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   2014| January-March  | Volume 32 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 4, 2014

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal infections: A review with an Indian perspective
S Narava, G Rajaram, A Ramadevi, GV Prakash, S Mackenzie
January-March 2014, 32(1):6-12
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124286  PMID:24399380
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. Asymptomatic colonisation of the vagina and rectum with Group B streptococci is common in pregnancy. Maternal colonisation of GBS can vary depending on ethnicity and geographical distribution. Vertical transmission of this organism from mother to foetus may lead to neonatal GBS disease. Intra-partum use of antibiotics in these women has led to a decrease in the rate of early onset but not late onset GBS disease. Identification of women with GBS is the key factor in the prevention of perinatal GBS disease. There are different screening strategies available to identify women at risk of perinatal GBS disease. Clinicians continue to face the challenge of choosing between preventive strategies to reduce the impact of perinatal GBS disease. Controversy exists regarding the ideal preventive strategy. In India, the mortality and morbidity associated with the GBS disease remains largely a under-recognised problem. This comprehensive review summarises the salient features of GBS disease and discusses the epidemiology, risk factors, screening strategies, intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis with an Indian perspective and how it compares with the Western nations.
  8,574 737 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Isolation of Campylobacter from human stool samples
SM Salim, J Mandal, SC Parija
January-March 2014, 32(1):35-38
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124294  PMID:24399385
Context: Campylobacter is an undetected cause of diarrhoea especially under 5 years of age in most of the countries. Isolation of this organism is difficult, expensive and cumbersome. Aims: Our objective of this study was to isolate this pathogen from the stool specimens on routinely available blood containing laboratory media using the candle jar for creating the microaerophilic atmosphere in our setup. Settings and Designs: A descriptive study. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 stool samples were inoculated onto selective and non-selective media with and without filtration using a 0.45 μm membrane. The inoculated media were simultaneously incubated in microaerophilic conditions using the Anoxomat as well as in candle jars at temperatures 37°C and 42°C. The culture isolates were confirmed by standard phenotypic tests. A simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid of Campylobacter was performed on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the culture isolates as well as on the DNA extracted from the stool filtrates. Statistical Analysis: Data was expressed as a proportion. Results: Campylobacter could be isolated in 5 out of 50 stool samples using both the Anoxomat as well as the candle jar. Furthermore, we did not find any difference between the isolation using the selective and blood containing media as well as the different incubation temperatures. All the five were confirmed phenotypically and genotypically to be Campylobacter jejuni. The PCR results corroborated with that of the culture. Conclusions: Isolation by culture was as sensitive as that of the PCR.
  5,187 461 1
CASE REPORTS
Bilateral Tinea Nigra of palm: A rare case report from Eastern India
G Sarangi, D Dash, N Chayani, SK Patjoshi, S Jena
January-March 2014, 32(1):86-88
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124336  PMID:24399400
A 14 year old girl from a coastal district of Odisha presented with a six month history of asymptomatic brownish patches on the palm of the both hands. Epidermal scrape from these patches showed brown septate hyphae with occasional yeast like cells. Hortaea wernekii was isolated from the fungal culture. A diagnosis of Tinea nigra was made. The patches resolved completely after treatment with topical 1% clotrimazole cream.
  5,105 162 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Species distribution and drug susceptibility of candida in clinical isolates from a tertiary care centre at Indore
N Pahwa, R Kumar, S Nirkhiwale, A Bandi
January-March 2014, 32(1):44-48
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124300  PMID:24399387
Background: The incidence of fungal infections has increased significantly, contributing to morbidity and mortality. This is caused by an alarming increase in infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria leading to overuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, which lead to overgrowth of Candida, thus enhancing its opportunity to cause disease. Candida are major human fungal pathogens that cause both mucosal and deep tissue infections. Objective : The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of Candida species among clinical isolates and their sensitivity pattern for common antifungal drugs. Materials and Methods : Two hundred and thirty-seven different clinical isolates of Candida were collected from patients visiting to a tertiary care centre of Indore from 2010 to 2012. Identification of Candida species as well as antifungal sensitivity testing was performed with Vitek2 Compact (Biomerieux France) using vitek 2 cards for identification of yeast and yeast like organisms (ID-YST cards). Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed with Vitek2 "Fungal Susceptibility Card (AST YS01) kits respectively. Results : We found that the non-albicans Candida were more prevalent than Candida albicans in paediatric (<3 year) and older (>60 year) patients than other age group (4-18, 19-60 years) patients and also in intensive care unit (ICU) patients as compared to out patient department (OPD) patients. Resistance rates for amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 2.9%, 5.9%, 0.0%, 4.2% and 2.5%%, respectively. All the strains of C. krusei were found resistant to fluconazole with intermediate sensitivity to flucytosine. Conclusion: Species-level identification of Candida and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed to achieve better clinical results.
