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   2010| April-June  | Volume 28 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 16, 2010

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Dengue NS1 antigen detection: A useful tool in early diagnosis of dengue virus infection
S Datta, C Wattal
April-June 2010, 28(2):107-110
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62484  PMID:20404453
Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of NS1 antigen (Ag) assay as an early marker for dengue virus (DV) infection. Materials and Methods: Group I evaluated the performance of NS1 antigen (Ag) assay in comparison to MAC-ELISA and their detection rate when performed together in a single sample. Six hundred acute/early convalescent sera were screened by both the assays. Group II evaluated the efficacy of a single assay in 30 acute phase sera of paediatric OPD patients screened only by NS1 Ag assay. Group III evaluated the specificity of NS1 assay in comparison to MAC-ELISA on 40 samples included as controls. Results: In Group I, 140 (23.3%) and 235 (39.1%) samples were positive by NS1 assay and MAC-ELISA respectively. The detection rate increased to 320 (53.3%) when both the assays were used together on a single sample. NS1 Ag positivity varied from 71.42% to 28.4% in acute and early convalescent sera, conversely IgM detection rate was 93.61% and 6.38% in early convalescent and acute phase sera respectively (P < 0.0001). In Group II, 66.66% (20) samples were positive by NS1 assay. All the samples in Group III were negative showing 100% specificity of both the assays. Conclusion: NS1 Ag assay holds promise in early diagnosis of dengue infection. When used in combination with MAC-ELISA on a single sample it significantly improves the diagnostic algorithm without the requirement of paired sera.
  164,701 2,080 19
REVIEW ARTICLES
Prevention and control of health care-associated infections through improved hand hygiene
E Mathai, B Allegranzi, C Kilpatrick, D Pittet
April-June 2010, 28(2):100-106
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62483  PMID:20404452
Determined actions are required to address the burden due to health care-associated infections worldwide and improve patient safety. Improving hand hygiene among health care workers is an essential intervention to achieve these goals. The World Health Organization (WHO) First Global Patient Safety Challenge, Clean Care is Safer Care, pledged to tackle the problem of health care-associated infection at its launch in 2005 and has elaborated a comprehensive set of guidelines for use in both developed and developing countries worldwide. The final version of the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care was issued in March 2009 and includes recommendations on indications, techniques, and products for hand hygiene. In this review, we discuss the role of hands in the transmission of health care-associated infection, the benefits of improved compliance with hand hygiene, and the recommendations, implementation strategies and tools recommended by WHO. We also stress the need for action to increase the pace with which these recommendations are implemented in facilities across India.
  28,130 1,141 9
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples
V Deotale, DK Mendiratta, U Raut, P Narang
April-June 2010, 28(2):124-126
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62488  PMID:20404457
Purpose: Clindamycin is commonly used in the treatment of erythromycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing skin and soft tissue infections. In vitro routine tests for clindamycin susceptibility may fail to detect inducible clindamycin resistance due to erm genes resulting in treatment failure, thus necessitating the need to detect such resistance by a simple D test on routine basis. Materials and Method: 247 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were subjected to routine antibiotic susceptibility testing including oxacillin (1ìg) by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Inducible clindamycin resistance was detected by D test, as per CLSI guidelines on erythromycin resistant isolates. Results: 36 (14.5%) isolates showed inducible clindamycin resistance, nine (3.6%) showed constitutive resistance while remaining 35 (14.1%) showed MS phenotype. Inducible resistance and MS phenotype were found to be higher in MRSA as compared to MSSA (27.6%, 24.3% and 1.6%, 4% respectively). Conclusion: Study showed that D test should be used as a mandatory method in routine disc diffusion testing to detect inducible clindamycin resistance.
