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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2007| April-June  | Volume 25 | Issue 2  
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Bacteriological profile of community acquired acute bacterial meningitis: A ten-year retrospective study in a tertiary neurocare centre in South India
R Mani, S Pradhan, S Nagarathna, R Wasiulla, A Chandramuki
April-June 2007, 25(2):108-114
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32715  PMID:17582179
Purpose: Ten years retrospective study to evaluate the bacteriological spectrum of community acquired acute bacterial meningitis (CAABM). Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 385 clinically suspected cases of pyogenic meningitis were processed for cell counts, cytospin Gram stain, culture, antigen detection by latex agglutination (LAT) and antibiotic susceptibility test. Eighteen of these CSF samples were also subjected to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of pneumococcal DNA. Results: The etiological agent could be identified in 284 (73.8%) of the total 385 cases by culture and/or smear and /or LAT. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the predominant pathogen accounting for 238 (61.8%) cases. Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis accounted for 7 (1.8%) and 4 (1%) cases respectively. Other gram negative bacilli, Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 19 (4.9%), 9 (2.3%) and 7 (1.8%) cases respectively. Conclusions: Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the major aetiological agent of CAABM both in adults and children in our set-up. No penicillin resistance was detected among the isolates. Further research should focus on preventable aspects of CAABM, especially pneumococcal vaccines, to help reduce the disease burden.
  35 12,846 1,412
Mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems in meropenem- resistant Acinetobacter isolates from clinical samples
M Sinha, H Srinivasa
April-June 2007, 25(2):121-125
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32717  PMID:17582181
Purpose: To analyze the resistance mechanisms in Acinetobacter species by phenotypic methods. Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility profile for 150 clinical isolates of Acinetobacte r was determined by the standard disk diffusion method. Isolates detected to be meropenem resistant were tested further by broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for meropenem. The resistant isolates were also tested for metallo β -lactamase (MBL) production by the double-disk approximation test, for AmpC beta-lactamase production and efflux pump detection by agar microdilution MIC with and without reserpine. Results: Twenty-one isolates were found resistant to meropenem by the standard disk diffusion method. Nine samples were from patients admitted in intensive care units (ICUs). Broth microdilution MICs of the isolates revealed low-level resistance to meropenem. MBL was not produced by any of these isolates. AmpC β -lactamases were produced by nine (43%) isolates. 'Efflux pump'-mediated resistance to meropenem was detected in two out of nine random isolates tested for the same . Conclusions: Carbapenem resistance is not uncommon in Acinetobacter isolates. AmpC production may cause carbapenem resistance. MBL and efflux pump may not be important causes of carbapenem resistance.
  29 14,188 1,602
Edible vaccines: Current status and future
P Lal, VG Ramachandran, R Goyal, R Sharma
April-June 2007, 25(2):93-102
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32713  PMID:17582177
Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.
  28 130,608 4,667
Dengue viral infections as a cause of encephalopathy
GN Malavige, PK Ranatunga, SD Jayaratne, B Wijesiriwardana, SL Seneviratne, DH Karunatilaka
April-June 2007, 25(2):143-145
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32722  PMID:17582186
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and poor prognostic factors associated with high mortality in dengue encephalopathy. Fifteen patients with confirmed dengue infections, who developed encephalopathy, were recruited from two tertiary care hospitals in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Among the factors that contributed to encephalopathy were: Acute liver failure (73%), electrolyte imbalances (80%) and shock (40%). Five (33.3%) patients developed seizures. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was seen in five (33.3%). Secondary bacterial infections were observed in 8 (53.3%) of our patients. The overall mortality rate was 47%.
  19 9,113 728
Prevalence of central nervous system cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus reactive hospitalized patients
V Lakshmi, T Sudha, VD Teja, P Umabala
April-June 2007, 25(2):146-149
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32723  PMID:17582187
Central nervous system cryptococcosis is an important cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reactive patients. A retrospective study was conducted on a total of 1,863 HIV reactive hospitalized patients suspected of cryptococcal meningitis. Three hundred and fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluid specimens of these cases were screened for various cryptococcal investigations. Thirty-nine out of 359 (10.86%) showed a definite diagnosis of cryptococcosis with a mortality rate of 25.64%. Prevalence of cryptococcal meningitis in the total HIV reactive cohort was 2.09%. Concurrent cryptococcal meningitis and tuberculosis was seen in 33.3% cases. A high index of clinical suspicion and routine mycological surveillance is required to help an early diagnosis and appropriate therapy, as majority of patients respond well to therapy if treated early.
