|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 318-325
Protocol for developing a surveillance system for surgical site infections
Purva Mathur1, Samarth Mittal2, Vivek Trikha2, Ayush Lohiya1, Surbhi Khurana1, Sonal Katyal1, Nidhi Bhardwaj1, Sushma Sagar3, Subodh Kumar3, Rajesh Malhotra2, Kamini Walia4
1 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Orthopedics, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3 Division of Trauma Surgery, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
4 Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India
|Date of Submission||21-Nov-2019|
|Date of Decision||29-Nov-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||03-Dec-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||29-Jan-2020|
Dr. Purva Mathur
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 110 029
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Purpose: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs/ HAIs) are the most common adverse occurrences during health care delivery. Across the globe, millions of patients are affected by HAIs annually, with a higher burden and impact in developing nations. a major lacuna in planning preventing protocols is the absence of National Surveillance Systems in most low-middle income countries, which also prevents allocation of resources to the high-priority areas. Among all the HAIs, there is a huge global burden of SSIs, in terms of morbidity, prolonged hospital stays, increased antimicrobial treatment as well as attributable mortality. Method: This manuscript details the process of establishment of an SSI surveillance protocol at a level-1 trauma centre in North India. Result and Conclusion: Surveillance is an essential tool to reduce this burden. It is also an important primary step in recognizing problems and priorities, and it plays a crucial role in identifying risk factors for SSI and to be able to target modifiable risk factors. Therefore, it is imperative to establish reliable systems for surveillance of HAIs, to regularly estimate the actual burden of HAIs, and to use these data for developing indigenous preventive measures, tailored to the country's priorities.
Keywords: Healthcare-associated infections, India, surgical site infections, surveillance
|How to cite this article:|
Mathur P, Mittal S, Trikha V, Lohiya A, Khurana S, Katyal S, Bhardwaj N, Sagar S, Kumar S, Malhotra R, Walia K. Protocol for developing a surveillance system for surgical site infections. Indian J Med Microbiol 2019;37:318-25
|How to cite this URL:|
Mathur P, Mittal S, Trikha V, Lohiya A, Khurana S, Katyal S, Bhardwaj N, Sagar S, Kumar S, Malhotra R, Walia K. Protocol for developing a surveillance system for surgical site infections. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Oct 20];37:318-25. Available from: https://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2019/37/3/318/277072
| ~ Introduction|| |
Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs/HAIs) are the most frequent adverse events during health-care delivery. Millions of patients are affected by HAIs every year worldwide; the burden and impact of these infections being greater in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Hospital-wide prevalence of HAI varies from 5.7% to 19.1%, with a pooled prevalence of 10.1%. Among the HAIs, surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most common, morbid and costly to treat. Worldwide, approximately 187–281 million surgical procedures are performed each year. SSIs are one of the undesirable and serious outcomes of surgeries; despite the high burden, most SSIs are preventable.,,,,,,,
The global burden of SSIs is huge, in terms of morbidity, repeat surgeries, prolonged hospitalisation, increased length of antimicrobial treatment and attributable mortality (0.4%–0.8% of SSIs resulting in death). Large-scale studies done in the developed countries as part of national surveillance systems or networks or multi-hospital surveys have reported SSI rates varying from 0.9% to 17.8%, depending primarily on the type of surgeries. A WHO survey found that in LMICs, the incidence of SSI ranged from 1.2 to 23.6/100 surgical procedures. This contrasted with rates between 1.2% and 5.2% in high-income countries. [Table 1] gives a brief overview of the SSI rates in developed nations.,,,,,,,
| ~ Burden of Surgical Site Infections in Low- and Middle-Income Countries|| |
The burden of SSIs in these countries is much higher than the developed countries. In the 2011 WHO report on the global burden of HAI from LMICs, SSI was the most frequent HAIs reported hospital-wide, with the level of risk being much higher than in developed countries. In this report, the pooled SSI incidence in LMICs and developed countries were, respectively, 11.8 and 5.6/100 surgical procedures. The rates of SSIs have ranged from 2.1 in the Republic of Korea to 2.5%–15.4% in Uruguay, and 1.9%–3.1% in Chile. The overall prevalence of SSI in Africa/Middle East, Latin America, Asia and China was reported to be 10%, 7%, 4% and 4%, respectively. In a review published in 2019 by Couto et al., the overall prevalence of SSI in developing countries in elective clean and clean-contaminated surgeries was estimated to be 6%, increasing to 15% when studies only focusing on post-discharge surveillance were included.,,,,,,,
| ~ Surveillance for Surgical Site Infections|| |
In most countries, the burden of HAIs is grossly underestimated for want of proper surveillance and reporting systems. Estimation of the national burden of HAIs is a prerequisite for planning infection control policies. Robust evidence emphasises the fact that HAI can be prevented, and the burden is reduced by as much as 50%.,,,
Surveillance is defined as “the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of health data essential to the planning, implementation and evaluation of public health practice, closely integrated with the timely dissemination of these data to those who need to know.” Surveillance of SSI is part of the WHO safe surgery guidelines. Many countries have introduced mandatory surveillance of SSI, such as the UK and certain states in the USA, whereas other countries have voluntary-based surveillance, such as France, Germany and Switzerland.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
There is a lack of national surveillance systems in most LMIC, which is a major lacuna in planning preventing protocols and allocating resources to the highpriority areas. Therefore, there is an urgent need:
- To establish reliable systems for HAI surveillance
- To gather data on the actual burden of HAIs regularly
- To use this data for developing indigenous preventive measures, tailored to the country's priorities.
