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   2008| January-March  | Volume 26 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 25, 2008

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Chikungunya fever: A re-emerging viral infection
M Chhabra, V Mittal, D Bhattacharya, UVS Rana, S Lal
January-March 2008, 26(1):5-12
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38850  PMID:18227590
Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a re-emerging viral disease characterized by abrupt onset of fever with severe arthralgia followed by constitutional symptoms and rash lasting for 1-7 days. The disease is almost self-limiting and rarely fatal. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a RNA virus belonging to family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Molecular characterization has demonstrated two distinct lineages of strains which cause epidemics in Africa and Asia. These geographical genotypes exhibit differences in the transmission cycles. In contrast to Africa where sylvatic cycle is maintained between monkeys and wild mosquitoes, in Asia the cycle continues between humans and the Aedes aegypti mosquito. CHIKV is known to cause epidemics after a period of quiescence. The first recorded epidemic occurred in Tanzania in 1952-1953. In Asia, CHIK activity was documented since its isolation in Bangkok, Thailand in 1958. Virus transmission continued till 1964. After hiatus, the virus activity re-appeared in the mid-1970s and declined by 1976. In India, well-documented outbreaks occurred in 1963 and 1964 in Kolkata and southern India, respectively. Thereafter, a small outbreak of CHIK was reported from Sholapur district, Maharashtra in 1973. CHIKV emerged in the islands of South West Indian Ocean viz. French island of La Reunion, Mayotee, Mauritius and Seychelles which are reporting the outbreak since February, 2005. After quiescence of about three decades, CHIKV re-emerged in India in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu since December, 2005. Cases have also been reported from Rajasthan, Gujarat and Kerala. The outbreak is still continuing. National Institute of Communicable Diseases has conducted epidemiological, entomological and laboratory investigations for confirmation of the outbreak. These have been discussed in detail along with the major challenges that the country faced during the current outbreak.
  49,535 3,003 75
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Evaluation of a modified double-disc synergy test for detection of extended spectrum β-lactamases in AMPC β-lactamase-producing proteus mirabilis
MKR Khan, SS Thukral, R Gaind
January-March 2008, 26(1):58-61
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38860  PMID:18227600
The detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in gram-negative bacteria that produce AmpC β-lactamases is problematic. In the present study, the performance of modified double-disc synergy test (MDDST) that employs a combination of cefepime and piperacillin-tazobactam for the detection of Proteus mirabilis producing extended spectrum and AmpC β-lactamases was evaluated and compared with double-disc synergy test (DDST) and NCCLS phenotypic disc confirmatory test (NCCLS-PDCT). A total of 90 clinical isolates of P. mirabilis , which met the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) screening criteria that these had broth microdilution (BMD) MIC of ≥2 mg/mL for at least one extended spectrum cephalosporin [ceftazidime (CAZ), cefotaxime (CTX) and cefpodoxime], were selected for the study. MDDST detected ESBLs in 40/90 of the isolates, whereas DDST detected ESBLs in only 25 isolates. NCCLS-PDCT could detect ESBLs in 39 isolates using CAZ and CAZ + clavulanic acid (CLA) combination, whereas CTX and CTX + CLA combination could detect only 37 isolates as ESBL positive. As many as 34/40 ESBL positive isolates were confirmed to be AmpC β-lactamase positive by the modified three-dimensional test (MTDT). MDDST and NCCLS-PDCT could detect ESBLs in all the 34 AmpC positive isolates, whereas DDST could detect ESBLs in only 19 isolates. The study demonstrated that MDDST is superior to DDST and as sensitive as NCCLS-PDCT. However, MDDST seems to have enhanced potential for the detection of ESBLs in AmpC β-lactamase-producing P. mirabilis .