  4,231 752 2
Viral aetiology of acute lower respiratory tract illness in hospitalised paediatric patients of a tertiary hospital: One year prospective study
AK Singh, A Jain, B Jain, KP Singh, T Dangi, M Mohan, M Dwivedi, R Kumar, R A S Kushwaha, JV Singh, AC Mishra, MS Chhaddha
January-March 2014, 32(1):13-18
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124288  PMID:24399381
Context: Acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI), ranked as the second leading cause of death are the primary cause of hospitalisation in children. Viruses are the most important causative agents of ALRI. Aim: To study the viral aetiology of ALRI in children at a tertiary care hospital. Setting and Design: One year prospective observational study in a tertiary care hospital of King George's Medical University, Lucknow. Material and Methods: Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) was collected from children admitted with signs and symptoms of ALRI who were aged 0-14 years. Samples were transported to the laboratory at 4°C in viral transport media and processed for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A and B, influenza virus A and B, adenovirus (ADV), human Boca virus (HBoV), human metapneumo virus (hMPV) and parainfluenzavirus 1, 2, 3 and 4 using mono/multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). STATA was used for statistical analysis. Results: In one year, 188 NPAs were screened for respiratory viruses, of which 45.7% tested positive. RSV was most commonly detected with 21.3% positivity followed by measles virus (8.5%), influenza A virus (7.4%), ADV (5.3%), influenza B virus (1.6%), hMPV (1.1%) and HBoV (0.5%). Month wise maximum positivity was seen in December and January. Positivity rate of RSV was highest in children aged < 1 year, which decreased with increase in age, while positive rate of influenza virus increased with increasing age. Conclusion: The occurrence of viral predominance in ALRI is highlighted.
  4,015 552 -
GUEST EDITORIAL
Chennai Declaration: An initiative our country could be proud of!
A Ghafur
January-March 2014, 32(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124284  PMID:24399378
  3,506 584 1
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Prevalence of leptospirosis among dogs and rodents and their possible role in human leptospirosis from Mumbai, India
D Patil, R Dahake, S Roy, S Mukherjee, A Chowdhary, R Deshmukh
January-March 2014, 32(1):64-67
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124319  PMID:24399392
A total of 100 blood and 18 urine samples of rodents and suspected dogs were collected from Mumbai, India during 2006-2008. In order to determine the role of animals in transmission of the disease to humans, all the samples were screened retrospectively by real-time polymerase chain reaction for leptospiral DNA and antibodies were detected using microscopic agglutination test. Leptopsiral DNA was detected from two blood and five urine samples from rodents. Of a total of 71 rodent and dog samples investigated for anti-Leptospira antibodies, 14 (19.7%) were positive. Pyrogenes was the predominant serovar found in 100.0% (7/7) and 85.7% (6/7) from suspected canine cases and rodents, respectively; followed by Icterohemorrhagiae, which was found in one rodent sample 14.28% (1/7). The study proves that there is high prevalence of leptospirosis in rodents and dogs in this region, which proves possible role of these animals in transmission of leptospires to humans. Hence it is imperative to necessary control measures to prevent human leptospirosis.
  3,856 222 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Nasal carriage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among healthy population of Kashmir, India
BA Fomda, MA Thokar, A Khan, JA Bhat, D Zahoor, G Bashir, A Majid, P Ray
January-March 2014, 32(1):39-43
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124296  PMID:24399386
Background: Nasal colonisation with community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is being increasingly reported, especially in places where people are in close contact and where hygiene is compromised. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA) colonising anterior nares of healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Nasal swabs of healthy subjects were collected aseptically and cultured using standard microbiological protocols. Antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Methicillin resistance was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion method and confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and amplification of mecA gene by PCR. Strain typing of MRSA strains was done by PFGE. Results: Out of 820 samples, S.aureus was isolated from 229 (27.92%) subjects. Of the 229 isolates, 15 were methicillin resistant. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Nasal carriage of MRSA was found to be 1.83% among healthy population. The isolates were found to be polyclonal by PFGE analysis. Conclusion: High prevalence of MRSA is a cause of concern and strategies to interrupt transmission should be implemented.
