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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 176--182

Prevalence, toxin gene profile, genotypes and antibiotic susceptibility of Clostridium difficile in a tertiary care hospital in Taif, Saudi Arabia

Taisir Saber1, Yousry A Hawash2, Khadiga A Ismail3, Amany S Khalifa4, Khalaf F Alsharif6, Saleh A Alghamdi6, Tamer Saber5, Emad M Eed6 
1 Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia; Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
2 Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia; Department of Molecular and Clinical Parasitology, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt
3 Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
4 Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia; Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt
5 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
6 Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia; Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Khadiga A Ismail
Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, Taif

Purpose: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is an important causative agent of nosocomial diarrhoea and has become a major worldwide public health concern. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of C. difficile infection (CDI) amongst patients with nosocomial diarrhoea in a large tertiary care hospital in Taif, Saudi Arabia, and to define molecular characteristics and antimicrobial sensitivity profiles of C. difficile strains isolated from those patients. Materials and Methods: Stool specimens were collected from 456 patients and were cultured for C. difficile isolation. The isolates were subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting genes encoding the toxins (toxin A, toxin B and binary toxin [CDT]), genotyping by PCR ribotyping method and antimicrobial sensitivity testing using E test strips. Results: Seventy-four C. difficile strains were recovered, of which 44 (59.5%) were A+B+CDT, 14 (18.9%) were AB+CDT, 4 (5.4%) were A+B+CDT+ and 12 (16.2%) were ABCDT. Toxigenic strains, and hence CDI, were detected in 13.6% of the patients (62/456). Fourteen different ribotypes were distinguished amongst bacterial isolates, of which ribotypes 002, 001, 017, 014 and 020 were the most prevalent (20.3%, 18.9%, 18.9%, 9.5% and 8.1%, respectively). Four isolates (5.4%) belonged to ribotype 027. All bacterial isolates showed sensitivity to metronidazole, vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. The isolates exhibited resistance to linezolid (2.7%), chloramphenicol (5.4%), rifampicin (13.5%), tetracycline (21.6%), moxifloxacin (48.6%), clindamycin (54%) and imipenem (83.8%). Multiple drug resistance was observed in 56.8% of the isolates. Conclusion: Further larger studies are required for an accurate understanding of CDI epidemiology in Saudi Arabia.

How to cite this article:
Saber T, Hawash YA, Ismail KA, Khalifa AS, Alsharif KF, Alghamdi SA, Saber T, Eed EM. Prevalence, toxin gene profile, genotypes and antibiotic susceptibility of Clostridium difficile in a tertiary care hospital in Taif, Saudi Arabia.Indian J Med Microbiol 2020;38:176-182

How to cite this URL:
Saber T, Hawash YA, Ismail KA, Khalifa AS, Alsharif KF, Alghamdi SA, Saber T, Eed EM. Prevalence, toxin gene profile, genotypes and antibiotic susceptibility of Clostridium difficile in a tertiary care hospital in Taif, Saudi Arabia. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Nov 25 ];38:176-182
Available from: https://www.ijmm.org/article.asp?issn=0255-0857;year=2020;volume=38;issue=2;spage=176;epage=182;aulast=Saber;type=0