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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2003| April-June  | Volume 21 | Issue 2  
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Effect of azadirachta indica (neem) on the growth pattern of dermatophytes
V Natarajan, PV Venugopal, T Menon
April-June 2003, 21(2):98-101
PURPOSE: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extracts of the leaves and seeds of the plant Azadirachta indica against various dermatophytes. METHODS: Clinical isolates of dermatophytes(Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum nanum) were treated with extracts of leaves and seeds of the plant Azadirachta indica (neem) for antifungal activity by in vitro tube dilution technique. RESULTS: The MIC of neem seed extracts was 31g/mL for all the dermatophytes tested. The neem seed extract at 15g/mL concentration (below MIC) was observed to be sufficient for distorting the growth pattern of the organisms tested. CONCLUSIONS: The changes in growth curve of the treated dermatophytes were found to be statistically significant with reference to the untreated fungi.
  37 20,456 968
Occurrence and characterisation of uropathogenic escherichia coli in urinary tract infections
R Raksha, H Srinivasa, RS Macaden
April-June 2003, 21(2):102-107
PURPOSE: To study the occurrence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in cases with urinary tract infections. METHODS: A total of 220 cases from urinary tract infections and 50 stool samples from apparently healthy individuals were included. The colonies identified as Escherichia coli were screened for virulence factors namely haemolysin, Mannose Resistant and Mannose Sensitive Haemagglutination (MRHA, MSHA), Cell surface hydrophobicity and Serum resistance by recommended methods. RESULTS: Among 220 cases 91(41.36%) were haemolytic, 68(30.9%) showed MRHA, 58(26.36%) were cell surface hydrophobicity positive and 72(32.72%) were serum resistant. In 50 controls 3(6%) were haemolytic, 6(12%) showed MRHA, 9(18%) showed cell surface hydrophobicity and 12(24%) were serum resistant. The difference between cases and controls for haemolysis and MRHA were significant (p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively). A total of 14 atypical Escherichia coli were isolated from urine and all showed the presence of one or the other virulence markers.Out of 18 mucoid Escherichia coli isolated 10 were serum resistant. Interestingly among the 15 Escherichia coli isolated from patients with pyelonephritis 8 were UPEC. CONCLUSIONS: Out of 220 urinary isolates, 151 could be labelled as UPEC.
  24 13,225 980
Seroprevalence of torch infection in bad obstetric history
D Turbadkar, M Mathur, M Rele
April-June 2003, 21(2):108-110
Primary infection with TORCH complex [Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes simplex virus II (HSV-II)] in pregnant women can lead to adverse outcome which are initially inapparent or asymptomatic and thus difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds. Over a one-year period 380 serum samples were collected from pregnant women having bad obstetric history, attending antenatal clinic. In the present study we have shown the prevalence of Toxoplasma, Rubella, CMV, HSV-II infection in pregnant women by demonstrating the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA test. It was found that, IgM antibodies were positive in 40 (10.52%) for Toxoplasma, 102 (26.8%) for Rubella, 32 (8.42%) for CMV and 14 (3.6%) for HSV-II. IgG antibodies were positive in 160 (42.10%) for Toxoplasma, 233 (61.3%) for Rubella, 346 (91.05%) for CMV 145 (33.58%) for HSV-II. Hence all antenatal cases with bad obstetric history should be routinely screened for TORCH as early diagnosis and appropriate intervention, will help in proper management of these cases.
  22 16,700 768
Mother-to-child transmission and diagnosis of toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy
S Singh
April-June 2003, 21(2):69-76
Toxoplasmosis is caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is world-wide in distribution and infects most of the vertebrates. The cat family animals (Felides) are its definitive host. The humans are infected either through contaminated food, water, transfusion of infected blood, organ transplantation or from mother-to-foetus through placenta. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Indian pregnant women is variably reported. However, the knowledge about this infection, its diagnosis and interpretation of test results is a major problem in the Indian context. Though Toxoplasma infection does not cause repeated fetal losses, this is the most common indication for investigation of toxoplasmosis in India. There are several diagnostic test kits available in Indian market, however, their quality is not assessed by most of the laboratories before they are procured. There is also no baseline data on the antibody titres in various subpopulations of India. This review is focused on various modes of transmission, prevalence data and its significance and interpretation of various antibody tests in pregnant mothers and in babies.
  22 20,259 1,025
Vancomycin sensitivity and koh string test as an alternative to gram staining of bacteria
K Arthi, B Appalaraju, S Parvathi
April-June 2003, 21(2):121-123
Two hundred and eighteen bacterial isolates obtained from various clinical samples were subjected to Gram stain by conventional method. For all the isolates potassium hydroxide (KOH) string test and sensitivity to vancomycin were done. Gram positive bacteria showed 100% sensitivity to vancomycin as also 100% negativity for string test. Of the gram negative bacteria, 99.42% were resistant to vancomycin while 98.85% were positive for the string test. KOH and vancomycin tests are simple, inexpensive and can be used in addition to Gram staining for rapid identification of bacterial cultures.
