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   2013| April-June  | Volume 31 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 19, 2013

 
 
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BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Anaerobic culture on growth efficient bi-layered culture plate in a modified candle jar using a rapid and slow combustion system
PK Maiti, J Haldar, P Mukherjee, R Dey
April-June 2013, 31(2):173-176
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115218  
Success for maximum isolation of anaerobes depends on maintaining critically low oxygen levels throughout and growth in a reduced medium with exclusion of inhibitory substances. Hence a dual system was used equipped with candle combustion for instant exhaustion of major part of oxygen from a sealed jar, along with acidified steel wool for residual oxygen purging. For inhibitory substances removal, test anaerobes were grown on anaerobic medium layered on buffer charcoal agar bed. After 48 hours incubation average colony sizes were compared with that of growths in conventional Gas-Pak system. Better growths were noted in the innovative system.
  7,285 279 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of Different Methods of Detection of Enteric Pathogenic Protozoa
NH Ahmed, A Chowdhary
April-June 2013, 31(2):154-160
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115242  
Purpose: The study was conducted to compare different methods of detection of pathogenic protozoan parasites in stool specimens of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Materials and Methods: Stool specimens of 242 HIV sero-positive patients were examined using the wet mount technique, modified Ziehl-Neelsen's (ZN) staining, auto-fluorescence and auramine fluorescence staining. Patient specimens, 94 and 40 out of 242, were also subjected to Giardia antigen detection using an enzyme immunoassay and Cryptosporidium antigen detection by immuno-chromatography, respectively. For calculation of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, light microscopy of wet mounts and modified ZN stained smears for Giardia and Coccidia, respectively, were considered as gold standards. Results: Sensitivity of auto-fluorescence, auramine-O staining and antigen detection techniques was found to be 100% as compared to the routine standards. The specificity of auto-fluorescence was 90.6% and 100% for Cyclospora and Isospora, respectively; that of auramine-O staining was 98.9% for Cryptosporidium, 99.30% for Cyclospora and 100% for Isospora; and that of antigen detection was 90.6% and 97.7% for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. Conclusion: In laboratories requiring screening of large number of stool specimens for detection of protozoan parasites, fluorescence microscopy and antigen detection can be useful techniques. Confirmation of positive results, however, needs to be done with the standard techniques.
  4,051 548 -
Rapid identification of clinical mycobacterial isolates by protein profiling using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry
A Panda, S Kurapati, JC Samantaray, VP Myneedu, A Verma, A Srinivasan, H Ahmad, D Behera, UB Singh
April-June 2013, 31(2):117-122
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115217  
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is often plagued with ambiguity. It is a time consuming process requiring 4-8 weeks after culture positivity, thereby delaying therapeutic intervention. For a successful treatment and disease management, timely diagnosis is imperative. We evaluated a rapid, proteomic based technique for identification of clinical mycobacterial isolates by protein profiling using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Materials and Methods: Freshly grown mycobacterial isolates were used. Acetonitrile/trifluoroacetic acid extraction procedure was carried out, following which cinnamic acid charged plates were subjected to identification by MALDI-TOF MS. Results: A comparative analysis of 42 clinical mycobacterial isolates using the MALDI-TOF MS and conventional techniques was carried out. Among these, 97.61% were found to corroborate with the standard methods at genus level and 85.36% were accurate till the species level. One out of 42 was not in accord with the conventional assays because MALDI-TOF MS established it as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (log (score) >2.0) and conventional methods established it to be non-tuberculous Mycobacterium. Conclusions: MALDI-TOF MS was found to be an accurate, rapid, cost effective and robust system for identification of mycobacterial species. This innovative approach holds promise for early therapeutic intervention leading to better patient care.