  3,553 521 -
CASE REPORTS
Ocular thelaziasis in a 7-month-old infant
AK Handique, A Tamuli, AM Khan
January-March 2014, 32(1):84-86
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124333  PMID:24399399
Human thelaziasis is a zoonotic eye disease caused by a nematode parasite called Thelazia. In India, seven human cases of Thelazia have been reported earlier. This is the first case report of an infant infected with Thelazia. During the month of July, 2012, the infant was presented with an eye problem to the eye clinic from a village of Dibrugarh. Five worms (three female and two male) were recovered from the left eye of the infant. Thelazia infection is rare in infant, and report of this case is suggestive of prevalence of infection in the area and warrants further investigation.
  3,354 155 1
Fungemia due to Trichosporon mucoides in a diabetes mellitus patient: A rare case report
S Padhi, M Dash, S Pattanaik, S Sahu
January-March 2014, 32(1):72-74
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124324  PMID:24399394
Trichosporon species are widely distributed in nature and can occasionally belong to the human microbiota. For many years, Trichosporon beigelii, the only species of this genus, was found as the aetiological agent of superficial skin infection called white piedra. However, many cases of invasive trichosporonosis caused by different newly delineated species of Trichosporon have been published in increasing numbers in recent past years, especially in immunocompromised persons. We report a rare case of fungemia due to Trichosporon mucoides in a diabetes mellitus patient, which will add to the emerging list of trichosporonosis infections.
  3,288 209 1
EDITORIAL
Automated surveillance systems for health care associated infections: need of the hour
P Mathur
January-March 2014, 32(1):3-5
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124285  PMID:24399379
  2,896 473 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in typhoidal Salmonellae: A preliminary report from South India
VK Geetha, T Yugendran, R Srinivasan, BN Harish
January-March 2014, 32(1):31-34
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124292  PMID:24399384
Background: Fluoroquinolones are the drugs extensively employed for the treatment of Salmonella infections. Over the couple of decades that have elapsed since the introduction of fluoroquinolones, resistance to these agents by Enterobacteriaceae family members has become common and widespread. Although fluoroquinolone resistance is mediated by genomic DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) as well as plasmid DNA, the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) facilitates higher level resistance by interacting with genomic mechanism and is capable of horizontal spread. Materials and Methods: During a period of 1-year, 63 typhoidal Salmonellae were isolated from 14,050 blood cultures and one parietal wall abscess. 36 (56.25%) were Salmonella Typhi and 27 (42%) were Salmonella Paratyphi A. They were all screened for resistance by the disc diffusion method and their minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using agar dilution, broth dilution and E-strip method. Ciprofloxacin resistant isolates were screened for PMQR determinants by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: All the 63 isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid. Among the 36 S. Typhi isolates 20 were resistant to ciprofloxacin, of which 14 carried the plasmid gene qnrB and one carried the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene. qnrA and qnrS genes were not detected. Ciprofloxacin resistance was not seen in any of the S. Paratyphi A isolates. Conclusion: The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of typhoidal Salmonellae shows an increasing trend of PMQR. The allele B of qnr gene was found to be the predominant cause of PMQR in this study.