  12,930 1,296 2
CORRESPONDENCE
Estimation of antibodies to HBsAg in vaccinated health care workers
TV Rao, IJ Suseela, KA Sathiavathy
January-March 2008, 26(1):93-94
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38876  PMID:18227616
  13,117 375 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Rapid serodiagnosis of leptospirosis by latex agglutination test and flow-through assay
TMA Senthilkumar, M Subathra, M Phil, P Ramadass, V Ramaswamy
January-March 2008, 26(1):45-49
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38857  PMID:18227597
Purpose: Diagnosis of leptospirosis facilitates patient management and initiation of therapy. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is the serological test used in reference laboratories because of its high degree of sensitivity and specificity. But the results are not available quickly for patient management. In the present study, in order to develop a simple, rapid immunodiagnostic assay, one of the outer membrane proteins (OMPs), recombinant LipL41 (rLipL41) has been utilised in latex agglutination test (LAT) and flow-through assay. Methods: Part of LipL41 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli system and purified. The rLipL41 antigen of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae, which is conserved in all pathogenic Leptospira spp. was used as capture antigen in the LAT and flow-through test. Both tests are very rapid and could be completed within 5 minutes. The sensitivity and specificity of rLipL41 was assessed and evaluated in LAT and flow-through assay in comparison with standard MAT. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of the LAT were 89.70 and 90.45% and flow-through assay were 89.09 and 77.70%, respectively. Conclusions: The developed LAT and flow-through assays were simple, rapid and economical for the detection of leptospira infection and suitable for large-scale screening of samples in endemic areas without any sophisticated equipment.
  9,301 908 11
Effect of exposure to hydrogen peroxide on the virulence of Escherichia coli
A Hegde, GK Bhat, S Mallya
January-March 2008, 26(1):25-28
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38853  PMID:18227593
Purpose: To eliminate pathogenic bacteria, the host presents conditions that are stressful for bacteria. Oxidative stress arises when the concentration of pro-oxidants like hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and superoxide anion increases to a level over the basal defence capacity of the cell. In the present study, we studied the effect of oxidative stress on the production of certain virulence factors by Escherichia coli . Methods: E. coli was exposed to oxidative stress by growing in the presence of different concentrations of H 2 O 2 . The effect of oxidative stress on the expression of surface hydrophobicity, adherence, haemolysin production, serum resistance and phagocytosis was studied. Results: Oxidative stress caused a significant decrease in the expression of all the virulence factors of E. coli . Conclusions: Synthesis of virulence factors can be significantly altered by oxidative stress and such changes may affect the pathogenicity of E. coli.
  9,481 708 4
High level ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from blood
R Raveendran, C Wattal, A Sharma, JK Oberoi, KJ Prasad, S Datta
January-March 2008, 26(1):50-53
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38858  PMID:18227598
Purpose: Over the last few years, resistance to ciprofloxacin in Salmonella enterica has become a global concern. The present study was undertaken to find out the susceptibility pattern of Salmonella enterica isolates in our hospital. Methods: Blood cultures were done using BacT/ALERT 3D system. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using CLSI breakpoints. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant strains using E-test and Vitek-1 automated system. Results: A total of 25,953 samples of blood culture yielded 431 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and 198 serotype Paratyphi A isolates. Twenty-two isolates of serotype Typhi were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while two isolates of Typhi and two Paratyphi A were intermediately susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin resistance is 5.6% (24 isolates) among Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi appears to have decreased to 14.9% (64/431) in comparison to the 27% (55/205) during 2003. All isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone. Conclusions: Ciprofloxacin can no longer be considered as the drug of choice in treating Salmonella infections. While first-line antimicrobials may still have a role to play in the treatment of enteric fever, ceftriaxone remains the sole defence against ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella infections.