  19 6,360 522
Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium : An emerging parasite
K Nagamani, P RR Pavuluri, M Gyaneshwari, K Prasanthi, M IS Rao, NK Saxena
April-June 2007, 25(2):133-136
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32719  PMID:17582183
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Crytposporidium in local population and to understand its epidemiology by molecular methods. Methods: Faecal samples from 681 children and 804 adults, admitted to tertiary care hospitals in twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad with complaints of diarrhoea; and six calves with diarrhoea, were screened for Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR RFLP) based identification of Cryptosporidium species in positive specimens was done to elucidate epidemiology of Cryptosporidium. Results : Cryptosporidium was found in 52 (7.6%) children and 7(0.9%) adults and 1(16.6%) calf with diarrhoea. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium in children below five years of age was 8.2% and 14.3% in children in the age group of six months to one year. Of the 42 samples genotyped 29 (69%) were C. hominis and 8 (19%) were C. parvum and 5 (11.9%) were mixed infection with the two species. Conclusions : Children in the age group of six months to one year were found to be the most vulnerable. The occurrence of C. parvum , in nearly one third of cases in the present series indicates that the zoonotic transmission is of considerable significance in the epidemiology of Cryptosporidiosis in the study area.
  19 7,743 681
Eumycetoma pedis due to Exophiala jeanselmei
MR Capoor, G Khanna, D Nair, A Hasan, Rajni , M Deb, P Aggarwal
April-June 2007, 25(2):155-157
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32726  PMID:17582190
A case of eumycetoma of foot in an 8-year old male child was clinically diagnosed as chronic osteomyelitis and was microbiologically confirmed as eumycetoma. The case is being reported for its uncommon clinical presentation and etiological agent, Exophiala jeanselmei. The patient recovered completely after treatment with ketoconazole.
  13 7,017 311
Meningitis caused by Rhodotorula rubra in an human immunodeficiency virus infected patient
K Thakur, G Singh, S Agarwal, L Rani
April-June 2007, 25(2):166-168
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32730  PMID:17582194
Rhodotorula spp . are common saprophytes but may be responsible for systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. Meningitis caused by Rhodotorula spp. in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients has been reported only rarely. We present a case of meningitis caused by Rhodotorula rubra in HIV infected patient. The presumptive diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis was made on the basis of India ink preparation, Gram staining and latex agglutination test (LAT) for cryptococcal antigen. The final diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of Rhodotorula rubra from cerebrospinal fluid on culture. LAT was considered false positive. Amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine were administered but the patient succumbed to his illness.
  12 7,629 345
Postoperative infection of laparoscopic surgery wound due to Mycobacterium chelonae
M Rajini, SR Prasad, RR Reddy, RV Bhat, KR Vimala
April-June 2007, 25(2):163-165
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32729  PMID:17582193
We report a case of postoperative wound infection due to Mycobacterium chelonae. A 35-year-old woman presented with multiple erythematous nodules, plaques and discharging sinuses over the abdomen, 45 days after she had undergone laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. The seropurulent discharge from the wound showed acid-fast bacilli on Ziehl- Neelsen stain and culture yielded Mycobacterium chelonae . The patient responded to clarithromycin and doxycycline. The source of infection was probably contaminated water or disinfectant solution used for sterilization of laparoscopic instruments.
  11 12,790 577
Evaluation of commercially available third-generation anti-hepatitis C virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients on haemodialysis
V Lakshmi, AK Reddy, KV Dakshinamurty
April-June 2007, 25(2):140-142
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32721  PMID:17582185
Restricted antibody reactivity to hepatitis C virus (HCV) synthetic peptides has been observed in HCV-infected patients on haemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to evaluate third-generation anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test systems containing either synthetic peptide HCV antigens or recombinant HCV antigens or a combination of synthetic and recombinant antigens in screening of 69 chronic renal failure patients on HD for HCV infection. Seven patients were detected to have antibodies to HCV by the 'recombinant HCV antigens'-containing kits, of which the recombinant immunoblot assay for HCV confirmed four cases. The recombinant kits had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 66%. However, the ELISA kits with only synthetic HCV antigens failed to detect antibodies in any of the cases (zero sensitivity). Hence a recombinant protein containing ELISA test system is ideal for screening of HCV infection in patients on hemodialysis.