  14,955 1,113 22
Identification of Candida species using PCR-RFLP in cancer patients in Iran
T Shokohi, MB Hashemi Soteh, Z Saltanat Pouri, MT Hedayati, S Mayahi
April-June 2010, 28(2):147-151
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62493  PMID:20404462
Opportunistic infections caused by Non-Candida albicans. have been increasing. Traditional methods that are used to identify clinical isolates of Candida species are time-consuming and not appropriate for rapid, accurate and reliable identification. Purpose: To identify Candida spp isolated from cancer patients using PCR-restriction enzyme. Materials and ethods: Using universal primers, ITS1 and ITS4, in this study, we could amplify ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA regions at both 80 clinical isolates and 3 standard strains. The PCR products were digested with two restriction enzymes MspI and BlnI separately. Result: We successfully identified all isolated species using two restriction enzymes (MspI, BlnI). Candida albicans was the most common species (77.5%), followed by C. glabrata (15%), C. tropicalis (5%), C. krusei (2.5%). Although the primers and enzyme had the ability to identify C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. dubliniensis, present isolates did not include these among identified ones. Conclusion: RFLP-PCR using ITSI and ITS4 primers and restriction enzyme is a rapid, easy, reliable and also applicable method in clinical laboratory for identification of medically important Candida spp.
  10,501 511 11
CORRESPONDENCE
Normal CD4 and CD3 lymphocyte counts in healthy south Indian adults
S Srirangaraj, D Venkatesha
April-June 2010, 28(2):183-184
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62506  PMID:20404475
  9,112 186 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Nanotechnology tools for single-virus particle detection
R Kannangai, AM Abraham, S Sankar, G Sridharan
April-June 2010, 28(2):95-99
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62482  PMID:20404451
The development and potential application of nanotechnology tools for single-virus particle detection by emergent nanotechnology is likely to revolutionise diagnosis and determining treatment endpoints for life threatening virus infections. Direct detection of biological macromolecules using semiconducting nanowires or carbon nanotubes for electrical field change measurements is a milestone application in this field. The promise of selective detection at a single particle level (stochastic sensing) with nanowire or nanotube field-effect transistor-based devices is a major breakthrough for outbreak situations, where a rapid and specific detection of the viral agent allows intervention at public health level. The same technology would be eminently suitable for bedside diagnosis and therapeutic intervention.
  7,997 979 1
EDITORIAL
Ocular infections: Research in India
S Sharma
April-June 2010, 28(2):91-94
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62481  PMID:20404450
  7,893 856 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Blood culture gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity-based antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infection in patients with trauma
B Behera, P Mathur, B Gupta
April-June 2010, 28(2):138-142
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62491  PMID:20404460
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the simple practice of Gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity determination of positive blood culture bottles could be used to guide early and appropriate treatment in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. The study also aimed to evaluate the error in interpreting antimicrobial sensitivity by direct method when compared to standard method and find out if specific antibiotic-organism combination had more discrepancies. Findings from consecutive episodes of blood stream infection at an Apex Trauma centre over a 12-month period are summarized. Materials and Methods: A total of 509 consecutive positive blood cultures were subjected to Gram staining. AO staining was done in BacT/ALERT-positive Gram-stain negative blood cultures. Direct sensitivity was performed from 369 blood culture broths, showing single type of growth in Gram and acridine orange staining. Results of direct sensitivity were compared to conventional sensitivity for errors. Results: No 'very major' discrepancy was found in this study. About 5.2 and 1.8% minor error rates were noted in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively, while comparing the two methods. Most of the discrepancies in gram-negative bacteria were noted in β lactam - β lactamase inhibitor combinations. Direct sensitivity testing was not reliable for reporting of methicillin and vancomycin resistance in Staphylococci. Conclusions: Gram stain result together with direct sensitivity testing is required for optimizing initial antimicrobial therapy in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. Gram staining and AO staining proved particularly helpful in the early detection of candidaemia.
  7,604 565 1
CASE REPORTS
Mycobacterium arupense pulmonary infection: Antibiotic resistance and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis
IK Neonakis, Z Gitti, F Kontos, S Baritaki, E Petinaki, M Baritaki, V Liakou, L Zerva, DA Spandidos
April-June 2010, 28(2):173-176
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62502  PMID:20404471
Mycobacterium arupense is a novel mycobacterium species. It was first identified from clinical specimens in 2006 and since then there have been only two reports of its recovery from clinical samples. In the present case M. arupense was isolated from the sputum of a 62-year-old man with a malignant mass in his left kidney, who presented with a one-month history of recurrent fever, dyspnea and haemoptysis. M. arupense was identified with sequencing of hsp65 and 16S rRNA genes. In the present study, its biochemical profile along with its resistance status and hsp65 RFLP analysis is presented.
