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   1988| October-December  | Volume 6 | Issue 4  
    Online since January 16, 2010

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Susceptibility Of Coliforms To Augmentin
D Raghunath, V. C Ohri
October-December 1988, 6(4):269-273
Susceptibility of 111 clinical isolates of coliforms was studied against Augmentin a formulation of amoxycillin and beta lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. These coliforms included Escherichia coli (74), Klebsiella spp (28) and Proteus spp (9). Minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxycillin and Augmentin were determined against these coliforms by agar dilution technique. All the E. coli and Proteus spp were resistant to 16 mg/1 of amoxycillin whereas all Klebsiella spp were resistant to 32 mg/1. MIC of > 256 mg/1 of amoxycillin was seen in 93.2% of E. coli, 75% of Klebsiella spp and 89% of Proteus spp. MIC values against Augmentin were encouraging. 97.3% of E. coli, 96.4% of Klebsiella spp and 88.9% of Proteus spp were susceptible to 16 mg/1 of Augmentin. The value of Augmentin in treating ampicillin resistant organisms is highlighted.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  841 8 -
Prevalence Of R-Plasmid In Klebsiella Pneumniae
Sunita Sharma, Shashi Kanta, R. K Saigal
October-December 1988, 6(4):327-332
A total of 200 strains of Klebsiella pneumonaie isolated from various sources were studied for antibiotic resistance to eight drugs. Maximum resistance of 76.0 per cent was shown to ampicillin and minimum of 9.0 per cent to rifampicin. Sixteen out of 200 strains were sensitive to all the antibiotics. 184 strains were subjected to conjugative transfer study. R-plasmid was observed in 138 strains (75.0 per cent). Enbloc transfer was seen in 47 (25.54 per cent) strains and partial transfer in 91 (49.45 per cent) strains. Primary transfer was maximum for ampicillin (67.66 per cent) and minimum for gentamicin (8.88 per cent). Enbloc and partial secondary transfer was seen in 61 and 42 strains respectively in 103 transconjugants. Secondary transfer was maximum for ampicillin (71.28 per cent) and there was no transfer for gentamicin.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  784 4 -
Antifungal Susceptibility Testing In Otomycoses
C Rodrigues, V. C Ohri, D Raghunath
October-December 1988, 6(4):337-341
Fungal aetiology was proved in 50 out of 63 clinically suspected cases of otomycosis. Fungi isolated were aspergillus niger (39), Aspergillus fumigatus (6), Penicillum spp (4) and Candida albicans (1). Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by agar dilution method against amphotericin B. nystatin, clotrimazole, miconazole and 5-fluorocytosine (5 FC). The commonest isolate, Aspergillus niger was most susceptible to clotrimazole (mean MIC 2.7 mg/1) and in decreasing order to amphotericin B (3.16 mg/1), miconazole (3.66 mg/1), nystatin (4.2 mg/1) and FC (range of MIC 12.5 to > 50 mg/1). Clotrimazole showed satisfactory MIC values for other fungi as well. Mean MIC values against Aspergillus fumigatus were clotrimazole 2.21 mg/1, miconazole and nystatin 3.64 mg/1, amphotericin B, 3.90 mg/1, 5 Fc 12.5 - > 50 mg/1. mean MIC values against penicillium were clotrimazole 2.15 mg/1, miconazole 2.54 mg/1, 5 FC 3.51 mg/1, nystatin 3.90 mg/1, amphotericin B 4.69 mg/1. The methodology of antibiotic susceptibility testing of mycelial fungi is illustrated.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  753 13 -
Prevalence Of Trichomoniasis In Symptomatic And Asymptomatic Subjects Using Different Contraceptive devices
Poonam Sharma, Nancy Malla, Indu Gupta, N. K Ganguly, R. C Mahajan
October-December 1988, 6(4):315-322
Clinical and laboratory study for trichomoniasis was conducted on 1000 women. Wet smear and culture technique of vaginal swab and urine specimens revealed no significant difference in incidence of T. vaginalis amongst contraceptive users, antenatal subjects and gynaecological patients while low incidence was observed in post natal and infertility subjects. However, in contraceptive users significantly higher incidence was found in women with tubal ligation and Copper-T users than Nirodh users. Symptomatic subjects had higher incidence and in contraceptive users positive subjects were mostly symptomatic (86%). Majority of asymptomatic carriers had no clinical signs. There was no statistically significant difference in isolation rate from male contacts of symptomatic and asymptomatic positive women. Significantly higher isolation rate was observed with culture technique and excellent cure rate found following metronidazole therapy.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  758 6 -