Evaluation of the key determinants of SSIs (or risk factors) is also an essential step to identify strategies and measures for improvement.
Surveillance of SSIs is very different from other HAIs such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). The primary difference being that surveillance for VAP, CLABSI and CAUTI are truncated at the time of discharge from the unit/hospital. In contrast, most SSIs develop after the patient is discharged from the hospital, considering the ever-shortening in-hospital stay after surgeries. Some SSIs may develop as long as 3 months or even a year after the surgery. SSI surveillance, therefore, requires a very prolonged follow-up, a lot more engagement by the patients and health-care workers, and therefore, not feasible in many LMICs.,,,,
Surveillance is an essential tool to reduce its burden. It is also an important first step in identifying problems and priorities; and it plays an important role in recognising risk factors for SSI thus, helping to target modifiable risk factors.
Carefully obtained surveillance data can identify needed infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions and areas of opportunity for improvements in care. The surveillance data can also help assess the quality of infection prevention efforts. Both process measures (for example, the implementation of preventive measures) and outcome measures (SSI rates) should be measured through surveillance so that IPC measures can be implemented, and performance improved. The application of standardised definitions is one of the minimum requirements for data comparisons at local, national and international levels. The use of standardised definitions is crucial to the reliability of SSI surveillance for the following reasons:
- It allows establishing that the infection was acquired during the hospital stay
- To ensure that it is a true infection and not colonisation
- Allows for inter-hospital comparisons and benchmarking.
The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) provides the most reliable and updated definitions.,, At the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, we have initiated a multi-centric study, supported by ICMR, where 90-day post-discharge surveillance is being conducted to ascertain the actual prevalence of SSI in a select group of surgeries. This manuscript describes the process of the establishment of an SSI surveillance protocol.
Objectives of a surveillance program
- Collection of data on SSI rates to ascertain the magnitude of the problem
- Analysis of the data to identify and investigate trends
- Ascertain the most common pathogens and their susceptibility patterns
- Identify the risk factors in the Indian set-up
- Interpretation of analysed data at regular intervals to provide feedback
- Data-driven improvement actions
- Evaluation of preventive interventions
- The following are the essential prerequisites for developing a surveillance system for SSIs,,,
- An standard operating procedure (SOP) with objectives, methodology and all elements of the surveillance process
- Adequate human resources for surveillance (infection control nurses and epidemiologists)
- Training of all surveillance staff (induction and at regular intervals)
- Consistent application of definitions and common methodology
- IT/Informatic services (to design an interpret reports)
- Data quality/evaluation methods
- Development of a feedback mechanism
- Use surveillance findings in developing/implementing preventive activities
- Each hospital to use its data for internal benchmarking and setting targets.
The SSI surveillance programme should measure both infection rates and compliance rates with surgical infection prevention processes.
| ~ Process and Outcome Measures|| |
SSI surveillance should include measures of processes to indicate whether caregivers are adhering to best practices and established policies as well as the outcomes of care during the pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative phases.
In the pre-operative phase, hand hygiene, accurate assessment of patient status and risk factors, and initiating specific procedures such as maintaining normothermia, are some of the IPC processes. In the intra-operative stage, IPC processes include skin antisepsis, maintaining normothermia and glucose monitoring. Postoperatively, aseptic wound care is a primary prevention process.,,,,,
Calculation of compliance
All calculations can be performed by using the formula of:
The number of events (numerator) divided by the number of persons at risk or number of expected processes.