  6 21,422 428
Hydatid cyst of the left ventricle of the heart
CV Umesan, VM Kurian, S Verghese, A Sivaraman, KM Cherian
April-June 2003, 21(2):139-140
Hydatid disease of the heart is rare. We report a case of hydatid cyst of left ventricle in a forty year old lady where the diagnosis was made intra-operatively. The transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography showed a mixed echogenic mass arising from the left ventricle. The diagnosis of hydatid cyst was confirmed by the demonstration of scolex and hooklets in the cyst fluid. Hydatid cyst should be a differential diagnosis for a mixed echogenic mass on echocardiography.
  5 28,216 211
Determination of baseline widal titres from Chandigarh
JN Punia, RM Joshi, V Gupta, RK Arora
April-June 2003, 21(2):144-144
  5 5,879 377
Nosocomial klebsiella infection in neonates in a tertiary care hospital: Protein profile by SDS-page and klebocin typing as epidemiological markers
A Malik, SE Hasani, M Shahid, HM Khan, AJ Ahmad
April-June 2003, 21(2):82-86
PURPOSE: To find out the prevalence of Klebsiella in hospital acquired neonatal infections in a tertiary care set up and to evaluate the role of klebocin typing and protein profile by SDS-PAGE in epidemiological typing of the isolates. METHODS: Hospital born neonates transferred to the neonatal unit after birth and available in the unit 48 hours later comprised the study group. Two hundred and three neonates were found eligible for inclusion in the study. Repeated blood cultures, other relevant clinical specimens and environmental samples were collected and identified according to the standard techniques. Isolated clinical and environmental Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were subjected to klebocin typing and protein profiling by SDS-PAGE at regular intervals. RESULTS: Multi drug resistant K. pneumoniae were the commonest organism isolated in 30 neonates leading to the incidence of Klebsiella nosocomial infection to be 14.7%. Klebocin typing of the K. pneumoniae isolates showed four patterns with type 312 being the commonest (43.4%). Whole cell protein analysis by SDS-PAGE of K. pneumoniae isolates revealed four types of banding pattern. Analysis of the typing method showed that the typeability and reproducibility of klebocin was 83.3% and 73.3% respectively whereas typeability and reproducibility of SDS-PAGE was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present study it is concluded that SDS-PAGE typing method is better than klebocin typing in neonatal nosocomial infection. It is also suggested that protein profile by SDS-PAGE may be used as a tool for epidemiological typing of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in laboratories where genomic based molecular typing technique is not available.
  5 8,329 408
Microbial flora in orodental infections
S Saini, Aparna, N Gupta, A Mahajan, DR Arora
April-June 2003, 21(2):111-114
The present study was carried out to compare the normal aerobic and anaerobic bacterial oral flora with flora from deep seated dental caries, gingivitis and adult periodontitis. All the samples belonging to both the control and study groups yielded microbes. Aerobe / Anaerobe ratio was high in normal flora (1.48) as compared to dental caries (0.9), gingivitis (0.72) and periodontitis (0.56). Ninety seven percent of orodental infections were polymicrobial and three or more microbes were found in 84% cases of study group as compared to 28% in controls. Streptococcus mutans and anaerobic lactobacilli were common in dental caries, Actinomyces and Peptostreptococcus spp. in gingivitis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis.
  4 10,753 662
Injection site abscess due to mycobacterium fortuitum: A case report
DR G Devi, VA Indumathi, S Indira, PR S Babu, D Sridharan, MR S Belwadi
April-June 2003, 21(2):133-134
Injection abscess is an iatrogenic infection occurring as an isolated case or as cluster outbreak. These infections occur due to contaminated injectables or lapse in sterilisation protocol. While pathogens such as Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, E. coli, and S. aureus are the usual causative agents, unusual organisms such as mycobacteria, particularly the rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may cause the abscess. The chances of overlooking these organisms is high unless an acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear and culture is done on all aspirated pus specimens. We report a case of a three year old child who presented with a gluteal abscess following an intramuscular infection with an unknown preparation.
  4 15,439 266
Isolation of burkholderia pseudomallei from a case of septicaemia - A case report
K Anuradha, AK Meena, V Lakshmi
April-June 2003, 21(2):129-132
Meliodosis, an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei has been recognized as an emerging infectious disease in India. The infection is under diagnosed and underreported, and hence considered a rare disease. Majority of the cases have been documented from the states with heavy rainfall. The present case being reported is a middle-aged woman who had developed a fulminant infection following exposure to stagnant floodwater in the city of Hyderabad. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of Melioidosis being reported from this part of the country.
