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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 200-209

Biofilm synthesis and other virulence factors in multidrug-resistant uropathogenic enterococci isolated in Northern India


1 Department of Microbiology, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Medicine, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India
4 Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Ayan Kumar Das
Department of Microbiology, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi - 110 062
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_19_355

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Purpose: Enterococci express high degree of resistance towards wide range of antibiotics. Production of biofilm and many virulence factors along with drug resistance makes it difficult to eradicate the infection from urinary tract. The present study detected the expression of such factors including biofilm production by multidrug-resistant (MDR) enterococci. Materials and Methods: Drug susceptibility of 103 uropathogenic enterococci was performed followed by estimation of minimum inhibitory concentration of high-level gentamicin and vancomycin by microbroth dilution method. Vancomycin-resistant genes were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Production of virulence factors such as haemagglutination, caseinase, lipase, gelatinase, haemolysin and β-lactamase was detected by phenotypic methods in MDR strains. Biofilm production was detected by calcofluor-white fluorescence staining and semi-quantitative adherence assay. Results: 45% and 18.4% of the isolates were high-level gentamicin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), respectively. vanA gene was detected in 14 and vanB gene in 5 strains. Biofilm, caseinase and gelatinase were the most expressed virulence factor. Expression of caseinase, gelatinase and lipase was significantly higher in Enterococcus faecalis (P < 0.05). Expression of haemagglutination, gelatinase and haemolysin among the vancomycin-resistant isolates was significantly higher (P < 0.05). Conclusion: VanA and vanB are the prevalent genotypes responsible for vancomycin resistance. The high prevalence of MDR enterococcal strains producing biofilm and virulence determinants raises concern. asa1, hyl, esp, gelE, cyl and other genes are known to express these factors and contribute to biofilm formation. Most uropathogenic enterococci expressed biofilm at moderate level and can be detected effectively by calcofluor-white staining. No correlation was noted between vancomycin resistance and biofilm production.






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