  7,961 174 12
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Significance of MRSA strains in community associated skin and soft tissue infections
MS Shenoy, GK Bhat, A Kishore, MK Hassan
April-June 2010, 28(2):152-154
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62494  PMID:20404463
The study was conducted to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CAMRSA) strains isolated from infections. S. aureus strains were isolated from clinical specimens using the standard procedures. CDC definition was used to classify CAMRSA. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Double disk diffusion method (D-test) was used to detect inducible macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B resistance (inducible MLS B resistance ) . A total of 83 CAMRSA were isolated from abscesses and other skin infections in persons without known risk factors for MRSA infection. All CAMRSA were susceptible to vancomycin. Out of 83 CAMRSA, 13 (15.65%) were D-test positive (inducible MLS B positive) and 6 (7.23%) were positive for constitutive MLS B resistance. Eight strains (9.63%) were resistant to tetracycline and 26 (31.32%) strains were resistant to erythromycin. Increased rate of inducible clindamycin resistance among CAMRSA indicates the importance of identification of such strains by D test to avoid treatment failure when clindamycin is used.
  6,512 706 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus in individuals with systemic and organ specific autoimmune disorders
R Kannangai, J Sachithanandham, AJ Kandathil, DL Ebenezer, D Danda, Z Vasuki, N Thomas, SK Vasan, G Sridharan
April-June 2010, 28(2):120-123
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62487  PMID:20404456
Purpose: Autoimmune diseases usually manifest in genetically predisposed individuals following an environmental trigger. There are several viral infections including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. The aim of this study was to look at the antibody pattern to EBV proteins in the plasma of both systemic and organ specific autoimmune disorders, estimate pro-inflammatory plasma cytokines (IL-8 and TNF-á) among these autoimmune patients and compare the observations with those in normal healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Samples from 44 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 25 Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients, appropriately age and sex matched healthy controls were tested for EBV IgM antibodies by an immunoblot assay and two cytokines (IL-8 and TNF-á) by commercial assays. Results: Among the rheumatoid arthritis patients, 23 (52%) were positive for EBNA1 antibody, while 13 (52%) of the Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients and 12 (30%) of the healthy controls showed similar bands. The intensity of the bands was high in the autoimmune patients when compared to the bands seen in control samples. The difference in the EBNA1 reactivity between rheumatoid arthritis patients and controls were significant (P = 0.038). There was a significant difference in the IgM reactivity to VCAp19 protein between patients and controls (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Our study showed an increased EBV activation among the autoimmune patient groups compared to the normal healthy controls. Further studies are required to delineate the association between the aetiology of autoimmune disorders and EBV.
  6,826 298 3
Frequency of HIV type 2 infections among blood donor population from India: A 10-year experience
R Kannangai, SC Nair, G Sridharan, S Prasannakumar, D Daniel
April-June 2010, 28(2):111-113
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62485  PMID:20404454
Purpose: In India, HIV-2 epidemic is alongside with HIV-1. Blood banks are introducing nucleic acid testing (NAT) for screening. The limitation of NAT systems is the inability to detect HIV-2. Materials and Method : An analysis of HIV screening of a blood bank at a tertiary care center from 1998 to 2007 was carried out. Results : A total of 175026 donors were screened by serological assays and 789 were reactive for HIV antibody. Only 478 (61%) were confirmed positive by Western blot/immunoblot. There were 465 (97.2%) donations positive for HIV-1, 6 (1.3%) for HIV-2 (monotypic infection) and 7 (1.5%) for HIV-1 and HIV-2 (dual infection). Conclusion : We show the presence of HIV-2 infection among the blood donors and the need for incorporating HIV-2 detection also in the NAT systems.