In Vitro Evaluation Of Metronidazole And Tinidazole On Strains Of Trichomonas Vaginalis
Nancy Malla, Indu Gupta, C Sokhey, R Sehgal, N. K Ganguly, R. C Mahajan
October-December 1988, 6(4):297-301
Thirty two strains of Trichomonas vaginalis isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects attending obstetrics and Gynaecology Out Patients Department and Family Welfare Clinic Of Nehru Hospital, attached to Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh were subjected to sensitivity tests against metronidazole and tinidazole in vitro. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for metronidazole and tinidazole respectively ranged from 0.312 ug/ml and 0.103 ug/ml to 0.555 ug/ml with small inoculum (50,000 parasites/ ml) and 0.625 ug/ml to 1.25 ug/ml and 0.555 ug/ml to 1.65 ug/ml with large inoculum (100,000 parasites/ml). The minimum lethal concentrations for metronidazole and tinidazole were found to be respectively 1.25 ug/ml to 2.5 ug/ml and 0.825 ug/ml to 3.3 ug/ml with small inoculum and 2.5 ug/ml to 3.75 ug/ml and 1.65 ug/ml to 3.3 ug/ml with large inoculum. No statistically significant difference was observed in sensitivity tests for freshly isolated strains and those maintained by serial subculturing as well as in strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. There was 100 per cent correlation between the sensitivity of T vaginalisi n vitro and the clinical response to metronidazole. These results rule out in vitro resistance to metronidazole or tinidazole as the cause of therapeutic failures which may be encountered in this country.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  702 12 -
Etiology Of Chronic Cervical Lymphadenopathy In Infancy And Childhood
M Rohatgi, Madhu Dewan
October-December 1988, 6(4):309-314
According to histopathological studies the etiology of 215 cases of chronic cervical lymphadenopathy was : tuberculous lymphadenitis 59 (27 percent), non-specific lymphadenitis 135 (63 percent), malignant group 10 (5 percent) and miscellaneous group 11 (5 percent). Diagnosis on the basis of clinical features alone was found to be erroneous in the majority of patients. However, discharging cutaneous sinus, whenever present was a feature of tuberculous group. Mantoux (Mx) test was positive in 87 percent of tuberculous children below 5 years of age. Chest X-ray revealed parenchymatous lesions in 28.8 percent of tuberculous cases. Modified soluble antigen fluorescent antibody (SAFA) test was superior to indirect haemaglutination (IHA) test. Atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis could be confirmed by bacteriological examination only
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  615 9 -
Monoclonal Gonococcal Test For Rapid Identification Of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae
M Deb, K Prakash, A. K Sharma, S. K Sharma
October-December 1988, 6(4):323-326
Fifty cases clinically labeled as acute gonorrhoeae were investigated for gonococcal etiology. Smears were positive in 47 (94.0%) samples. N. gonorrhoeae could be identified in 48 (96.0%) cases by culture method. Samples showing growth on Thayer Martin and/or chocolate agar media were subjected to monoclonal GC Test which utilizes the principle of co-agglutination and detects the antigens of outer membrane protein of N. gonorrhoeae. By using COA 39 (81.3%) strains were identified as N. gonorrhoeae after 24 hrs. 44 (91.6%) strains belonged to serogroup WII/WIII, showing it to be the major serogroup causing infections in the community. It was concluded that in busy clinical laboratories N. gonorrhoeae could be identified with rapidity as well as with accuracy by using co-agglutination technique, using Phadebact(r) Monoclonal G. C. Test.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  614 7 -
Genetic Characteristics Of Plasmids In Salmonella Bareilly
M. L Mago, M Jayasheela, S. N Saxena
October-December 1988, 6(4):259-268
