier standardized techniques to study the variation in rRNA genes of Mycobacteria and have reported that restriction fragment analysis of rRNA genes of Mycobacteria could be useful for distinguishing some rapidly growing and slow growing Mycobacteria. In the present extended study, DNA was isolated from M.fortuitum, M.chelonei, M.avium, M.gordonae and M.kansasii. EAch DNA sample was cleaved with restriction endonclease EcoRI. After electrophoresis in gels, the DNA fragment containing rRNA gene sequences were transferred to nitrocellulose membranes and hybridized with -32p labeled Mycobacterial rRNA probe. The patterns of bands (the rDNA finger prints), which depended on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of fragments containing rRNA genes, indicate that all these species could be distinguished from each other and patterns were found to be species specific. Results of this extended study show that this approach can be used for detection of genomic variation and rapid characterization of medically important Mycobacterial species.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  490 8 -
Antigenic Components Of Toxoplasma Gondii : Their Identification And Diagnostic Significance
P Sharma, H Vohra, N. K Ganguly, R. C Mahajan
October-December 1991, 9(4):183-187
Eight major fractions of soluble extract of Toxoplasma gondii (RH strain), obtained on Sephadex G-200 column, were identified evaluated for their diagnostic significance in patients with bad obstetrical history. These fractions were probed with two groups of serum samples, Group I having negative antitoxoplasma antibody titres and a Group II with high positive antibody titres as checked by indirect haemagglutination assay and indirect fluorescent antibody test. Only Fraction V did not react with sera of Group I by ELISA-IgG, while all other fractions and the soluble extract gave some false positive results. All fractions including fraction V reacted positively with Group II sera. On SDS-PAGE analysis, fraction V, showed a prominent band with a molecular weight of approximately 20 kilodaltons. Fraction V, therefore, seems to be the specific antigenic component for serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  449 14 -
Comparative Evaluation Of Petroff’s & Simplified Techniques For Concentration Of Acid Fast Bacilli In Sputum
N Jindal, M Aggarwal, R Arora, S Arora
October-December 1991, 9(4):245-246
The study reports that simplified technique for concentration of AFB in Sputum is better than petroff’s method for the diagnosis of tubereulosis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  456 4 -

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