  2 5,832 329
Coinfection with cryptosporidium, isospora and s.stercoralis in a patient with aids - A case report
UV Shah, BC Purohit, D Chandralekha, MH Mapara
April-June 2003, 21(2):137-138
A thirty eight year old lady, positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies, was found to be positive for three different opportunistic parasitic infections. Cryptosporidium, Isospora and S.stercoralis were simultaneously detected from her stool samples. Her CD4 count was 116/cmm. The patient belonged to a slum area with poor sanitation.
  2 4,773 235
Co-infection with Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency viruses in patients of liver disease
A Kumar, I Shukla, A Malik
April-June 2003, 21(2):141-142
  2 4,104 187
Emergence of vibrio cholerae O139 in and around Hyderabad
AK Bilolikar, SM Dass, P Sarguna, KN S Ramana, A Rao
April-June 2003, 21(2):146-146
  2 3,523 139
Screening by VDRL test to detect hidden cases of syphilis
N Gupta, V Gautam, R Sehgal, PS Gill, DR Arora
April-June 2003, 21(2):118-120
A total of 59,450 sera from January 1996 to December 2000 were subjected to VDRL testing. Overall VDRL positivity rate was 3.2% and downward trend was observed in the recent years, 1999 and 2000. Majority of the samples were from Gynaecology department, out of which 1.57% were VDRL positive. Out of 30,045 samples from antenatal females, 517(1.47%) were positive, while 304(1.8%) were positive out of 16,980 samples obtained from couples. Out of 304 samples from couples found positive, 17.4% wives had titre >R16; 27.9% wives had titre R1 to R8, out of which 15.3% husbands had titre of >R16. Also, 166 wives with nonreactive VDRL had 19.3% husbands with titre > R16. Thus, couple VDRL test plays an important role in detection of hidden cases of syphilis in the community and early detection and treatment of such cases will further reduce the perinatal morbidity and mortality.
  1 16,406 295
Anaerobes in bacterial vaginosis
A Aggarwal, P Devi, R Jain
April-June 2003, 21(2):124-126
Four hundred high vaginal swabs were taken from patients attending gynaecology and obstetrics department of Govt. medical college, Amritsar. The patients were divided into four groups i.e. women in pregnancy (Group I), in labour/post partum (Group II), with abnormal vaginal discharge or bacterial vaginosis (Group III) and asymptomatic women as control (Group IV). Anaerobic culture of vaginal swabs revealed that out of 400 cases, 212(53%) were culture positive. Maximum isolation of anaerobes was in group III (84%) followed by group II (56%), group I (36%) and control group (15%). Gram positive anaerobes (69.2%) out numbered gram negatives (30.8%). Among various isolates Peptostreptococcus spp. and Bacteroides spp. were predominant.
  1 11,768 466
Resistance of mycobacterium tuberculosis to the first line anti tubercular drugs - A twenty year review
MV Jesudason, U Mukundan, R Saaya, K Vanitha, MK Lalitha
April-June 2003, 21(2):127-128
Tuberculosis and more so the multi drug resistant variety has been thrust into the forefront as a serious and life threatening illness in recent years. The advent of AIDS contributes to this substantially, especially in the developed world where it had become practically non- existent. We reviewed our data over the past 20 years with a view to determine when drug resistance began to manifest in the strains.
  1 5,975 371
A study of diarrhoea among children in eastern Nepal with special reference to rotavirus
M Shariff, M Deb, R Singh
April-June 2003, 21(2):87-90
PURPOSE: To examine the incidence of Rotavirus infection in children below five years of age. METHODS: Faecal samples from 160 children under five years of age with acute gastroenteritis were collected over a period of one year from July 1999 to June 2000. These were studied for the presence of Rotavirus antigen by enzyme immuno assay (EIA). RESULTS: Rota antigen could be detected in 62 (38.7%) samples. Co-infection with other parasites or bacterial pathogens in presence of Rota antigen was also demonstrated. Forty one (66.4%) children were admitted for hospital care. Forty two samples positive by EIA were further tested by latex agglutination (LA) to consider introducing this test routinely in clinical laboratory. Although a rapid and convenient test, LA failed to demonstrate antigen in 15(35.6%) of the samples. CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus infection of children in Nepal is reported for the first time. EIA was found to be more sensitive than LA for the detection of Rotavirus antigen in faecal samples.