8 strains of Salmonella bareilly that were isolated from different parts of India were studied in detail. These were studied for drug resistance, MIC values, Class of R factor transfer, frequency of transfer, segregational characters, phage restriction, fertility inhibition, F-pilus production, incompatibility grouping, stability characters, lysogeny & phage typing, curing, colicin production and detection of colonization factor antigens. Though serologically similar, these strains behaved differently in the various parameters studied and as such do not seem to belong to a common origin. The detailed results are presented.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  594 4 -
Multidrug Resistant Salmonellae In Amritsar
Satya Arora, H Prabhakar, Sanjay Sharma
October-December 1988, 6(4):303-308
260 strains of salmonellae were isolated, identified and serotyped into 7 different types. The most predominant serotype was Salmonella typhi, Phage type A. Phage type E9 and J1 were reported for the first time in Amritsar. Three strains of Salmonzlia typhi Phage type A, biotype II were resistant to chloramphenicol with M.I.C. 500 ug/ml. Salmonella typhimurium and salmonella senftenberg showed multidrug resistance and their M.I.C. ranged from 25 ug/ml to more than 1000 ug/ml and 100 ug/ml to 1000 ug/ml respectively. No resistance was found to gentamicin. Transferable drug resistance was observed in 85.9% to 100% of the strains.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  580 3 -
Studies On Enteropathogenicity Of Bacteroides Fragilis Group
R Jotwani, Usha Gupta
October-December 1988, 6(4):333-336
Attempts made to study the enteropathogenic potential of 35 strains of B. fragilis group (6 standard strains, 17 from extra intestinal infections and 12 strains isolated from stools of infants with diarrhoea) did not show enterotoxin production by Rabbit ileal loop test, enteroinvasiveness by Sereney’s keratoconjuctivitis test and permeability by rabbit skin test.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  549 7 -
Enterically Transmitted Non-A, Non-B Hepatitis : First Report Of An Outbreak In An Isolated Population
Mandeep S Chadha, A. R Risbud, Vidya A Arankalle, Leenata Chobe, M. A Rasheed, F. M Rodrigues, K Banerjee
October-December 1988, 6(4):289-296
An outbreak of enterically transmitted Non A Non B (NANB) hepatitis in the Andaman Islands is reported in the present study. A total of 307 cases were reported from Diglipur and 26 surrounding villages. Interestingly as many as 45.9% of the cases were below 15 years of age. Out of the 78 patients serologically tested, none had current HBV infection and only 5 had evidence of HAV infection. Epidemiological and serological findings indicate the NANB etiology of this outbreak.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  541 11 -
Study Of Bacterial Flora Of Meatus In Patients Undergoing Urinary Catheterisation
T. V Narayani, J Shanmugam, R. N Bhattacharya, K. G Shyamkrishnan
October-December 1988, 6(4):283-287
One hundred and twenty patients undergoing Cardiac (78) and Neuro-surgery (42) were investigated for the colonization of meatus by potential pathogens of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) in relation to the genesis of UTI among patients with indwelling catheters. Gram positive bacteria were isolated from 82.8% while only 17.2% of them yielded Gram negative bacteria. The difference between the rate of Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial were more among males than females (90.7% versus 9.3% in cardiac surgery and 87.5% versus 12.5% among neuro surgical patients). Out of 120 meatus swabs processed, 35.0% yielded no growth while 46.7% were positive for non-pathogenic bacteria and 18.3% pathogenic bacteria. Among coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) the predominant species was found to be Staphylococcus hominis (48.9%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (15.6%). With Gram negative bacteria, the leading species was Klebsiella pneumoniae (44.0%) followed by Escherichia coli (28.0%). Most of the Gram negative bacteria were isolated from meatus of female patients (68.0%). The most effective antibiotics against Gram negative bacteria were found to Polymyxin B, Norfloxacin, Nalidixic acid and Amikacin. The resistant rates of these antibiotics were only 0%, 4%, 9.5% and 13.0%, respectively, The present study also indicated that the meatus flora is not among the leading sources for the genesis of UTI.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  534 7 -
Studies On The effect Of Rifampicin On Mycolic Acid Biosynthesis Of Mycobacteria : A Preliminary Report
M. A Patil, V. M Katoch, C. T Shivannavar, V. D Sharma, A. K Datta, G. V Kanaujia
October-December 1988, 6(4):251-258
