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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 35  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 555-562

Fecal carriage of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and risk factor analysis in hospitalised patients: A single centre study from India


1 Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Microbiology, RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
3 Department of Microbiology, AIIMS, Bhubhneshwar, Odisha, India
4 Department of Microbiology, Dr. YS Parmar Government Medical College, Nahan, Himachal Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Neelam Taneja
Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_17_144

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Purpose: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have emerged and disseminated widely causing a variety of infections. In India, the carriage of CRE in hospitalised patients has not been well-studied. Therefore, we conducted the present study to observe gut carriage rate of CRE in patients admitted to our tertiary care hospital. Methods: A total of 232 faecal swabs collected from consecutive stool samples from admitted patients were inoculated on ChromID extended spectrum β-lactamase plates and members of Enterobacteriaceae family were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility as per the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Polymerase chain reaction for blaVIM, blaKPC, blaIMPand blaNDM-1 genes was performed. CRE was identified if the isolates showed resistance to either imipenem or meropenem or showed the presence of resistant genes. Risk factors of patients with or without CRE colonisation were also analysed. Results: A total of 232 faecal swabs yielded 252 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, of which 49 isolates from 42 patients showed the presence of CRE (occurrence 42/232; 18.1%); 27 isolates from 22 patients carried blaNDM-1, whereas 20 isolates from 17 patients possessed blaVIMgene. No isolate was positive for blaKPCand blaIMPgenes. The CRE was common in both intensive care units (38.4%) and wards (46%) which may reflect the excessive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in both these settings. The CRE was also found to have a significantly higher antimicrobial resistance as compared to non-CRE isolates. The logistic regression analysis of significance showed the presence of any indwelling device (P = 0.049) and nasogastric tube (P = 0.043) as independent risk factors for acquiring gut colonisation. Conclusions: The study is the first from India to show high CRE carriage in patients admitted to a tertiary care centre and emphasises the need of strict antimicrobial stewardship implementation in hospitals to prevent dissemination of multidrug-resistant CRE.






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2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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