  1 8,638 376
Expression and humoral immune response to Hepatitis C virus using a plasmid DNA construct
S Ray, SI Broor, Y Vaishnav, L Dar, P Seth, S Broor
April-June 2003, 21(2):93-97
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to clone a c-DNA fragment of hepatitis C virus in a eukaryotic expression vector and to measure the efficacy of humoral immune responses in mice inoculated with this recombinant plasmid. This study was an attempt to lay a foundation for HCV nucleic acid vaccine development in the future. METHODS: A c-DNA fragment of BK146, a clone of HCV type 1b, was sub-cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pMT3. HepG2 and COS cells were transfected with this construct, named pMT3-BK146. The expression of HCV mRNA and proteins was studied by reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction, radio Immunoprecipitation (RIPA) and immunofluorescence (IFA). The DNA of this construct was injected into the footpad of BALB/c mice and antibody response was tested by enzyme immunoassay and indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: COS and HepG2 cells transiently transfected with the recombinant plasmid pMT3-BK146 showed the expression of HCV proteins by RT-PCR, RIPA and immunofluorescence. This DNA clone when injected into Balb/c mice was able to generate specific antibody response to hepatitis C virus by ELISA and IFA. CONCLUSIONS: A c-DNA fragment of HCV cloned in an eukaryotic expression vector was able to express core protein. This DNA clone was also able to elicit antibody response in mice. This can be an initial step towards the development of a potential DNA vaccine for hepatitis C virus infection.
  1 8,870 303
Cloning of gag gene of HIV-1 subtype c (Indian strain) into a mammalian expression vector and in vitro expression studies
P Chugh
April-June 2003, 21(2):77-81
PURPOSE: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome caused by HIV-1 is one of the biggest health problems we are facing today. It is required to concentrate efforts towards designing a safe, effective and affordable vaccine candidate in the context of the growing epidemic worldwide. Recently the approach of DNA based immunogen has evoked a lot of enthusiasm in the preclinical models. METHODS: This study was designed towards a subtype C based gag DNA construct in the expression vector pJW4304. The gag and protease genes of HIV-1 subtype C were cloned into a mammalian expression vector pJW4304. The cloning strategy was designed so as to express a naturally processed form of the protein. Expression of gag protein by the construct pJWgagprotease49587 was evaluated by western blotting, p24 antigen capture ELISA and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Gag p24 was detected both in the supernatant and in the transfected cells. Extra cellular p24 protein was estimated by p24 antigen capture ELISA. Immunoblotting using HIV positive polyclonal sera further confirmed the expression and processing of gag gene. The 24kDa band has been observed in cell lysates, which indicates that the proper processing is taking place in the presence of protease. Virus like particles were seen budding from the cell membrane 24 and 48 hours post transfection by transmission electron microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: The recombinant construct pJWgagprotease49587 has shown good expression in vitro and therefore is a good candidate to study immunogenicity of the construct. Immunogenicity testing in mice is being carried out currently with this construct.
  1 5,800 257
Book Review 1
R Kanungo
April-June 2003, 21(2):147-147
  - 2,928 89
Book Review 2
GK Vemuganti
April-June 2003, 21(2):147-147
  - 2,608 52
Book Review 3
R Kanungo
April-June 2003, 21(2):147-148
  - 3,085 115
Book Review 4
R Kanungo
April-June 2003, 21(2):148-149
  - 3,118 130
A hospital based study of Hepatitis E by serology
B Mishra, H Srinivasa, S Muralidharan, S Charles, RS Macaden
April-June 2003, 21(2):115-117
Hepatitis E virus is recently recognised as an important cause of non-A, non-B hepatitis. A total of 569 serum samples were screened for HEV between April 1997 and March 2000, by a commercially available HEV IgM capture ELISA. The diagnosis was invariably acute viral hepatitis for differential diagnosis of jaundice. The percentage of seropositivity was found to be 18.8% in confirmed Hepatitis E cases.
  - 6,153 290
Bacterial endocarditis due to eikenella corrodens: A case report
A Mahapatra, S Mishra, D Pattnaik, K Patnaik
April-June 2003, 21(2):135-136
Of all the causes of bacterial endocarditis, HACEK group consisting of Haemophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella Kingae are rare causative agents. We report a case of bacterial endocarditis by E. corrodens, which is one of the members of the HACEK group.
  - 6,479 213
A novel method for demonstration of bacterial and yeast capsule
S Kapale, H Chaudhary, C Chande, S Shrikhande, RP Fule
April-June 2003, 21(2):143-143
  - 7,135 197
Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV negative infant
PS Nirwan, AS Dalal, BP Peters, VL Rastogi, K Mehta
April-June 2003, 21(2):145-145
  - 3,608 107
Molecular biology techniques, making their way into clinical microbiology laboratories
S Sharma
April-June 2003, 21(2):68-68
  - 5,638 282

2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

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