  3,889 323 -
Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals and their relationship with immune status
K Gupta, M Bala, M Deb, S Muralidhar, DK Sharma
April-June 2013, 31(2):161-165
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115247  
Background and Objectives: Intestinal parasitic infection is a common entity in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These infections may lead to fatal complications in the immuno suppressed individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in HIV sero-positive patients and their relationship with the immune status of individuals. Materials and Method s: Fecal samples from 100 HIV sero-positive and an equal number of HIV sero-negative individuals were collected and examined for enteric parasites by direct microscopy. CD4 counts were carried out in only HIV sero-positive patients. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients with CD4 count <200 cells/μl, 200-499 cells/μl, and ≥500 cells/μl in HIV-infected patients were compared. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 59.3% HIV-infected patients with CD4 count <200 cells/μl as compared with 23.5% in patients with CD4 count >200 cells/μl (P < 0.01). Prevalence of coccidian parasites was significantly (P < 0.01) higher (14%) in HIV sero-positive subjects compared with HIV sero-negative subjects (2%). Isospora belli (25%) was the most common parasite with CD4 count <200 cells/μl, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (12.5%). Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was significantly higher in patients with diarrhea, 73.6% than without diarrhea, 25.9%, (P < 0.05). The mean CD4 count of HIV sero-positive patients presenting with diarrhea was significantly (P < 0.01) lower (181.26 ± 135.14) than without diarrhea (352.02 ± 204.03). Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for routine screening of parasites especially in patients with lower CD4 count so as to decrease the morbidity by ensuring the early treatment of the cases.
  3,165 453 -
A rapid and low-cost microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay for detecting TB and MDR-TB among individuals infected by HIV in South India
S Solomon, P Balakrishnan, R Vignesh, G Waldrop, SS Solomon, KG Murugavel, N Kumarasamy, T Yepthomi, S Poongulali, CR Swathirajan, V Sreenivasan, C Chandrasekar, J Suriakumar, A Mahilmaran, G Manoharan, DAJ Moore
April-June 2013, 31(2):130-137
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115225  
Background: The converging epidemics of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) pose one of the greatest public health challenges of our time. Rapid diagnosis of TB is essential in view of its infectious nature, high burden of cases, and emergence of drug resistance. Objective: The purpose of this present study was to evaluate the feasibility of implementing the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay, a novel assay for the diagnosis of TB and multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) directly from sputum specimens, in the Indian setting. Materials and Methods: This study involved a cross-sectional, blinded assessment of the MODS assay on 1036 suspected cases of pulmonary TB in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients against the radiometric method, BD-BACTEC TB 460 system. Results: Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the MODS assay in detecting MTB among TB suspected patients were 89.1%, 99.1%, 94.2%, 95.8%, respectively. In addition, in the diagnosis of drug-resistant TB, the MODS assay was 84.2% sensitive for those specimens reporting MDR, 87% sensitivity for those specimens reporting INH mono-resistance, and 100% sensitive for specimens reporting RIF mono-resistance. The median time to detection of TB in the MODS assay versus BACTEC was 9 versus 21 days (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Costing 5 to 10 times lesser than the automated culture methods, the MODS assay has the potential clinical utility as a simple and rapid method. It could be effectively used as an alternative method for diagnosing TB and detection of MDR-TB in a timely and affordable way in resource-limited settings.
  2,964 352 -
Detection of the common resistance genes in Gram-negative bacteria using gene chip technology
C Ting, A Jun, Z Shun
April-June 2013, 31(2):142-147
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115230  
Objective: To design a resistance gene detection chip that could, in parallel, detect common clinical drug resistance genes of Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and Methods: Seventy clinically significant Gram-negative bacilli (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii) were collected. According to the known resistance gene sequences, we designed and synthesized primers and probes, which were used to prepare resistance gene detection chips, and finally we hybridized and scanned the gene detection chips. Results: The results between the gene chip and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were compared. The rate was consistently 100% in the eight kinds of resistance genes tested (TEM, SHV, CTX-M, DHA, CIT, VIM, KPC, OXA-23). One strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa had the IMP, but it was not found by gene chip. Conclusion: The design of Gram-negative bacteria-resistant gene detection chip had better application value.