  7,951 1,006 21
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
The use of dried blood spots on filter paper for the diagnosis of HIV-1 in infants born to HIV seropositive women
S Mini Jacob, D Anitha, R Vishwanath, S Parameshwari, NM Samuel
January-March 2008, 26(1):71-74
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38864  PMID:18227604
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most sensitive test to diagnose HIV-1 infection among infants born to HIV seropositive mothers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of dried blood spot (DBS) specimens for PCR and to compare it with whole-blood stored in tubes for HIV-1 DNA PCR. Five hundred and seventy-seven whole-blood infant samples were tested using HIV-1 qualitative in-house nested DNA PCR. Three hundred and fifty-nine samples were from infants at 48 hours of birth and 218 samples at second month. All positive samples tested from whole-blood and every fifth negative sample were coated onto filter paper. DNA was extracted from the filter paper and was amplified using in-house nested PCR. Among the whole-blood samples tested using HIV-1 DNA PCR, 19 of 359 (5.29%) samples were HIV-1 positive and 340 (94.7%) were negative at 48 hours of birth. At second month, 19 (8.7%) of the 218 samples were positive and 199 (91.2%) were negative. Using dried filter paper, 18 samples (95%) tested positive from 19 positive samples (using whole-blood) and 1 tested negative at 48 hours of birth. The 68 negative samples tested using whole-blood were also negative in the DBS test (sensitivity 95% and specificity 100%). At second month, 19 were positive and 40 samples (every fifth sample of 199) were negative (sensitivity and specificity, 100%). PCR performed using DNA extracted from filter paper permits the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among infants born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers. This assay is simple, rapid, sensitive and specific and can be used in resource limited settings.
  7,521 607 10
CASE REPORTS
Ochrobactrum anthropi septicaemia
U Arora, S Kaur, P Devi
January-March 2008, 26(1):81-83
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38868  PMID:18227608
Ochrobactrum anthropi is an emerging opportunist pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of septicaemia due to O. anthropi in an elderly male patient with coronary artery disease with severe left ventricular dysfunction admitted in the Intensive coronary care unit. Following intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) insertion, the patient developed a haematoma at the local site, which led to septicaemia. In spite of intensive treatment, the condition of the patient continued to deteriorate and he died on the seventh day. This infection with the microbiological characteristics useful for identification of the organism is described.
  7,461 387 8
Intestinal myiasis caused by Muscina stabulans
S Shivekar, K Senthil, R Srinivasan, L Sureshbabu, P Chand, J Shanmugam, R Gopal
January-March 2008, 26(1):83-85
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38869  PMID:18227609
Intestinal maggots were isolated from a patient, who had reported to the Department of General Medicine of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College, Puducherry, in southern India with complaints of abdominal distress, bloating of abdomen and intestinal hurry following a meal. He was diagnosed as a case of intestinal myiasis. Maggots obtained from his stool were identified to be Muscina stabulans based on characteristic patterns of posterior spiracles. He was treated with purgatives and albendazole. This intestinal myiasis case caused by M. stabulans is reported here because of its rare occurrence and the need to establish a correct diagnosis.
  7,264 265 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A comparison of PCR detection of Meca with oxacillin disk susceptibility testing in different media and sceptor automated system for both Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates
S Ercis, B Sancak, G Hascelik
January-March 2008, 26(1):21-24
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38852  PMID:18227592
Purpose: To evaluate three methods for 406 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) for the detection of methicillin resistance (MR) using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) new interpretive criteria. Methods: We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a gold standard method to evaluate three methods [disk diffusion with Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) and mannitol salt agar (MSA) and Sceptor system (Becton Dickinson, USA)] for the detection of mecA gene. The isolates that were methicillin-resistant with any of the three tests were evaluated further for MR by E-test. Results: MHA, MSA and Sceptor showed sensitivities of 100, 100 and 99% for S. aureus and 100, 82.6 and 72.1% for CNS, respectively. The specificities of the same methods were found as 100, 90.1 and 99.3% for S. aureus and 79.2, 95.8 and 97.2% for CNS, respectively. E-test showed 100% sensitivity for both S. aureus and CNS. Forty-eight CNS and 16 S. aureus isolates, which presented discrepancies with the three phenotypic methods (MHA disk diffusion method, MSA disk diffusion method and Sceptor), were correctly classified as resistant/susceptible with the E-test when compared with PCR. Only five CNS isolates, which were mecA-negative with PCR were resistant with E-test. Analysis of 248 S. aureus revealed that MHA is superior to other phenotype-based susceptibility testing methods in detecting MR. When we examined the results of 158 CNS, none of the three methods proved efficient in detecting MR. Conclusions: We conclude that although the accuracy of the MHA disk diffusion test for the detection of MR approaches the accuracy of PCR for S. aureus isolates, the need for easy and reliable methods of detecting MR in CNS still remains.