  8 7,392 389
An epidemiological study of vulvovaginal candidiasis in women of childbearing age
N Jindal, P Gill, A Aggarwal
April-June 2007, 25(2):175-176
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32736  PMID:17582200
  8 6,794 643
Inflammatory markers in meconium induced lung injury in neonates and effect of steroids on their levels: A randomized controlled trial
S Tripathi, A Saili, R Dutta
April-June 2007, 25(2):103-107
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32714  PMID:17582178
Purpose: To determine the levels of TNFα and IL-1β in tracheal aspirates of neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and to ascertain whether the use of steroids by systemic or nebulized routes suppresses the levels of these inflammatory markers. Methods: This was a double blind, randomized, controlled, prospective, interventional study done over one year period in the neonatal unit of the Lady Hardinge Medical College. Fifty-one babies of MAS which were randomly distributed into three groups; control, systemic and nebulized steroids; were included in the study. Methyl prednisolone was given intravenously in the dosage of 0.5 mg/kg/day in two divided doses while nebulized budecort was given in a dosage of 50 mcg/dose twice daily. Tracheal aspirates were taken on day 1, 3 and 4 and were analyzed for TNFα and IL-1b by ELISA technique. Results: TNFα in tracheal aspirates showed an increasing trend in babies of MAS in first four days, thereby signifying an inflammatory process underlying the condition. The levels of TNFα were suppressed by use of steroids. Higher levels of TNFa were associated with longer stay in hospital. IL-1b did not show any significant correlation. Conclusions: TNFα is associated with meconium-associated inflammation. Its level is suppressed with the use of steroids and can also be used to assess prognosis of neonates with MAS.
  7 7,012 454
Hepatitis A vaccination in chronic liver disease: Is it really required in a tropical country like India?
N Joshi, S Rao, A Kumar, S Patil, S Rani
April-June 2007, 25(2):137-139
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32720  PMID:17582184
Vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been recommended in patients with chronic liver disease to prevent any decompensation due to superinfection. This may not hold good in high endemic areas for hepatitis A like India. The aim of this study was to find out the seroprevalence of anti-HAV antibodies in patients with chronic liver disease and to justify the need for vaccination against hepatitis A virus in these patients. One hundred and thirty three consecutive patients with cirrhosis of liver attending Gastroenterology department of our Institute between June 2004 and June 2005 were enrolled. Seventy-five healthy persons were taken as controls. The diagnosis of cirrhosis was based on clinical profile, biochemical, radiological (ultrasound abdomen) and endoscopic findings. The etiology of cirrhosis was based on presence of viral markers, history of significant alcohol consumption, autoimmune and metabolic workup. All patients and controls were tested for antiHAV (total) antibodies using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Data from patients and control group were compared by unpaired 't' test and Chi square test. All subjects were in the age group 11 to 75 years. Etiology of chronic liver disease was as follows: HBV- 29.3%, HCV - 14.28%, HBV+HCV dual -1.5%, alcohol- 21.8%, Cryptogenic -23.3%, Wilson"s Disease -1.5% and Budd chiari -1.5%. The prevalence of HAV was 93.2% in patients with cirrhosis of liver and 94.6% in controls. The prevalence was almost similar irrespective of the etiology. In view of high seroprevalence of HAV antibodies among cirrhotic patients in our study and the high cost of the vaccine, the hepatitis A vaccination may not be routinely required in this part of the world.
  6 9,516 450
Study of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and HCV infections in intravenous drug users in Mumbai
K Saraswathi, A Dutta
April-June 2007, 25(2):174-175
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32735  PMID:17582199
  6 3,835 257
Isolated liver abscesses in melioidosis
A Mukhopadhya, V Balaji, MV Jesudason, A Amte, R Jeyamani, G Kurian
April-June 2007, 25(2):150-151
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32724  PMID:17582188
Melioidosis is a suppurative chronic infection caused by a gramnegative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei . We report two patients who presented with isolated liver abscesses caused by this pathogen. Both patients presented with high-grade fever and abdominal pain. On examination they were toxic and had tender hepatomegaly. Investigations showed leucocytosis and a shift to the left. Early diagnosis of melioidosis was made by culture and growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei from aspirated pus from the abscesses and the patients were treated with ceftazidime and co-trimoxazole. Despite institution of antibiotics both the patients succumbed to their illness. Melioidosis is an emerging infection in the Indian subcontinent and can cause isolated liver abscesses.