  3,003 322 1
A comparative study on microscopic agglutination test and counterimmunoelectrop- horesis for early detection of human leptospirosis
R Saravanan, P Saradhai, E Rani, V Rajasekar
January-March 2014, 32(1):26-30
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124291  PMID:24399383
Background and Objectives: Leptospirosis is a potentially fatal bacterial disease that mimics many diseases; therefore, laboratory confirmation is pivotal. Though microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is accepted as World Health Organisation (WHO) reference test, it has got many pitfalls such as being hazardous, tedious, cumbersome and expensive. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) is popularly used for diagnosing many infectious diseases but rarely for Leptospirosis. The aim of this study is to find suitability of CIE for the routine laboratory diagnostic purposes. Materials and Methods: Repeat sampling (paired sera) was possible from 401 subjects of which 181 were in-patients of Salem Government General and Private Hospitals and the remaining 220 MAT negative healthy College students gave their consent for the study. All the 802 sera samples were collected from January 2009 to November 2012 and subjected to the present study. After carrying out MAT and CIE on the suspected and control samples, a comparative evaluation was conducted. McNemars test method was used to find out the significant difference between the two tests in the early diagnosis. Result: The sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive value (PPV), Negative Predictive value (NPV) and Efficiency test for CIE were 96.80%, 89.28%, 95.23%, 92.59% and 94.47%, respectively. The corresponding values for MAT were 95.90%, 89.83%, 95.08%, 91.37% and 93.92%, respectively. There was no significant difference between MAT and CIE at 95% and 99% confidence intervals according to McNemars test. P value in the early stage of illness was greater for CIE than MAT when Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used as Gold Standard of diagnosis. Interpretation and conclusion: It was concluded that the CIE could be advantageous over MAT due to its safety, rapidity, simplicity, economic and easy for large number of samples. It can answer little earlier than MAT and found as reliable as that of MAT. Since both the tests had shown similar efficacies in the later stage of the illness, the importance could be given to CIE due to early diagnosis.
  2,888 339 -
Molecular characterisation of Giardia intestinalis assemblages from human isolates at a tertiary care centre of India
V Tak, BR Mirdha, P Yadav, P Vyas, GK Makharia, S Bhatnagar
January-March 2014, 32(1):19-25
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124290  PMID:24399382
Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the genetic heterogeneity of Giardia intestinalis isolates detected in stool samples of the study population using polymerase chain reaction assay and restriction fragment length polymorphism. We also tried to correlate the association/differences between the clinical symptomatology and infection by different assemblages (genotypes) of G. intestinalis. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2008 to June 2010. A total of 40 adults (n = 40) and 42 children (n = 42) below the age of 12 years with the clinical suspicion of giardiasis and with the onset of one or more of the following five symptoms, i.e., loose stool, nausea, weight loss, fatigue and foul smelling faeces and confirmed laboratory diagnosis of giardiasis at least once during the current episode of diarrhoea were included in this study. Results: Of the 82 patients (males 66) enrolled in the study, 70 (85%) presented with diarrhoea (56 males) and 12 (15%) without diarrhoea (10 males). Out of 70 diarrheic patients, 61 (87%) had chronic diarrhoea, 8 (11.5%) had acute diarrhoea and 1 (1.5%) had persistent diarrhoea. Of the total patients, 63 (77%) were clinically assessed and were apparently immunocompetent, whereas, 19 (23%) immunocompromised patients had different underlying conditions besides giardiasis. Genotyping identified all 82 (100%) isolates as assemblage B. Conclusion: We found that assemblage B of G. intestinalis presents with all kinds of clinical features ranging from asymptomatic carriage to acute, persistent or chronic diarrhoea.
  2,937 282 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Intravascular catheter related infections and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolated bacteria in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh
FJ Mansur, L Barai, MM Karim, JA Haq, K Fatema, MO Faruq
January-March 2014, 32(1):68-71
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124321  PMID:24399393
The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of bacterial colonisation and catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI) together with the antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a tertiary care hospital. CRBSI was detected with semi-quantitative and quantitative methods. The antimicrobial susceptible patterns of the isolated organisms were performed by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. The rate of catheter colonisation and CRBSI were 42.1% and 14% (16.1/1000 catheter days) respectively. The most common causative pathogens were Pseudomonas sp. (23.7%), Acinetobacter sp. (18.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%) and Enterobacteriaceae (10.5%). The rate of isolation of methicillin resistance S. aureus, imipenem resistant Pseudomonas sp. and extended spectrum β lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae were 60%, 44.0% and 100%. The result of this study would be useful for control and treatment of CRBSI.
  2,720 298 -
CORRESPONDENCES
Bacteraemia caused by Clostridium symbiosum: Case report and review of the literature
NU Toprak, ET Özcan, T Pekin, PF Yumuk, G Soyletir
January-March 2014, 32(1):92-94
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124343  PMID:24399403
  2,571 99 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance among community-associated staphylococcal isolates in central Serbia
AD Aleksandra, MS Misic, ZV Mira, NM Violeta, IT Dragana, BM Zoran, VS Dejan, SD Milanko, BD Dejan
January-March 2014, 32(1):49-52
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124304  PMID:24399388
The emergence of resistance to most antimicrobial agents in staphylococci indicates the need for new effective agents in the treatment of staphylococcal infections. Clindamycin is considered to be one safe, effective and less costly agent. We analysed 482 staphylococcal isolates. Detection of inducible clindamycin resistance was performed by the D-test, while the presence of methylases genes: erm (A), erm (B) and erm (C), as well as, macrolide efflux gene mef was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Inducible clindamycin resistance phenotype was significantly higher in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains then in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Among analysed S. aureus isolates, the predominance of the erm (C) gene, followed by the erm (A) gene were detected. These results indicate that the D-test should be routinely performed on each staphylococcal isolates.