  3,048 247 -
CASE REPORTS
Co-infections with Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis in a human immunodeficiency virus positive woman with vaginal discharge
Arnab Ghosh, Jyoti Rawre, Neena Khanna, Benu Dhawan
April-June 2013, 31(2):190-192
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115231  
A 30-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected woman presented with vaginal discharge and associated vulval irritation. The vaginal swabs tested positive for Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma hominis by both culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The specimen also tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by cryptic plasmid and omp1 gene PCR assays. The patient was successfully treated with azithromycin based on the antibiotic susceptibility testing results of U. parvum and M. hominis by microbroth dilution. Since sexually transmitted infections enhance the transmission of HIV, HIV-positive patients should be screened routinely for these pathogens.
  3,150 112 -
A case of dual infection in a paediatric trauma victim of primary cutaneous aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus
V Tak, P Mathur, I Xess, P Kale, S Sagar, MC Misra
April-June 2013, 31(2):193-196
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115232  
Aspergillus spp. are widely distributed throughout the environment. They are opportunistic pathogens causing infection at various sites in the body such as lungs, sinuses, eyes, skin, central nervous system etc., Primary cutaneous aspergillosis is an uncommon disease entity. Primary infections usually occur at sites having disruption of the skin and usually occur in burn patients, trauma and surgical patients. A 4-year-old girl who was run over by a truck and suffered extensive de-gloving injury to bilateral lower limbs developed greenish discharge and scaly lesions around the wound margins after 50 days of hospital stay. The skin biopsy demonstrated the presence of thin septate hyphae branching at acute angles and culture demonstrated growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus. The child was started on voriconazole therapy for 3 weeks and the lesion healed satisfactorily. Subsequent skin biopsy culture was negative for fungi. Prompt diagnosis and management of such cases can salvage the limbs in severe trauma cases.
  2,937 98 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Over-expression of gene encoding heat shock protein 70 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its evaluation as vaccine adjuvant
J Dhakal, GS Brah, RK Agrawal, HN Pawar, D Kaur, R Verma
April-June 2013, 31(2):123-129
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115222  
Background: Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are evolutionary ancient and highly conserved molecular chaperons found in prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes. Hsp70 is a predominant member of Hsp family. Microbial Hsp70s (mHsp70s) have acquired special significance in immunity since they have been shown to be potent activators of the innate immune system and generate specific immune responses against tumours and infectious agents. Objectives: The present study was aimed to clone express and purify recombinant Hsp70 from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis and characterise it immunologically. The study also aimed at determining the potential of recombinant M. tuberculosis heat shock protein (rMTB-Hsp70) as adjuvant or antigen carrier. Materials and Methods: Cloning of M. tuberculosis heat shock protein (MTB-Hsp70) amplicon was carried out using the pGEMT-Easy vector although for expression, pProExHTb prokaryotic expression vector was used. Purification of recombinant Hsp70 was carried out by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) affinity chromatography. For immunological characterization and determining the adjuvant effect of MTB-Hsp70, BALB/c mice were used. The data obtained was statistically analysed. Results: Hsp70 gene was cloned, sequenced and the sequence data were submitted to National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Recombinant MTB-Hsp70 was successfully over-expressed using the prokaryotic expression system and purified to homogeneity. The protein was found to be immunodominant. Significant adjuvant effect was produced by the rMTB-Hsp70 when inoculated with recombinant outer membrane protein 31; however, effect was less than the conventionally used the Freund's adjuvant. Conclusion: Protocol standardised can be followed for bulk production of rHsp70 in a cost-effective manner. Significant adjuvant effect was produced by rMTB-Hsp70; however, the effect was than Freund's adjuvant. Further, studies need to be carried out to explore its applicability as carrier of antigen.