  6,219 951 3
Role of enteric fever in ileal perforations: An overstated problem in tropics?
MR Capoor, D Nair, MS Chintamani, J Khanna, P Aggarwal, D Bhatnagar
January-March 2008, 26(1):54-57
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38859  PMID:18227599
Purpose: To determine the role of enteric fever in ileal perforations. Methods: A prospective cohort of 47 patients of ileal perforation was subjected to clinical examination and investigations for APACHE II scoring. Blood, ulcer edge biopsy, mesenteric lymph node and peritoneal aspirate were subjected to culture to determine the predominant aerobic bacterial isolate and its antibiogram. Results: Seven patients (14.9%) required intensive care and seven (14.9%) developed septicaemia. Mortality was 17%. Highest isolation rate was seen in ulcer edge (70.2%) followed by lymph node (66%) culture. The bacterial spectrum was Escherichia coli (23.4%), Enterococcus faecalis (21.3%), Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (6.3%), Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A (4.2%), etc. Conclusions: Enteric fever organisms are not the predominant causative agents of ileal perforations. Culture of ulcer edge biopsy, lymph node is crucial for aetiological diagnosis. The use of APACHE II triaging and prescription of antimicrobials based on the local pattern of susceptibility profile of the aetiological agent is recommended.
  6,625 389 2
CASE REPORTS
Pyopericardium due to group D streptococcus
K Karthikeyan, KR Rajesh, H Poornima, R Bharathidasan, KN Brahmadathan, R Indra Priyadharsini
January-March 2008, 26(1):85-87
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38870  PMID:18227610
Beta-hemolytic Enterococcus faecalis was isolated from the pericardial fluid obtained from a patient with pyopericardium. The patient was immunocompetent and had mild pleural effusion. He was treated with parenteral co-amoxiclav and amikacin, had undewent pericardiectomy with repeated pericardial aspiration, and recovered completely. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pyopericardium due to E. faecalis .
  6,605 309 -
SPECIAL ARTICLE
Fabrication and evaluation of a sequence-specific oligonucleotide miniarray for molecular genotyping
J Iqbal, F Hanel, A Ruryk, GV Limmon, A Tretiakov, M Durst, HP Saluz
January-March 2008, 26(1):13-20
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38851  PMID:18227591
Purpose: Molecular genotyping relies on the identification of specific microbial DNA sequences. Accurate genotyping not only requires discrimination between low- and high-risk pathogens for effective diagnosis or disease management but also requires the identity of the specific strain or type of the microbe involved in pathogenesis. The majority of these assays require DNA amplification followed by genome identification either through sequencing or hybridization to specific oligonucleotide probes. We evaluated the use of a DNA microchip assay as a simple and easy-to-use procedure for genotyping. Methods: Various methodological parameters were optimized for single-base mismatch discrimination on a DNA microarray. The fabrication procedures involved substrate chemistry for immobilization. The effect of various buffers and features associated with oligonucleotide sequences were standardized. The assay was evaluated on a low-density genotyping chip containing the sequences of various (Human Papilloma Virus) HPV subtypes. Results: The specific subtype was identified with high specificity by hybridization in miniaturized condition. Conclusions: The DNA microchip provides a rapid and cost-effective genotyping procedure for microbial organisms and can be implemented easily in any laboratory.