Monitoring/surveillance for surgical site infection
For surveillance purposes, SSIs are divided into categories involving only skin and subcutaneous tissue (superficial incisional SSIs), those involving deeper soft tissues of the incision (deep incisional SSIs), and those involving any part of the deep anatomy (organ space SSIs), such as a joint space. The definitions for SSIs have been adopted from the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention NHSN system.,, [Table 2] details the classification of SSI.
We have developed a website for SSI surveillance, where the SOP is available. Definitions of SSI surveillance, wound classification and the details of surveillance methodology can be accessed at http://ssi.haisindia.com. [Figure 1] shows a screenshot of the home page of the website.
This requires active, patient-based, prospective surveillance. Both in-hospital and post-discharge surveillance methods should be used to detect SSIs. Review methods may include one or more of the following:,,
- Direct inspection of the wound
- Medical records/surgical/OT notes/physician's notes/admission, readmission, ED notes
- Laboratory/X-ray, other diagnostic test reports
- Information from the patients and families
- Surveys by mail or telephone.
Role of the Hospital Infection Control Nurses (HICNs) (HICNs)/infection preventionists/epidemiologist/information technology departments (if available)
- To lead the development of the SSI surveillance plan
- To perform the surveillance using established, approved, and consistent surveillance criteria or definitions
- Analyse and present the data to all stakeholders.
Collect SSI (numerator) and operative procedure category (denominator) data on all procedures included in the selected procedure categories for at least 1 month. The numerator and denominator data forms are available on the website http://ssi.haisindia.com. The surgical procedure must meet the definition of an operative procedure to be included in the surveillance. All procedures should be followed for superficial, deep and organ/space SSIs. All patients undergoing the defined surgeries (for which a hospital intends to undertake SSI surveillance) need to be monitored for SSI. SSI form should be completed for each SSI. The SSI form includes patient demographic information and information about the operative procedure, including the date and type of procedure. Information about the SSI includes the date of SSI, specific criteria met for identifying the SSI when/how the SSI was detected, whether the patient developed a secondary bloodstream infection, whether the patient died, the organism(s) identified and the organisms' antimicrobial susceptibilities.,,
| ~ Calculation of Surgical Site Infection Rates|| |
The most common outcome indicator is the SSI rate. For any given period, denominator data represent the total number of procedures within each category. Numerator data will be the number of SSIs in that same period. SSI rates per 100 operative procedures are calculated by dividing the number of SSIs by the number of specific operative procedures and multiplying the results by 100. SSIs should be included in the numerator of a rate based on the date of procedure, not the date of the event.,, [Figure 2] and [Figure 3] show the SSI surveillance case report form and denominator form, respectively. The forms can be accessed at the website http://ssi.haisindia.com.
- Date of event (DOE): For an SSI, the DOE is the date when the first element used to meet the SSI infection criterion occurs for the first time during the SSI surveillance period. The date of the event must fall within the SSI surveillance period to meet SSI criteria. The type of SSI (superficial incisional, deep incisional or organ/space) reported should reflect the deepest tissue layer involved in the infection during the surveillance period. The date of the event should be the date that the patient met the criteria for the deepest level of infection
- Duration of operative procedure: The interval in hours and minutes between the procedure/surgery start time (PST), and the procedure/surgery finish (PF) time, as defined by the Association of Anaesthesia Clinical Directors
- PST: Time when the procedure is begun (e.g., incision for a surgical procedure)
- PF: Time, when all instrument and sponge counts are completed and verified as correct, all post-operative radiologic studies to be done in the Operating room (OR), are completed, all dressings and drains are secured, and the physicians/surgeons have completed all procedure-related activities on the patient
Emergency operative procedure: A procedure that is documented as per the hospital's protocol to be an emergency or urgent procedureInpatient operative procedure: An operative procedure performed on a patient whose date of admission to the Healthcare facility (HCF), and the date of discharge are different calendar daysOutpatient operative procedure: An operative procedure performed on a patient whose date of admission to the HCF, and date of discharge are the same calendar dayNon-primary Closure: Closure of the surgical wound in a way which leaves the skin level completely open following the surgery. Closure of any portion of the skin represents primary closure. For surgeries with non-primary closure, the deep tissue layers may be closed by some means (with the skin level left open), or the deep and superficial layers may both be left completely open. Wounds with non-primary closure may or may not be described as 'packed' with gauze or other material, and may or may not be covered with plastic, 'wound vacs', or other synthetic devices or materialsPrimary closure: Closure of the skin level during the original surgery, regardless of the presence of wires, wicks, drains or other devices or objects extruding through the incision. This category includes surgeries where the skin is closed by some means.