  6,391 420 9
Serological screening for antenatal toxoplasma infection in India
S Khurana, R Bagga, A Aggarwal, V Lyngdoh, Shivapriya , K Diddi, N Malla
April-June 2010, 28(2):143-146
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62492  PMID:20404461
Purpose: Detection of infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy to prevent congenital infection. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out from January 2005 to 2006 in 300 pregnant women. Antitoxoplasma IgG, IgM, IgA antibody and IgG avidity were assessed using ELISA. Atleast two samples were taken atleast 3 weeks apart preferably one in each trimester. Result: Of these 300 pregnant women, anti toxoplasma IgG antibodies were detected in 46 (15.33%) cases, while 9 (3%) had positive anti toxoplasma IgM with IgA and /low IgG avidity antibodies suggestive of acute infection during or just before pregnancy. Conclusion: The results indicate that about 85% of female population of Chandigarh is susceptible to toxoplasma infection and thus should be specifically educated about prevention of this infection during pregnancy
  5,905 606 7
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Fungal infections in the soft tissue: A study from a tertiary care center
AJ Kindo, NS Rana, A Rekha, J Kalyani
April-June 2010, 28(2):164-166
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62498  PMID:20404467
Isolated fungal soft-tissue infections are uncommon but may cause severe morbidity or mortality, especially among immunosuppressed patients. In this study, a total of 56 soft-tissue specimens from patients with clinical suspicion of fungal infection collected at a tertiary care centre in Chennai during the period December 2005 to May 2007 were evaluated. Among the culture positives, majority were from diabetic patients. Among the 34 culture positives, the isolates consisted of Candida 12, Fusarium 4, Rhizopus 1 and Aspergillus 3 one each of Absidia corymbifera and Apophysomyces elegans. Treatment of fungal soft-tissue infection requires a team approach of surgeons, pathologists and microbiologists.
  5,534 359 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Correlations between genotyping and antibiograms of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from three different south Indian hospitals
K Prashanth, SK Singh, R Kanungo, S Sharma, P Shashikala, S Joshi, S Jayachandran
April-June 2010, 28(2):130-137
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62490  PMID:20404459
Purpose : To compare the molecular relationships and antibiograms of nosocomial isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from three different genres of hospitals located in Southern India, two located at Hyderabad (one private hospital and an ophthalmic hospital) and one in Puducherry (tertiary care teaching hospital). Each of these hospitals, which follow different infection control strategies and various problems associated with it, were investigated. Materials and Methods : Antibiograms generated by disk diffusion susceptibility testing for clinically relevant antibiotics and genotyping through fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis (fAFLP) were the tools used in the study. Results: Molecular genotyping revealed a heterogeneous group of unrelated molecular clusters of P. aeruginosa strains having higher resistance that are apparently being endemic throughout the tertiary care teaching hospital. In eye care hospital, only a few distinct strains of P. aeruginosa predominating the study period were shown to be responsible for outbreaks. The third private hospital witnessed a group of resistant and persistent strains that might have clonally originated from a diverse collection of strains. Conclusions : The divergent kind of strains in our study suggests that there may be a direct link between the infection control practices followed in each hospital and kind of strains isolated in that particular setup. The study also emphasizes the need for maintaining infection control practices in hospitals with superior standards, failure of which might result in thriving of persistent P. aeruginosa clones in the hospitals.
  4,962 575 1
CASE REPORTS
Listeria monocytogenes meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent, previously healthy 20-month old female child
MA Peer, RA Nasir, DK Kakru, BA Fomda, MA Wani, QN Hakeem
April-June 2010, 28(2):169-171
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62500  PMID:20404469
Invasive listeriosis predominantly affects pregnant women, neonates, elderly and people with a compromised immune function. For more than 80 years since the discovery of Listeria in 1924, only a few reports of invasive listeriosis in humans have emerged from India, with all of them in patients having an underlying predisposition. We, however, report Listeria monocytogenes meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent, previously healthy, 20-month-old female child with no underlying predisposition. The patient showed poor response to empirical treatment with vancomycin and ceftriaxone but improved dramatically after substitution with ampicillin and amikacin. She had a complete recovery other than left lateral rectus palsy that persisted.
  5,161 259 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Characterisation of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains and risk factors for acquisition in a teaching hospital in northeast India
JB Sarma, GU Ahmed
April-June 2010, 28(2):127-129
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62489  PMID:20404458
Purpose: A point prevalence study was carried out in a teaching hospital in Assam to characterise S. aureus strains, establish the rate of colonisation of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and associated risk factors for its acquisition. Materials and Methods: Antibiogram-Resistogram profile was done by BSAC standardized disc sensitivity method; Phage and RFLP typing were carried out by the PHLS, London. Results: Single MRSA strain resistant to multiple classes of anti-staphylococcal antibiotics dominated the hospital. The MRSA colonisation rate was found to be 34% (n=29) and 18% (n=80) in orthopaedics and surgery, respectively and only ~1% (n=73) in the medical units. Exposure to ciprofloxacin and surgery were risk factors but duration of hospital stay was not. In contrast, meticillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains were usually distinct strains and sensitive to most of the anti-staphylococcal antibiotics including 18% to penicillin. Conclusions: The MRSA strain prevalent in the hospital phenotypically resembles the predominant Asian strain viz., Brazilian/Hungarian strains (CC8-MRSA-III). Duration was not a risk factor, which suggests that in absence of exposure to specific antimicrobials, even in a hospital with no or little infection control intervention, a vast majority remain free from MRSA. This underlines the importance of rational prescribing empirical antibiotics.