  2,270 322 -
CORRESPONDENCES
Detection of Vancomycin resistant Enterococci with vanA genotype in clinical isolates from a tertiary care centre
E Padmasini, R Padmaraj, SS Ramesh
January-March 2014, 32(1):89-90
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124339  PMID:24399401
  1,977 333 -
COMMENTARY
Commentary : Slow or long-term non-progressor HIV patients: Indian scenario
S Singh
January-March 2014, 32(1):77-78
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124327  PMID:24399396
  2,106 130 1
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Antiviral efficacy of adefovir dipivoxil in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B subjects from Indian subcontinent
AM Ismail, J Ramachandran, R Kannangai, P Abraham
January-March 2014, 32(1):60-63
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124312  PMID:24399391
Adefovir is one of the therapeutic options for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. A total of 30 adefovir-experienced subjects with the median treatment duration of 12 (interquartile range (IQR) 6-18) months were studied. Virological response was measured by hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV DNA) levels. HBV reverse transcriptase (rt) domains were sequenced for the identification of resistance mutations. Among the 30 subjects, two (7%) showed virological response and 19 (63%) were non-responders. The virological response for the remaining nine (30%) subjects was not determined. On sequence analysis, two subjects were identified with rtI169L and rtA181V mutation after 9 months and 18 months of adefovir treatment, respectively. Though the frequencies of adefovir resistance mutations are low, a large majority of subjects showed non-response. Therefore, adefovir in the management of HBV should be used judiciously.
  2,063 124 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Distribution of Hepatitis C virus genotypes in city of Mashhad, North-east of Iran
M Rastin, M Mahmoudi, SA Rezaee, MA Assarehzadegan, N Tabasi, S Zamani, R Nosratabadi, D Haghmorad, A Sheikh, M Khazaee, HR Panah
January-March 2014, 32(1):53-56
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124306  PMID:24399389
Purpose: Six major hepatitis C virus genotypes have been characterised, which vary in their geographical distribution. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in an area is not constant, and depends on the changes in route of infection, which may change over time. In this study, the distribution of HCV genotypes in Mashhad, the capital of Razavi Khorasan province in north-east of Iran was investigated. Mashhad is a holy city of Shiate Moslems, which attracts more than 20 million tourists and pilgrims every year. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seventy-eight HCV infected subjects (227 males and 51 females) were included in this study. HCV genotypes were analysed by type specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Genotype 3a was detected in 49.6%, 1a in 36.3%, 1b in 12.6% and 2a in 0.4%. Two HCV genotypes were detected in 1.1% cases; 1a +3a in 1%, 3a + 1b in 0.4%. Genotypes 2b and 3b were not detected in any samples. Conclusion: We demonstrated that despite the previous reports on the frequency of HCV genotypes in Iran, 3a is the predominant genotype in Mashhad.
  1,948 144 1
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Group A rotavirus and bacterial agents associated with diarrhoea-induced hospitalisations in children below 5 years of age in Jammu
S Gazal, A Taku, MA Bhat, G Badroo
January-March 2014, 32(1):57-59
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124308  PMID:24399390
Out of 210 faecal samples collected from children below 5 years attending different hospitals in Jammu and exhibiting clinical signs of diarrhoea, 41.9% samples were found positive for group A rotavirus by RNA-PAGE. Escherichia coli isolated in the study belonged to nine serogroups, out of which O69 was most frequent, being present in 12.38% samples. E. coli serogroups well recognised as enteropathogens viz. O69, O20 and O153 were present in 27.6% samples. Other bacterial pathogens associated with diarrhoea were present in 8.09% samples, out of which Shigella spp. was found in 4.76% samples followed by Salmonella spp. (2.38%) and Pseudomonas spp. (0.95%).
