Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology IAMM  | About us |  Subscription |  e-Alerts  | Feedback |  Login   
  Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 Home | Ahead of Print | Current Issue | Archives | Search | Instructions  
Users Online: 448 Official Publication of Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists 
 ~ Next article
 ~ Previous article 
 ~ Table of Contents
 ~  Similar in PUBMED
 ~  Search Pubmed for
 ~  Search in Google Scholar for
 ~  Article in PDF (38 KB)
 ~  Citation Manager
 ~  Access Statistics
 ~  Reader Comments
 ~  Email Alert *
 ~  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 ~  References
 ~  Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded570    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 4    

Recommend this journal


Year : 2007  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 75-76

Changing serotypes and phage types of Vibrio cholerae in Ludhiana (Punjab) during 2001-2005

Department of Microbiology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana - 141 008, Punjab, India

Date of Submission29-Sep-2006
Date of Acceptance05-Oct-2006

Correspondence Address:
A Oberoi
Department of Microbiology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana - 141 008, Punjab
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.31075

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Oberoi A, Aggarwal A. Changing serotypes and phage types of Vibrio cholerae in Ludhiana (Punjab) during 2001-2005. Indian J Med Microbiol 2007;25:75-6

How to cite this URL:
Oberoi A, Aggarwal A. Changing serotypes and phage types of Vibrio cholerae in Ludhiana (Punjab) during 2001-2005. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2007 [cited 2020 Dec 2];25:75-6. Available from:

Dear Editor,

We report a change in serotypes and phage type of Vibrio cholerae islated in CMC, Ludhiana. V. cholerae O139 emerged as a pathogen and has been reported from various parts of India.[1] The organism isolated most frequently was Eltor biotype of O1 V. cholerae, usually of the Ogawa serotype. The factors that predispose to epidemics are poor sanitation, malnutrition, over-crowding, and inadequate medical services.[2] In this communication, we report V. cholerae O139 as predominant emerging pathogen in 2004 and altogether changing serotypes of V. cholerae O1 in 2005. The stool samples from patients of diarrhea both (indoor and outdoor patients) received in the Microbiology Department of Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana were processed. Organisms were identified by standard recommended techniques.[3] All the V. cholerae isolates were sent to the National Institute of Cholera and enteric diseases, Calcutta, for phage typing. V. cholerae isolated during years 2001-2005 are shown in the Table. A great diversity of V. cholerae isolates was observed during this period.

An outbreak of gastroenteritis usually occurs in Ludhiana (Punjab) from June to August every year. A total of 45 and 37 V. cholerae were isolated in 2001 and 2002, respectively, and all were V. cholerae O1 Eltor ogawa. This pattern showed a change in 2003, when O139 also emerged as a pathogen isolated from 19 out of a total of 70 isolates of V. cholerae . While in year 2004, whole pattern of V. cholerae isolates changed with 120 isolates of V. cholerae 0139 and Inaba serotype was also isolated (29/150) and one was Eltor ogawa. In 2005, all 34 isolates of V. cholerae were Eltor O1 Inaba and none was Non O1.

There is change in phage types of the isolates also which is epidemiologically significant. In 2001, all 45 isolates of V. cholerae belonged to phage type 2 (according to Basu and Mukerjee) and 26 were to phage type 27, 5-23, 2-4, one each to 21, 19, 25, respectively, (according to New scheme) while in 2005 all the strains of V. cholerae isolated belonged to phage type 4 (Basu and Mukerjee) and 24 to phage type 27, 1 to phage type 4 (New scheme).

Same diversity of V. cholerae strains was observed in 2000 and 2001 in Hyderabad showing a peak isolation of V. cholerae O139 in months of June and July 2000 and 2001. Emergence of V. cholerae O1as seen in our report is comparable with that observed by Jesudasen in the year 2004-2005.[4] The pattern of phage typing nearly coincides with that of study reported by Sundaram et al .[5] Variation from Inaba to Ogawa otherwise can take place during excretion by the individual or with course of a localized outbreak as in evident from the change in this pattern in last two years in this institution. In this study all isolates are O1 Inaba, while isolates from Vellore during same period were O1 Ogawa.[4]

It can be concluded from this study that both V. cholerae O1 and O139 have the ability to survive during inter-epidemic periods and have epidemic potential, thus necessitating constant surveillance.

 ~ References Top

1.Bilolikar AK, Dass SM, Sarguna P. Emergency of Virbrio cholerae 0139 in and around Hyderabad. Indian J Med Microbiol 2003; 21 :146.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Levinson W, Jawetz E. Medical microbiology and immunology. 7th ed. McGraw Hill Gram-Negative Rods related to the Enteric Tract 127.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Porter IA, Duduid P. In : Mackie, MeCartney. Practical Medical Microbiology. 13th ed. Collee JG, Duguid JP, Fraser AG Marmion BP, editors. Churchill Livingstone Co: Edinburgh; 1985. p. 505.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Jesudason MV. Change in serotype and Appearance of Tetracycline Resistance in V. cholerae 01 in Vellore, South Indian. Indian J Med Microbiol 2006; 24: 152-3.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Sundaram S, Revathi J, Sarkar BL, Bhattacharya SK, Bacteriological profile of Cholerae in Tamil Nadu (1980-2001). Indian J Med Res 2002; 116 :258-63.  Back to cited text no. 5    


[Table - 1]

This article has been cited by
1 Continuing challenge of infectious diseases in India
John, T.J., Dandona, L., Sharma, V.P., Kakkar, M.
The Lancet. 2011; 377(9761): 252-269
2 Continuing challenge of infectious diseases in India
T Jacob John, Lalit Dandona, Vinod P Sharma, Manish Kakkar
The Lancet. 2011; 377(9761): 252
[VIEW] | [DOI]
3 An outbreak of cholera in and around Aurangabad
Duthade, M.M., Bhakre, J.B., Gaikwad, A.A., Khaparkuntikar, M.N., Damle, A.S.
Journal of Communicable Diseases. 2010; 42(2): 165-167
4 Circulating phage type of Vibrio cholerae in Mysore
Srirangaraj, S., Venkatesha, D.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2009; 27(2): 166-167


Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article


2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04