Mycolic acids are important class of mycobacterial lipids which form an essential component of cell-wall skeleton and could be important primary or secondary sites for drug action. With an aim to develop models for pathogenic mycobacteria, the effect of rifampicin on mycolic acid levels in two cultivable mycobacteria M. triviale and M. lufu has been investigated. The mycobacteria were grown in a incubator shaker in Sauton’s medium and were treated with varying concentrations of rifampicin in mid logarithmic phase. Samples were collected after 1, 2, 8, 24 and 48 hrs. for viability check and bacilli were harvested for mycolic acid analysis. The ‘bound lipid’ fractions comprising of mycolic acids were extracted and isolated from the cell wall structure M. triviale and M. lufu by alkaline methanolysis and were analysed by thin-layer chromatography using HP-TLC plates. The results showed that, rifampicin affected the mycolic acid levels at optimum concentrations. The higher concentrations, though, affected the viability, did not affect the mycolic acid levels indicating that both biosynthethic and catabolic processes are affected simultaneously resulting in poor or no degradation of mycolic acids present originally. These observations may have therapeutic implications and need to be further investigated.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  514 2 -
Comparative Evaluation Of SAFA, PHA and SPRIA In Serodiagnosis Of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using H37RV Sonicated Antigen
P. K Aggarwal, B. M Agarwal, V. L Lahiri, O. P Bansal, D. K Hazra, Y. C Sharma, R. K Chandoke, P. K Bhattacharjee
October-December 1988, 6(4):275-282
10 cases of typical mycobacteriosis, 12 cases of atypical mycobacteriosis and 10 healthy control subjects were studied for the presence of antibodies against soni-cate antigen of M. Tuberculosis H37Rv, using soluble antigen fluorescent antibody technique (SAFA), Passive haemagglutination test (PHA) and Solid phase radio-immunoassay technique (SPRIA). The positive reaction with these tests were 80%, 60% and 70% respectively in typical mycobacterial group, while it had been reduced to 41.6%, 8.3% and 8.3% respectively in atypical group. In contrast to this, normal healthy group had 30%, 10% and 20% positive reaction. The sensitivity and specificity of these tests were discussed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  511 3 -
Evaluation Of Various Serological Tests In Syphilis
R Bhasin, S Kumari, V. N Sehgal, D. S Agarwal
October-December 1988, 6(4):343-346
Evaluation of VDRL, TPHA and FTA-ABS tests was done in 150 cases of clinically diagnosed syphilis and 50 controls. For screening purposes, TPHA alone or in combination with VDRL, was found to be of maximum utility. FTA-ABS test was found to be most useful as a confirmatory test.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  500 11 -
Vi-Phage Types Of S. Typhi Isolated In Various Regions OF India 1982-87
K Parkash, P. K Pillai
October-December 1988, 6(4):241-250
7016 Strains of S. typhi received from various collaborating centers in India during the years. 1982-87 were subjected to phage typing. The order of frequency of predominant phage types in North and Central India was phage type A followed by El where as in South India instead of El phage type O was close to phage type A for the years 1982-86. However, in the year 1987 when there was decline in the out break of multi resistant S. typhi phage type O, in South India E1 acquired back the second position and the order of the predominant phage types become similar to North and Central India i.e. A, El and O. The increase in the UVS and Deg Vi strains specially in North India was observed. The regional phage types K1, and J1 of North India had shown sporadic isolation from Central and South India also. Intermingling of regional phage types primarily caused by population migration has been discussed. Phage types C 5 was almost confined to Central India. Certain exotic phage types of Middle East and North African countries and also some rare phage types were isolated from different regions of India. More diversity of phage types was seen in Northern India than in Central and South India. Some New phage types were introduced sporadically in between which were found self limiting, the details of which are described.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  439 5 -

2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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