  4,580 686 4
CASE REPORTS
Accidental intestinal myiasis caused by genus Sarcophaga
A Das, A Pandey, M Madan, AK Asthana, A Gautam
April-June 2010, 28(2):176-178
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62503  PMID:20404472
Myiasis of different organs has been reported off and on from various regions in the world. We report a human case of intestinal myiasis caused by larvae of Sarcophaga. A 25 - year - old male presented with symptom of passage of live worms in stool. Following diagnosis and treatment the patient improved completely with cessation of maggots in stool.
  5,112 153 2
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Infection with hepatitis C virus genotype 3 - Experience of a tertiary health care centre in south India
J David, A Rajasekar, H.D.D Daniel, SL Ngui, B Ramakrishna, UG Zachariah, CE Eapen, P Abraham
April-June 2010, 28(2):155-157
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62495  PMID:20404464
To analyse the response rate and the predictive values of virological, biochemical and histological factors on HCV antiviral therapy in HCV genotype 3 infected patients, we retrospectively studied 21 HCV genotype 3 infected patients, who underwent HCV antiviral therapy. Low (57%) sustained viral response (SVR) rate and significant association of SVR with normalization of alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were observed in our study. Absence of early viral response (EVR) showed high (80%) predictive value on SVR. Absence of EVR and normalisation of the ALT levels can predict the outcome of HCV antiviral therapy.
  4,795 281 6
BOOK REVIEW
Essentials of Microbiology by Anuradha De. National Series
D Raghunath
April-June 2010, 28(2):188-188
  4,833 195 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antigenic variations of human influenza virus in Shiraz, Iran
A Moattari, H Ashrafi, MR Kadivar, MT Kheiri, M Shahidi, M Arabpour, A Ghanbari
April-June 2010, 28(2):114-119
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62486  PMID:20404455
Purpose: Influenza virus is a major cause of human respiratory infections and responsible for pandemics and regional outbreaks around the world. This investigation aims to determine the prevalent influenza genotypes during 2005-2007 outbreaks in Shiraz, the capital city of Fars province, southern Iran and compare the results obtained with those of previous study. Materials and Method: Of the 300 pharyngeal swabs collected from influenza patients, 26 were found to be positive by culture and hemagglutination (HA) assays. Typing and subtyping of the isolates carried out by using multiplex RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis performed on isolated HA genes using neighbour-joining method. Result: Out of 26 positive isolates 12 and 14 were H1N1 and H3N2 respectively. The phylogenetic and amino acid sequence analyses of our H1N1 isolates showed 99-100% genetic resemblance to A/NewCaledonia/20/99 (H1N1) vaccine strain. Most of the Iranian H3N2 isolates varied form A/California/7/2004 vaccine strain in 20 amino acids of which positions 189,226 and 227 were located in antigenic sites of HA1 molecule. These substitutions were not observed in any of the H3N2 subtypes from the same region reported previously. Conclusion: The H3N2 subtype strains prevalent during the 2005/7 influenza outbreak in southern Iran demonstrated a drastic antigenic variation and differed from A/California/7/2004 vaccine strain. The H1N1 subtypes showed a notable resemblance to A/NewCaledonia/20/99 vaccine strain and therefore were predicted to be capable of conferring sufficient immunity against H1N1 subtypes.
  4,411 259 2
CASE REPORTS
Maxillary sinusitis caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae
AJ Kindo, C Pramod, S Anita, S Mohanty
April-June 2010, 28(2):167-169
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62499  PMID:20404468
Lasiodiplodia (monotypic) comprises a very small proportion of the fungal biota. It is a common plant pathogen in tropical and subtropical regions. Clinical reports on its association with onychomycosis, corneal ulcer and phaeohyphomycosis are available. However, Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing fungal sinusitis has not been reported. We present here a case of fungal sinusitis in a 30-year-old woman, who came to the ENT OPD (out patient department) with complaints of intermittent bleeding and nasal discharge from the left side for a week. The patient complained of headache, predominantly on the left side and heaviness on and off since two months. Diagnosis was based on radiological and mycological evidence; the patient underwent endoscopic surgery and was started on antifungal treatment.