If a procedure has multiple incision/laparoscopic trocar sites and any of the incisions are closed primarily then the procedure technique is recorded as primary closed.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| ~ References|| |
World Health Organization. Preventing Surgical Site Infections: Implementation Approaches for Evidence-Based Recommendations. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018.
Magill SS, Edwards JR, Bamberg W, Beldavs ZG, Dumyati G, Kainer MA et al
. Multistate point-prevalence survey of health care–associated infections. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014;370:1198-208.
Marchi M, Pan A, Gagliotti C, Morsillo F, Parenti M, Resi D, et al
. The Italian national surgical site infection surveillance programme and its positive impact, 2009 to 2011. Euro Surveill 2014;19. pii: 20815.
Morikane K, Konishi T, Harihara Y, Nishioka M, Kobayashi H. Implementation and establishment of nationwide surgical site infections surveillance in Japan Am J Infect Control 2005;33:e175-e6.
Kim YK, Kim HY, Kim ES, Kim HB, Uh Y, Jung SY, et al
. Korean surgical site infection surveillance system report 2009. Nosocomial Infect Control 2010;15:1-3.
Allegranzi B, Bagheri Nejad S, Combescure C, Graafmans W, Attar H, Donaldson L, et al
. Burden of endemic health-care-associated infection in developing countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2011;377:228-41.
Cruse PJ, Foord R. The epidemiology of wound infection. A 10-year prospective study of 62,939 wounds. Surg Clin North Am 1980;60:27-40.
Poulsen KB, Bremmelgaard A, Sørensen AI, Raahave D, Petersen JV. Estimated costs of postoperative wound infections: a case-control study of marginal hospital and social security costs. Epidemiology & Infection. 1994;113:283-95.
Mu Y, Edwards JR, Horan TC, Berrios-Torres SI, Fridkin SK. Improving risk-adjusted measures of surgical site infection for the national healthcare safety network. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32:970-86.
Public Health England. Surveillance of Surgical Site Infections in NHS Hospitals in England (2012/13). London: Public Health England; 2013.
Worth LJ, Bull AL, Spelman T, Brett J, Richards MJ. Diminishing surgical site infections in Australia: Time trends in infection rates, pathogens and antimicrobial resistance using a comprehensive Victorian surveillance program, 2002-2013. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36:409-16.
Morikane K, Honda H, Yamagishi T, Suzuki S, Aminaka M. Factors associated with surgical site infection in colorectal surgery: The Japan nosocomial infections surveillance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35:660-6.
Couto RC, Pedrosa TM, Nogueira JM, Gomes DL, Neto MF, Rezende NA. Post-discharge surveillance and infection rates in obstetric patients. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1998;61:227-31.
World Health Organization. Core Components for Infection Prevention and Control Programmes. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.
Zingg W, Holmes A, Dettenkofer M, Goetting T, Secci F, Clack L, et al
. Hospital organisation, management, and structure for prevention of health-care-associated infection: A systematic review and expert consensus. Lancet Infect Dis 2015;15:212-24.
Haley RW, Quade D, Freeman HE, Bennett JV. The SENIC Project. Study on the efficacy of nosocomial infection control (SENIC Project). Summary of study design. Am J Epidemiol 1980;111:472-85.
Haley RW. The scientific basis for using surveillance and risk factor data to reduce nosocomial infection rates. Journal of Hospital Infection. 1995;30:3-14.
Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. MMWR Suppl 1988;37:1-8.
Szilágyi E, Böröcz K, Gastmeier P, Kurcz A, Horváth-Puhó E. The national nosocomial surveillance network in Hungary: Results of two years of surgical site infection surveillance. J Hosp Infect 2009;71:74-80.
Gastmeier P, Geffers C, Sohr D, Dettenkofer M, Daschner F, Rüden H. Five years working with the German nosocomial infection surveillance system (Krankenhaus Infektions Surveillance System). Am J Infect Control 2003;31:316-21.
Geubbels EL, Mintjes-de Groot AJ, van den Berg JM, de Boer AS. An operating surveillance system of surgical-site infections in The Netherlands: Results of the PREZIES national surveillance network. Preventie van Ziekenhuisinfecties door Surveillance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:311-8.
