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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 261--269

Significance of Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) and CMV (HHV-5) infection among subtype-C human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

J Sachithanandham1, R Kannangai1, SA Pulimood2, A Desai3, AM Abraham1, OC Abraham4, V Ravi3, P Samuel5, G Sridharan6 
1 Department of Clinical Virology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Dermatology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Neurovirology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Internal Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
5 Department of Biostatistics, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
6 Sri Sakthi Amma Biomedical Research Institute, Sri Narayani Hospital and Research Center,Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
R Kannangai
Department of Clinical Virology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu
India

Purpose: Opportunistic viral infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in HIV infection and their molecular detection in the whole blood could be a useful diagnostic tool. Objective: The frequency of opportunistic DNA virus infections among HIV-1-infected individuals using multiplex real-time PCR assays was studied. Materials and Methods: The subjects were in two groups; group 1: Having CD4 counts <100 cells/µl (n = 118) and the group 2: counts >350 cells/µl (n = 173). Individuals were classified by WHO clinical staging system. Samples from 70 healthy individuals were tested as controls. In-house qualitative multiplex real-time PCR was standardised and whole blood samples from 291 were tested, followed by quantitative real-time PCR for positives. In a proportion of samples genotypes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and CMV were determined. Results: The two major viral infections observed were EBV and CMV. The univariate analysis of CMV load showed significant association with cryptococcal meningitis, oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL), CMV retinitis, CD4 counts and WHO staging (P < 0.05) while the multivariate analysis showed an association with OHL (P = 0.02) and WHO staging (P = 0.05). Univariate analysis showed an association of EBV load with CD4 counts and WHO staging (P < 0.05) and multivariate analysis had association only with CD4 counts. The CMV load was significantly associated with elevated SGPT and SGOT level (P < 0.05) while the EBV had only with SGOT. Conclusion: This study showed an association of EBV and CMV load with CD4+ T cell counts, WHO staging and elevated liver enzymes. These viral infections can accelerate HIV disease and multiplex real-time PCR can be used for the early detection. Genotype 1 and 2 of EBV and genotype gB1 and gB2 of CMV were the prevalent in the HIV-1 subtype C-infected south Indians.

How to cite this article:
Sachithanandham J, Kannangai R, Pulimood S A, Desai A, Abraham A M, Abraham O C, Ravi V, Samuel P, Sridharan G. Significance of Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) and CMV (HHV-5) infection among subtype-C human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.Indian J Med Microbiol 2014;32:261-269

How to cite this URL:
Sachithanandham J, Kannangai R, Pulimood S A, Desai A, Abraham A M, Abraham O C, Ravi V, Samuel P, Sridharan G. Significance of Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) and CMV (HHV-5) infection among subtype-C human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Nov 28 ];32:261-269
Available from: https://www.ijmm.org/article.asp?issn=0255-0857;year=2014;volume=32;issue=3;spage=261;epage=269;aulast=Sachithanandham;type=0