  1,864 196 -
CORRESPONDENCES
In-vitro antibacterial activity of some essential oils against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii
Gopinath Prakasam, Manju Bhashini, Lakshmipriya , S Srivani Ramesh
January-March 2014, 32(1):90-91
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124341  PMID:24399402
  1,871 189 -
CASE REPORTS
Mixed pulmonary infection in an immunocompromised patient: A rare case report
S Qureshi, A Pandey, TR Sirohi, SR Verma, V Sardana, C Agrawal, AK Asthana, M Madan
January-March 2014, 32(1):79-81
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124330  PMID:24399397
Patients who are immunocompromised are predisposed to a variety of common and uncommon pulmonary infections. We report a case of mixed pulmonary infection by drug resistant tuberculosis with a nocardiosis in a 49-year-old man who was a known case of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, on prolonged corticosteroid use with diabetes mellitus. Chronic use of corticosteroids is a predisposing factor for opportunistic infections, such as nocardiosis or tuberculosis. Since such a mixed infection is rare, maybe a combined approach to therapy early in the course of disease would be effective in such cases.
  1,871 159 -
CORRESPONDENCES
Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli from neonatal septicaemia at a tertiary care centre in North India: A phenotypic and genotypic study
R Srivastava, J Agarwal, S Srivastava, M Kumar, M Singh
January-March 2014, 32(1):97-98
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124352  PMID:24399406
  1,698 288 -
Visceral leishmaniasis (kalazar) migrating West: A new autochthonous case from sub-Himalayas
KJ Bhat, KK Pandita, A Khajuria, SM Wani
January-March 2014, 32(1):94-95
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124344  PMID:24399404
  1,811 124 -
CASE REPORTS
Slow progressor of human immunodeficiency virus: 20 years follow-up of a case from North India
S Sehgal, RW Minz, B Saikia, N Pasricha
January-March 2014, 32(1):75-76
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124325  PMID:24399395
A case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection from North India is described with a 20-year follow-up. Patient first reported in 1993 when he was detected HIV positive, remained healthy without treatment, married in 1999 and did not transmit the disease to his children or his wife and was lost to follow-up. He was thought to be an elite controller. After 15 years of the initial visit, his CD4 cells, however, were found to be low, with a viral load of 10,000/copies/ml. He was negative for human leukocyte antigen B57 and B27 alleles with a normal expression of CCR5 and CXCR4 on CD4 cells. Lymphocytes showed a significant production of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon γ, but not of interleukin (IL)-2, IL4 or IL10. It is possible that gut infection, common in India, could have triggered T cell activation in the ensuing years, resulting in activation of HIV. The case illustrates the significance of long-term follow-up of these patients for timely institution of anti-retroviral therapy.
  1,736 104 -
CORRESPONDENCES
Prevalence of Salmonella in pigs and broilers in the Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India
T Kumar, VR Rajora, N Arora
January-March 2014, 32(1):99-101
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124356  PMID:24399408
  1,632 120 -
CASE REPORTS
Scrofulous swelling of the bosom masquerading as cancer
VR Challa, A Srivastava, A Dhar
January-March 2014, 32(1):82-84
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124331  PMID:24399398
Tuberculosis of breast is very rare with an incidence of 0.1-0.5%. It can be primary or secondary. Except in patients presenting with sinuses, it is a challenge to diagnose it. A 40 year old premenopausal lady presented with breast lump increasing in size for 3 months. Mammogram showed a lesion suspicious of malignancy and trucut biopsy showed necrotic material only. Intraoperatively there was caseous necrosis and the tract from breast was extending to rib. It is a rare case with few case reports been reported where a rib tuberculosis presents as a breast lump rather than retromammary abscess.
  1,665 86 -
CORRESPONDENCES
Prevalence and characterisation of extended spectrum β-lactamases genes in Shigella isolates, in Wenzhou, Southern China
J Cao, X Zhang, T Zhou, Y Lu, J Hou, M Guo, Q Wu
January-March 2014, 32(1):95-96
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124348  PMID:24399405
  1,584 109 -
Anti-microbial susceptibility: Interpretation necessary with reference to a standard guideline
D Das, AD Roy
January-March 2014, 32(1):99-99
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124353  PMID:24399407
  1,265 269 -
RESEARCH SNIPPET
Snippets
Prabha Desikan
January-March 2014, 32(1):102-104
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.124362  
  1,228 124 -
ERRATUM
Erratum

January-March 2014, 32(1):101-101
PMID:24399409
  686 65 -

© 2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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