  6,246 560 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Community-based study on seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in New Delhi
R Chawla, P Bhalla, K Bhalla, M Meghachandra Singh, S Garg
January-March 2008, 26(1):34-39
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38855  PMID:18227595
Purpose: To determine the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in two urban communities in Delhi and to correlate the presence of HSV-2 seroprevalence with sociodemographic profile, risk factors and presence of other reproductive tract infections (RTIs). Methods: Men and women aged between 15-49 years from an urban slum and an urban middle class colony were invited to participate in the study. They provided interview information; blood for HSV-2, HIV and syphilis serology; first void urine specimens for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection; and genital specimens for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Results: The prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity was found to be 7 and 8.6% in men and women, respectively. HSV-2 seropositivity was found to be significantly associated with urban middle class community and older age. No statistically significant correlation was found between HSV-2 seropositivity and other laboratory-confirmed RTIs. Conclusions: The findings of our study indicate a relatively low prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity and other sexually transmitted infections in the two communities that were studied.
  6,239 458 5
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Detection of extra-cellular enzymes of anaerobic gram-negative bacteria from clinically diseased and healthy sites
JM Nagmoti, CS Patil, MB Nagmoti, MB Mutnal
January-March 2008, 26(1):65-67
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38862  PMID:18227602
Anaerobic gram-negative bacteria (AGNB) produce enzymes that play a significant role in the development of disease. We tested 50 AGNB isolates, 25 each from clinically diseased and healthy human sites for in vitro production of caseinase, collagenase, etc. Majority of the isolates were Bacteroides fragilis and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which more commonly produced collagenase and haemolysin. Comparatively larger number of clinical AGNB produced collagenase (P = 0.004). No such difference was observed with other enzymes. Hence, collagenase is probably one of the key virulence markers of pathogenic AGNB, and the inhibitors targeting collagenases might help in the therapy of anaerobic infections.
  6,152 335 -
GUEST EDITORIAL
Novel HIV prevention strategies: The case for Andhra Pradesh
JA Schneider
January-March 2008, 26(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38849  PMID:18227589
  5,734 586 3
CASE REPORTS
Pleural effusion: A rare complication of hepatitis A
A Bukulmez, R Koken, H Melek, O Dogru, F Ovali
January-March 2008, 26(1):87-88
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38871  PMID:18227611
Hepatitis A (HAV) infection, which is the most common form of hepatitis in the paediatric age group and which sometimes has a fulminant course, is endemic in Turkey, constituting one of the country's important health problems. Pleural effusion also represents a rare benign complication of acute HAV infections. We describe here a case of Hepatitis A who developed pleural effusion.
  5,658 325 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Changing patterns of Vibrio cholerae in Sevagram between 1990 and 2005
P Narang, DK Mendiratta, VS Deotale, R Narang
January-March 2008, 26(1):40-44
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38856  PMID:18227596
Purpose: A retrospective analysis was done to note changes in prevalence, distribution of biotypes, serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and phage types of Vibrio cholerae isolated in Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram over a period of 16 years. Methods: A total of 535 strains of V. cholerae were isolated from 10,406 stool samples and rectal swabs from January 1990 to December 2005. These comprised of serogroups O1 - 427 (79.89%), O139 - 86 (16.07%) and non O1, non O139 - 22 (4.11%). No classical V. cholerae was isolated. Results: Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 serotype Ogawa was the predominant isolate till 1992. During 1993, serogroup O139 became the main isolate; however, it completely disappeared during 1995-1996 only to reappear in 1997. Serotype Inaba in our area was conspicuous by its absence with only two strains being isolated till June 1999, but during July-December 1999, 11 out of 15 V. cholerae O1 isolates were El Tor Inaba. T4 was the predominant phage type till 1990, T2 during 1991-1994 and T27 (as per the new scheme) thereafter. Resistance to tetracycline varied between 2 and 17% for V. cholerae O1. Conclusions: The paper reports on the changing epidemiological markers of V. cholerae isolated from a rural hospital over a period of 16 years.