Babazono A, Kitajima H, Nishimaki S, Nakamura T, Shiga S, Hayakawa M, et al
. Risk factors for nosocomial infection in the neonatal intensive care unit by the Japanese Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (JANIS). Acta Med Okayama 2008;62:261-8.
Friedman ND, Bull AL, Russo PL, Gurrin L, Richards M. Performance of the national nosocomial infections surveillance risk index in predicting surgical site infection in Australia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:55-9.
Morton AP, Clements AC, Doidge SR, Stackelroth J, Curtis M, Whitby M. Surveillance of healthcare-acquired infections in Queensland, Australia: Data and lessons from the first 5 years. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:695-701.
Smyth ET, Emmerson AM. Survey of infection in hospitals: Use of an automated data entry system. J Hosp Infect 1996;34:87-97.
Bellini C, Petignat C, Francioli P, Wenger A, Bille J, Klopotov A, et al
. Comparison of automated strategies for surveillance of nosocomial bacteremia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:1030-5.
Doherty J, Noirot LA, Mayfield J, Ramiah S, Huang C, Dunagan WC, et al
. Implementing GermWatcher, an enterprise infection control application. AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2006;2006:209-13.
Wright MO, Perencevich EN, Novak C, Hebden JN, Standiford HC, Harris AD. Preliminary assessment of an automated surveillance system for infection control. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004;25:325-32.
Harbarth S, Sax H, Gastmeier P. The preventable proportion of nosocomial infections: An overview of published reports. J Hosp Infect 2003;54:258-66.
Cavalcante MD, Braga OB, Teofilo CH. Cost improvement through the establishment of prudent Infection Control practices in a Brazilian general hospital, 1986-1989. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:649-53.
Klompas M, Yokoe DS. Automated surveillance of health care-associated infections. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48:1268-75.
Edwards JR, Pollock DA, Kupronis BA, Li W, Tolson JS, Peterson KD, et al
. Making use of electronic data: The National Healthcare Safety Network eSurveillance Initiative. Am J Infect Control 2008;36:S21-6.
Holtz TH, Wenzel RP. Postdischarge surveillance for nosocomial wound infection: A brief review and commentary. Am J Infect Control 1992;20:206-13.
Petherick ES, Dalton JE, Moore PJ, Cullum N. Methods for identifying surgical wound infection after discharge from hospital: A systematic review BMC Infect Dis 2006;6:170.
Wilson AP, Kiernan M. Recommendations for surveillance priorities for healthcare-associated infections and criteria for their conduct. J Antimicrob Chemother 2012;67 Suppl 1:i23-8.
Lee TB, Montgomery OG, Marx J, Olmsted RN, Scheckler WE; Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology. Recommended practices for surveillance: Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), Inc. Am J Infect Control 2007;35:427-40.
Manniën J, van der Zeeuw AE, Wille JC, van den Hof S. Validation of surgical site infection surveillance in the Netherlands. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:36-41.
Haustein T, Gastmeier P, Holmes A, Lucet JC, Shannon RP, Pittet D, et al
. Use of benchmarking and public reporting for infection control in four high-income countries. Lancet Infect Dis 2011;11:471-81.
Barbara M. Soule Infection Prevention in the Operating Theater and Surgical Services: The Preoperative Phase Evidence-Based Principles and Practices for Preventing Surgical Site Infections. Joint Commission International; 2018.
Talbot T. Surgical site infections and antimicrobial prophylaxis. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, editors. Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases. 7th
ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingston; 2009. p. 3891-904.
Webster J, Osborne S. Preoperative bathing or showering with skin antiseptics to prevent surgical site infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;2:CD004985.
Wisconsin Department of Health Services. Wisconsin Division of Public Health Supplemental Guidance for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections: An Evidence-Based Perspective; January, 2017. Available from: https://www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/publications/p01715. pdf
. [Last accessed on 2019 Nov 28].
Edmiston CE Jr., Lee CJ, Krepel CJ, Spencer M, Leaper D, Brown KR, et al
. Evidence for a standardized preadmission showering regimen to achieve maximal antiseptic skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, in surgical patients. JAMA Surg 2015;150:1027-33.
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Patient Safety Component Manual: Surgical Site Infection (SSI) Event.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2018.
Peel AL, Taylor EW. Proposed definitions for the audit of postoperative infection: A discussion paper. Surgical Infection Study Group. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1991;73:385-8.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2]