  5 6,245 339
Circulating phage type of Vibrio cholerae in Mumbai
SD Turbadkar, DP Ghadge, S Patil, AS Chowdhary, R Bharadwaj
April-June 2007, 25(2):177-178
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32738  PMID:17582202
  5 5,040 239
Introducing mods: A low-cost, low-tech tool for high-performance detection of tuberculosis and multidrug resistant tuberculosis
L Caviedes, D AJ Moore
April-June 2007, 25(2):87-88
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32711  PMID:17582175
  4 10,560 907
Estimation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in Manipur
HR Singh, N GB Singh, TB Singh
April-June 2007, 25(2):126-132
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32718  PMID:17582182
Purpose : To estimate and stratify CD4 + and CD8 + T-lymphocyte levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected (asymptomatic) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients (symptomatic) and correlate the clinical features of the patients with CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte level. Methods : Between April 2002 and September 2003, a total of 415 HIV seropositive adult patients (297 males and 118 females) attending Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) hospitals were tested for CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes by fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS) counter (Becton Dickinson). Symptomatic patients were diagnosed as per NACO clinical case definition. Results : Ranges of 0-50, 51-100, 101-200, 201-300, 301-400, 401-500 and above 500 CD4+ T-lymphocyte per microlitre were seen in 68, 52, 101, 73, 47, 31 and 43 patients respectively whereas CD8+ T-lymphocyte ranges of 0-300, 301-600, 601-900, 901-1500, 1501-2000, 2001-3500 per microlitre were seen in 29, 84, 92, 145, 40 and 25 patients respectively. One hundred and fifty patients were asymptomatic and 265 were symptomatic. CD4/CD8 ratio in asymptomatics and symptomatics were 0.13-1.69 and 0.01-0.93 respectively. Tuberculosis and candidiasis occurred in CD4+ T-lymphocyte categories between 0-400 cells per mL in symptomatics. However, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, herpes zoster, cryptococcal meningitis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, penicilliosis and cytomegalovirus retinitis were seen in patients having CD4+ T-lymphocyte less than 200 per mL. Conclusions : CD4+ T-lymphocyte was decreased in both asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV patients, The decrease was greater in symptomatics while CD8+ T-lymphocyte was increased in both except advanced stage symptomatics. CD4:CD8 ratio was reversed in both groups. Opportunistic infections correlated with different CD4+ T-lymphocyte categories.
  4 8,095 592
A rare case of diphyllobothriasis from pondicherry, South India
C Sheela Devi, Shashikala , S Srinivasan, UC Murmu, P Barman, R Kanungo
April-June 2007, 25(2):152-154
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32725  PMID:17582189
Diphyllobothriasis is an intestinal parasitic infection caused by the ingestion of raw fresh-water fish containing the infectious larvae of Diphyllobothrium spp. This infection is uncommon in India. We report a case of diphyllobothriasis that occurred in Pondicherry, India, in a 5-year-old boy hailing from a fishing community. He attended the Pediatric OPD with spontaneous discharge of segments of the adult parasite. The segments (macroscopically and microscopically) were identified as those of Diphyllobothrium latum . The stool examination also revealed characteristic oval eggs.
  3 6,611 251
Fatal group a streptococcal meningitis in an adult
R Mani, A Mahadevan, S Pradhan, S Nagarathna, NS Srikanth, M Dias, A Chandramuki
April-June 2007, 25(2):169-170
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32731  PMID:17582195
Despite the recent resurgence in reports of invasive Group A Streptococcal (GAS) infections worldwide, it remains a rare cause of pyogenic meningitis both in children and adults. We report a case of fatal GAS meningitis in a healthy adult emphasizing the need for clinicians to be aware of its fulminant course, prompting early diagnosis and treatment. There is also a need to consider postexposure chemoprophylaxis in close contacts of such cases.