  5,487 489 7
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Haemagglutination and siderophore production as the urovirulence markers of uropathogenic Escherichia coli
MA Vagarali, SG Karadesai, CS Patil, SC Metgud, MB Mutnal
January-March 2008, 26(1):68-70
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38863  PMID:18227603
A total of 160 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from urine of patients with clinically diagnosed urinary tract infection were included in the study and 50 faecal isolates of E. coli were studied. They were studied for virulence factors, namely mannose-resistant and mannose-sensitive haemagglutination (MRHA, MSHA) and siderophore production.Among 160 urinary isolates of E. coli , 40 (25%) showed MRHA, siderophore production was seen in 156 (97.5%). In 50 faecal isolates, two (4%) were MRHA, four (8%) MSHA and siderophore production in two (4%). The results suggest that MRHA and siderophore production positive strains can be considered as UPEC.
  5,336 577 3
BOOK REVIEWS
Medical parasitology
Reba Kanungo
January-March 2008, 26(1):99-99
  5,353 278 -
Review of oral pathology (with explanatory answers)
M Madhavan, Reba Kanungo
January-March 2008, 26(1):99-99
  5,307 210 -
CASE REPORTS
Hydatid cyst of mediastinum
S Sehgal, B Mishra, A Thakur, V Dogra, PS Loomba, A Banerjee
January-March 2008, 26(1):80-81
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38867  PMID:18227607
We report a case of hydatid cyst of the mediastinum in a 32-year-old female patient who was admitted with chest pain. CT scan reported posterior mediastinal mass towards the right side. Surgical exploration revealed a loculated cyst in posterior mediastinum on the right side, adherent to the overlying lung and underlying bone. Posterolateral thoracotomy was performed for cyst aspiration and excision. The patient was discharged on albendazole.
  5,227 284 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A low molecular weight ES-20 protein released in vivo and in vitro with diagnostic potential in lymph node tuberculosis
N Shende, V Upadhye, S Kumar, BC Harinath
January-March 2008, 26(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38854  PMID:18227594
Purpose: To determine role of antigens released in vivo and in vitro in immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Methods: In vivo released circulating tuberculosis antigen (CTA) was obtained from TB sera by ammonium sulphate precipitation and in vitro released excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate. CTA and ES antigens were fractionated by SDS-PAGE and electro-eluted gel fractions were analysed for antigen by ELISA. Results: Low molecular weight proteins CTA-9 and ES-9 showed high titre of antigen activity. To explore the diagnostic potential of low molecular weight ES antigen, M. tuberculosis ES antigen was further fractionated by gel filtration chromatography followed by purification on anion exchange column using fast protein liquid chromatography and a highly seroreactive ESG-5D (ES-20) antigen was obtained. Competitive inhibition showed that CTA-9 and ES-9 antigens inhibit the binding of ES-20 antigen to its antibody. Seroanalysis showed sensitivity of 83 and 80% for ES-20 antigen and antibody detection, respectively, in pulmonary TB and 90% in lymph node TB. Conclusions: Seroreactivity studies using M. tuberculosis ES-20 antigen showed usefulness in detection of TB; in particular, lymph node TB.
  4,885 361 2
CORRESPONDENCE
Prevalence of inducible AmpC β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a tertiary care hospital in northern India
A Bhattacharjee, S Anupurba, A Gaur, MR Sen
January-March 2008, 26(1):89-90
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38872  PMID:18227612
  4,614 566 5
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Neisseria gonorrhoeae at STI clinic
C Shilpee, VG Ramachandran, S Das, SN Bhattacharya
January-March 2008, 26(1):62-64
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38861  PMID:18227601
A total of 100 consecutive patients who attended a sexually transmitted infections clinic were studied. Thirteen had gonococcal urethritis, of which 10 showed growth of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on culture. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP) method and beta lactamase production by chromogenic cephalosporin test. Four patients were co-infected with each of the following: HIV, HBV and Chlamydia trachomatis . Gonococcal urethritis (13%) was found more in male patients. Ten percent gonococcal isolates were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae , and another 10% were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae .
  4,718 460 2
Evaluation of the usefulness of phage amplification technology in the diagnosis of patients with paucibacillary tuberculosis
D Biswas, A Deb, P Gupta, R Prasad, KS Negi
January-March 2008, 26(1):75-78
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38865  PMID:18227605
The present study was undertaken to assess the performance of the Fast Plaque TB™ (FPTB) test in the diagnostically difficult group of paucibacillary tuberculosis (TB) and to compare its results with the conventional bacteriological methods. The study was conducted on a total of 139 patients, who were negative for TB in sputum-smear examination. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or pleural biopsy specimens collected from these patients were subjected to smear examination, LJ culture and FPTB test. The smear, culture and the FPTB positivity rates were compared between patients with pulmonary and pleuro-pulmonary involvement. The FPTB test was found to register an overall sensitivity of 58.8% and specificity of 97.9%. The positive and negative predictive values of the test were 98.1 and 56.5, respectively. Among patients with paucibacillary TB, on head-to-head comparison, we found that the sensitivity and specificity values of the FPTB test were marginally better than smear-microscopy and inferior to culture on LJ media.
  4,665 313 7
CORRESPONDENCE
Acute urticaria associated with Dicrocoelium dendriticum infestation
A Sing, K Tybus, I Fackler
January-March 2008, 26(1):97-98
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38879  PMID:18227619
  4,613 216 3
CASE REPORTS
Cytomegalovirus oesophagitis in a patient with non-hodgkin's lymphoma
SS Hingmire, G Biswas, A Bakshi, S Desai, S Dighe, R Nair, S Gupta, PM Parikh
January-March 2008, 26(1):79-80
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38866  PMID:18227606
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is frequent in immunocompromised patients, especially in AIDS, organ transplantation and rarely in Hodgkin's disease and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). We present a case of NHL with CMV oesophagitis, which has rarely been documented in literature. Apart from fungal and herpes simplex infections, as the common differential diagnosis for oesophagitis in patients of lymphoma, CMV should be considered an important etiologic agent. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of CMV oesophagitis with gancyclovir can avert significant morbidity and avoid unacceptable treatment delays.
  4,159 249 1
CORRESPONDENCE
Parental history of ulcer and the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in their offspring
KS Ahmed, AA Khan, JD Ahi, CM Habibullah
January-March 2008, 26(1):90-90
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38873  PMID:18227613
  3,624 298 -
Seroprevalence of rubella among urban and rural Bangladeshi women emphasises the need for rubella vaccination of pre-pubertal girls
A Nessa, MN Islam, S Tabassum, SU Munshi, M Ahmed, R Karim
January-March 2008, 26(1):94-95
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38877  PMID:18227617
  3,272 240 1
West nile virus in the blood donors in UAE
M Alfaresi, A Elkoush
January-March 2008, 26(1):92-93
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38875  PMID:18227615
  3,120 210 2
Novel digestion patterns with hepatitis B virus strains from the Indian subcontinent detected using restriction fragment length polymorphism
P Vivekanandan, HDJ Daniel, S Raghuraman, D Daniel, RV Shaji, G Sridharan, G Chandy, P Abraham
January-March 2008, 26(1):96-97
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38878  PMID:18227618
  3,129 200 2
Ciprofloxacin breakpoints in enteric fever - time to revise our susceptibility criteria
C Rodrigues, N Jai Kumar, J Lalwani, A Mehta
January-March 2008, 26(1):91-91
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38874  PMID:18227614
  2,998 300 2

© 2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04