  4,404 226 2
Nattrassia mangiferae causing fungal keratitis
AJ Kindo, S Anita, S Kalpana
April-June 2010, 28(2):178-181
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62504  PMID:20404473
We report a case of fungal keratitis caused by the coelomycetous fungus Nattrassia mangiferae in a 70 year old gentleman, agriculturist by occupation, with a history of injury to his right eye. The scraping showed narrow septate fungal hyphae on a KOH mount, isolation of a fast growing black mould, which demonstrated hyphae and arthroconidia of varying widths typical of the Scytalidium synanamorph (S. dimidiatum). The formation of the pycnidia, which at maturity, expressed conidia. The patient was started on topical itraconazole one hourly and topical atropine thrice a day. The patient was lost to follow up hence we are not able to comment on the final outcome of the patient.
  3,566 180 5
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Combined drug medium with isoniazid and rifampicin for identification of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
S Nalini, R Lakshmi, K Devika, D Ravikumar, R Ramachandran
April-June 2010, 28(2):162-163
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62497  PMID:20404466
A low-cost method of detecting multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) with the possibility of quick adoption in a resource limited setting is urgently required. We conducted a study combining isoniazid and rifampicin in a single LJ medium, to detect MDR-TB strains. Combined and individual drug media showed 100% concordance for the detection of MDR-TB and susceptible strains by proportion method. Considering the results, combined isoniazid and rifampicin containing medium could be considered for use in settings where the sole detection of MDR-TB strains is justified.
  3,372 344 3
CASE REPORTS
Asymptomatic, isolated tubercular splenic abscess, in an immunocompetent person
U Udgaonkar, S Kulkarni, S Shah, S Bhave
April-June 2010, 28(2):172-173
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62501  PMID:20404470
Tubercular splenic abscess in an immunocompetent person, especially when the patient is without any symptoms, is a rare clinical entity. We report a case of isolated tubercular splenic abscess in a 38-year-old asymptomatic healthy female and emphasize the importance of careful smear examination. The patient had come to the hospital for repair of vaginal vault prolapse. Her abdominal ultra sonography showed normal sized spleen with hypoechoic areas suggesting abscess. Fine needle aspiration of splenic lesion revealed tubercle bacilli on Ziehl Neelsen stain. The organisms also grew on culture. The splenic lesions cleared after six months of treatment with anti tubercular drugs at our Directly Observed Treatment centre under Revised National TB Control Programme. The patient was operated successfully for vault prolapse one year later.
  3,455 179 2
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Evaluation of IgM ELISA using a sonicate and a lipopolysaccharide antigen for the serodiagnosis of melioidosis
S Anandan, A Augustine, E Mathai, MV Jesudason
April-June 2010, 28(2):158-161
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62496  PMID:20404465
Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, has variable manifestations. The disease can present as an acute or a chronic form or localized or disseminated or can remain latent for many years. Acute septicaemic melioidosis has a high fatality rate when untreated and therefore, an early diagnosis is critical. Lack of testing facilities and of an awareness of the manifestations of the disease makes it likely that it is underreported in India. A sonicate and a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen were evaluated by an IgM enzyme immunoassay in patients with culture-confirmed melioidosis (n = 29), fever of unknown origin (n = 214) and healthy controls (n = 109). Patients with melioidosis had significantly higher optical density values than both control categories, but the sensitivity of both tests was low (25% for sonicate, 62% for LPS). These data highlight the problems with serodiagnosis in endemic settings, where high cut-off values are required for specificity, and result in low sensitivity.
  3,220 231 5
CORRESPONDENCE
Status of vaccine cold chain maintenance in Delhi, India
S Sachdeva, U Datta
April-June 2010, 28(2):184-185
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62507  PMID:20404476
  3,142 193 -
Bilateral mycotic keratitis in a case of hyperthyroidism-induced exophthalmos
R Nath, L Saikia, S Baruah, T Gogoi
April-June 2010, 28(2):182-182
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62505  PMID:20404474
  2,136 114 -
RESEARCH SNIPPETS
Snippets
P Desikan
April-June 2010, 28(2):186-187
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62508  
  1,840 146 -

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