  2,557 103 -
EDITORIAL
India needs an implementable antibiotic policy
A Kapil
April-June 2013, 31(2):111-113
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115212  
  2,208 358 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Anti-ganglioside antibodies in patients with Guillain Barré syndrome and other neurological disorders
C Vaishnavi, C Behura, S Prabhakar, A Sharma, P Kharbanda
April-June 2013, 31(2):177-179
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115223  
A study was performed on 59 Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) cases, 58 neurological controls (NC) and 60 non-neurological controls (NNC) to investigate the association of anti-ganglioside antibodies in GBS and other neurological disorders. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 5.7% of GBS patients. Anti-ganglioside immunoglobulin G was present in 82% and immunoglobulin M in 46% in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy patients, 70% and 44% respectively in acute motor axonal neuropathy subgroup and 38% each in acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy subgroup. Though high intensity of anti-gangliosides was present in the GBS patients, the NC patients also had adequate anti-gangliosides compared with the NNC group.
  2,358 94 -
CASE REPORTS
A case report of an uncommon phaeoid fungal infection in nasal polyposis and review of literature
SA Ganju, S Bhagra, AK Kanga, DV Singh, RC Guleria
April-June 2013, 31(2):196-198
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115233  
Nasal polyposis is an inflammatory condition of mucous membrane of the nose and paranasal sinuses with unknown aetiology. Massive nasal polyps can obstruct the nasal cavity causing discomfort and lowered quality of life. Thus, aetiological diagnosis is important for treatment, especially in recurrent nasal polyposis. We present a rare case of pansinusitis with bilateral ethmoidal polyps caused by an unusual phaeoid fungus Fonsecaea pedrosoi in a 65-year-old immunocompetent male from a rural background. The diagnosis was made by endoscopic nasal examination; high resolution computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses, detection of fungal hyphae in 10% potassium hydroxide wet mount and culture.
  2,215 136 -
Plasmodium vivax induced myocarditis: A rare case report
N Gupta, SK Sahoo
April-June 2013, 31(2):180-181
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115224  
Malaria is one of the commonest parasitic disease in the tropics since ages. However the plasmodium still continues to give surprises to all of us. In the similar context we report a case of Plasmodium vivax induced myocarditis in a 20 year old male and review the literature related to this rare entitiy.
  1,978 120 -
Severe diarrhoea due to Cystoisospora belli in renal transplant patient on Immunosuppressive drugs
A Marathe, K Parikh
April-June 2013, 31(2):185-187
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115227  
Cystoisospora belli , formerly known as Isospora belli, protozoal parasite endemic to many regions of the world including the Caribbean, Central and South America, Africa, and South-East Asia. It is frequently encountered in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and is considered to be an AIDS-defining illness. Chronic severe watery diarrhoea due to C. belli has also been reported in other immunodeficiency states. C. belli infection in immunosuppressed patients has rarely been described. We describe severe diarrhoea due to C. belli in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative renal transplant recipient on immunosuppressive drugs. Oocysts of C. belli were detected in direct smear preparation of the diarrheic stool sample of the patient. The patient responded to combination treatment with Bactrim-double-strength (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) and Nitazoxanide.