  3 6,489 319
Pulmonary hydatidosis: An unusual cause of haemoptysis
A Pandey, CL Arya, AK Asthana
April-June 2007, 25(2):158-160
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32727  PMID:17582191
A 28-year-old female patient was referred to us with complaints of massive haemoptysis and cough with expectoration, of two years' duration. Her chest radiograph, computed tomography scan and video-bronchoscopy revealed a cystic lesion in the right upper and lower zones of the lungs. Aspiration from the cyst fluid was grossly hemorrhagic and full of inflammatory cells. On digestion of the fluid with potassium hydroxide, it showed plenty of hooklets and scolices of Echinococcus granulosus . An intact brood capsule was also seen. Diagnosis of hydatidosis was further confirmed by a positive serological and therapeutic response to albendazole.
  3 5,519 329
Endocarditis due to Chryseobacterium meningosepticum
K Bomb, A Arora, N Trehan
April-June 2007, 25(2):161-162
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32728  PMID:17582192
Chryseobacterium meningosepticum is a gram negative rod widely distributed in nature. It is known to cause meningitis in neonates and premature infants. Adult infections are not common and are usually nosocomially acquired. We report an unusual case of native valve endocarditis in a 58-year-old man due to this organism. A high degree of suspicion and correct identification and sensitivity testing is required to diagnose infections by this rare isolate.
  3 7,025 378
Non-typhoid Salmonellosis: Emerging infection in Pune?
V Shahane, V Muley, A Kagal, R Bharadwaj
April-June 2007, 25(2):173-174
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32734  PMID:17582198
  3 3,823 298
Drug resistance profile of human Mycobacterium avium complex strains from India
D Venugopal, S Kumar, M Isa, M Bose
April-June 2007, 25(2):115-120
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32716  PMID:17582180
Purpose: To determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of various anti-tuberculosis drugs for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strains isolated from clinical samples. Methods: Forty-nine human isolates of MAC were tested for susceptibility to nine chemotherapeutic agents. All isolates were from Indian patients suffering from chronic pulmonary mycobacteriosis. Drug susceptibility was performed both by agar dilution and MIC method. MIC values were analysed, both visually and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reader. Results: More than 40% of the MAC isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacine (48.98%), amikacin (46.94%) and roxithromycin (42.86%) by the MIC method. In contrast, the isolates showed high degree of resistance to the first line antituberculosis drugs: only 28.6% were sensitive to rifampicine, 22.85% to isoniazid and ethambutol each and 36.7% were sensitive to streptomycin. In addition, 22.85% of the strains were sensitive to clofazimine and 34.7% to kanamycin. Conclusions: Results of the study confirm the suitability of the rapid broth micro dilution (MIC) method as a simple yet reliable method to assay for the drug susceptibility of nontuberculosis mycobacterium.
  3 8,026 556
International standards for tuberculosis care: Relevance and implications for laboratory professionals
M Pai, P Daley, PC Hopewell
April-June 2007, 25(2):89-92
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32712  PMID:17582176
On World Tuberculosis (TB) Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are suspected of having, TB and is intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all healthcare providers in delivering high quality care for patients of all ages, including those with smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB, TB caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TB/HIV coinfection. In this article, we present the ISTC, with a special focus on the diagnostic standards and describe their implications and relevance for laboratory professionals in India and worldwide. Laboratory professionals play a critical role in ensuring that all the standards are actually met by providing high quality laboratory services for smear microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing and other services such as testing for HIV infection. In fact, if the ISTC is widely followed, it can be expected that there will be a greater need and demand for quality assured laboratory services and this will have obvious implications for all laboratories in terms of work load, requirement for resources and trained personnel and organization of quality assurance systems.
  2 8,197 702
Screening of the family members of patients with acute Brucellosis in Southeast Iran
B Sharifi - Mood, M Metanat, R Alavi - Naini
April-June 2007, 25(2):176-177
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32737  PMID:17582201
  1 3,656 467
Clinico-epidemiological profile of HIV infection over a period of six years in a North Indian tertiary care hospital
V Gupta, N Singla, SS Lehl, J Chander
April-June 2007, 25(2):171-171
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32732  PMID:17582196
  1 3,726 242
Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection in pregnant women
M Mustafa, KS Ahmed, CM Habibullah
April-June 2007, 25(2):172-173
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32733  PMID:17582197
  - 3,483 231

2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04