  1,979 110 -
Neonatal listeriosis followed by nosocomial infection
M Dinic, S Stankovic
April-June 2013, 31(2):187-189
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115229  
Neonatal listeriosis is widely reported, but this is the first case reported in Serbia. A newborn developed respiratory distress syndrome 2 hours after delivery and was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Initial empirical therapy was inappropriate. Consequently, on the second day, the patient developed meningitis. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from the tracheal aspirate, blood, periumbilical swab, and cerebrospinal fluid. After bacteriology results, the therapy was changed to ampicillin and meropenem. On day 11 of hospitalization, the patient developed nosocomial infection due to multidrug-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Since therapeutic options were limited, the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin. After 26 days of hospitalization the patient showed complete recovery and was discharged with no apparent sequelae. This case showed the importance of bacteriological examination in cases of infections caused by uncommon organisms. Pediatricians should be aware of the neonatal infection caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
  1,894 96 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Distribution of human papillomavirus genotypes in women with cervical alterations from north Argentina
GD Deluca, HM Marín, NS Blanco, JA Basiletti, JV González, AL Merino, MA Picconi
April-June 2013, 31(2):138-141
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115228  
Background: Cervical cancer remains a major public health problem in northern Argentina, showing the highest mortality rate in the country (approximately 22 cases/100000 women). Objective: The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological data on the prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women with pre-neoplastic lesions before the massive introduction of HPV vaccination in the country. Materials and Methods: Exfoliated cervical cells were collected to screen for HPV using the widely known MY09/11 PCR, followed by the restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) technique from a total of 714 women with previously diagnosed atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LG-SIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HG-SIL). Results: Overall HPV prevalence was 48.2% in ASCUS (24 different HPV types detected), 66.5% in LG-SIL (37 HPV types detected) and 82.6% in HG-SIL (16 HPV types detected). HPV-16 was the most prevalent type among all cases. With respect to multiple HPV infections, 9.6% were observed in ASCUS, 14.3% in LG-SIL and 11.4% in HG-SIL. Conclusion: The major strength of our study is the assessment of a large series of women with cytological alterations in this region. The information attained will be useful as a regional baseline for future epidemiological vigilance, in the context of the national HPV vaccination program.
  1,827 121 -
SPECIAL ARTICLE
Rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases: The role of giant African pouched rats, dogs and honeybees
P Desikan
April-June 2013, 31(2):114-116
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115214  
Early detection of infection in an individual is an important strategy to prevent transmission and spread of the infection - in the community or among patients admitted in a health care facility. Over the past decade, there have been rapid advances in technology in an attempt to provide rapid, accurate tests for diagnosis of infectious diseases. With this in perspective, the use of animals' superior olfactory sensitivity to sniff out infectious diseases holds promise.
  1,698 137 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Polymorphisms in major cytokine genes: A study among human immunodeficiency Virus-1 serodiscordant couples in Mumbai, India
DV Chaudhari, VR Chavan, SC Kerkar, PR Mehta, J Mania-Pramanik
April-June 2013, 31(2):166-172
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115250  
Purpose: Polymorphism in cytokine genes may affect its production, which play an important role in modulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Evaluation of these polymorphisms might help to understand why some individuals remain uninfected in spite of several exposures to HIV infection, such as the negative spouses of discordant couples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13 cytokine genes and their receptors with HIV infection in serodiscordant couples, attending the Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre of a Municipality Hospital. Materials and Methods: At the end of at least 2 years of follow up, 42 couples were confirmed as being serodiscordant. Genotyping was carried out in blood samples of these couples using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific amplification method. Results: Significantly high frequency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist IL-1RA mspa 11100 CC ( P = 0.04), tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-α −238 AG ( P = 0.01) and IL-4 −33 TT ( P = 0.01) was observed in HIV seropositives (HSP) while frequency of TNF-α −238 GG ( P = 0.02) was significantly high among the exposed uninfected (EU). However, application of Bonferroni correction identified only two SNPs i.e., TNF-α −238 AG and IL-4 −33 TT to be significantly associated with the acquisition of HIV. In remaining cytokine genes, no significant association was observed. Conclusion: Our study highlighted possible association of certain specific polymorphisms with HIV transmission, whereas presence or absence of certain other polymorphism in EU individuals might be offering protection from HIV infection. These variations at the genetic level might help to explore new insights into treatment and HIV prevention strategies.
  1,626 102 -
CORRESPONDENCES
First report of the emergence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 producing Acinetobacter junii in Nanjing, China
WQ Zhou, ZF Zhang, H Shen, MZ Ning, XJ Xu, XL Cao, K Zhang
April-June 2013, 31(2):206-207
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115243  
  1,555 103 -
CASE REPORTS
Subcutaneous mucor zygomycosis with potential life-threatening visceral complication
Angeline , M Hanifah, G Balachandran, NG Rajesh
April-June 2013, 31(2):182-184
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115226  
A mass in right supraclavicular fossa in a diabetic patient mimicking tuberculosis (TB) adenitis that ultimately proved to be subcutaneous zygomycosis. A high degree of clinical suspicion is needed for diagnosis especially when these lesions occur at typical sites for the more common indolent infections like TB. This case is being presented not only because of its rarity, but to emphasize the role of early diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent serious complications due to proximity to major structures. Fluconazole was used despite not being the ideal drug, solely due to cost constraints. Our patient responded well. However, we do emphasize that response to fluconazole is the exception rather than the rule.
  1,570 87 1
CORRESPONDENCES
Carbapenemase producing Proteus: Any therapeutic suggestions?
Sumit Rai, Devendra Kumar Niranjan, Narendra Pal Singh, Iqbal Rajinder Kaur
April-June 2013, 31(2):200-201
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115235  
  1,383 154 -
How to liven-up an overhead projector presentation!
R Praveena
April-June 2013, 31(2):201-203
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115239  
  1,429 106 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Intraperitoneal inoculation of Haemophilus influenzae local isolates in BALB/c mice model in the presence and absence of virulence enhancement agents
N Mojgani, V Maldjae, M Rahbar, SM Mirafzali, S Khoshnood, A Hatami
April-June 2013, 31(2):148-153
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115236  
Purpose:Haemophilus influenzae (Hi), predominantly type b accounts for approximately 4% of cases of community-acquired and nosocomial meningitis, in adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of local Hi isolates (type b, f and non-typable) in BALB/c mice in the presence of virulence enhancement agents. Materials and Methods: Three different concentrations of the Hi isolates were inoculated intraperitoneally in BALB/c mice in the presence of 2% hemoglobin and 4% mucin as virulence enhancing agents (VEA). The ability of the isolates to produce bacteremia, the percent survival and lethal dose (LD 50 ) were recorded in different challenge groups. Results: The 3 Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) isolates used in study were able to show virulence in BALB/c mice model only in the presence of VEA and their LD 50 decreased significantly when 2% hemoglobin and 4% mucin were used. All survived animals showed bacteremia within 4 h of inoculation which was cleared within 18 h. Significant differences ( P < 0.01) in the virulence and survival percentage of Hib challenge groups were observed based on their dose of inoculation and VEA. None of the isolates were able to induce infection in the absence of VEA. Non-type b isolates failed to produce disease in the mice models even at the highest inoculated dose (10 8 cfu) and in the presence of VEA. Conclusions: BALB/c mice appeared suitable for evaluating the virulence of Hib strains, and 2% hemoglobin with 4% mucin an appropriate concentration for inducing infection in this animal model.
  1,311 63 -
CORRESPONDENCES
Efficacy of disinfectants on clinical isolates of Acinetobacter species
G Prakasam, L Priya, SS Ramesh
April-June 2013, 31(2):209-210
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115245  
  1,204 169 -
Importance of performing routine quality control testing of antimicrobial discs
S Arora, V Gautam, P Ray
April-June 2013, 31(2):207-208
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115244  
  1,029 183 -
Siderophore production among clinical and healthy skin isolates of Acinetobacter species
G Prakasam, A Rohit, S Kumar, SS Ramesh
April-June 2013, 31(2):208-209
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115248  
  1,087 110 -
A novel pathogen for gastroenteritis: Laribacter hongkongensis
MK Raja, SS Lulu, AR Ghosh
April-June 2013, 31(2):204-204
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115240  
  1,064 86 -
Polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis: Need of the hour
P Sharma, P Gill, A Aggarwal
April-June 2013, 31(2):199-200
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115234  
  1,004 143 -
Cystisospora belli infection in a non-human immunodeficiency virus immunosuppressed patient
S Chopra, S Mohanty, M Deb
April-June 2013, 31(2):204-205
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.115241  
  980 84 -
RESEARCH SNIPPETS
Resaerch snippets
P Desikan
April-June 2013, 31(2):211-213
  990 57 -

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