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   2001| July-September  | Volume 19 | Issue 3  
 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Prevalence, identification and distribution of various species of enterococci isolated from clinical specimens with special reference to urinary tract infection in catheterized patients
PJ Desai, D Pandit, M Mathur, A Gogate
July-September 2001, 19(3):132-137
PMID:17664815
Various clinical specimens were processed to find the prevalence rate of enterococci and to identify the species of clinical isolates of enterococci. Screening of various clinical specimens revealed that enterococci were prevalent in 22.19% of the total specimens, with Foley's catheters and burn wounds to be the major site of isolation. High rate of colonization was noted as opposed to infection. Conventional test scheme proposed by Facklam and Collins were successfully used to speciate enterococcal strains. Seven species of enterococci were identified in the study from a set of 202 cultures, with E.faecalis (49.50%) and E. faecium (35.64%) predominating. E. avium (9.40%), E.hirae (2.47%), E.raffinosus (1.98%) and one isolate each of E.gallinarum and E. casseliflavus were the other members of Enterococcus species identified. Urinary tract infection (UTI) by enterococci due to catherisation was found in 8.92% of the patients and is probably the result of high rate of colonization of Foley's catheters and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
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Significance of HBV DNA by PCR over serological markers of HBV in acute and chronic patients
C Rodrigues, M Deshmukh, T Jacob, R Nukala, S Menon, A Mehta
July-September 2001, 19(3):141-144
PMID:17664817
A study was undertaken to determine Hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA) by PCR in acute and chronic hepatitis B infection and to correlate it with serological markers. Three hundred and forty-five serum samples of patients from all over India were categorized into different groups according to their serological profile. HBV DNA was detected upon amplification in 166/263 patients in group A, 3/14 patients in group B, and 2/32 patients in group C, and was not detected in groups D and E. The presence of HBV DNA in 49 patients with non-replicative HBV disease, as defined by the absence of HBeAg, suggests low levels of viremia which is also supported by the abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) in these patients. In addition, HBV DNA was detected in small proportion of individuals with past HBV infection. This data suggests that, detection of HBV DNA by amplification technique serves as an important supplementary tool besides serology in a number of clinical settings, especially in determining low levels of viremia in patients with non-replicative HBV disease and chronic hepatitis, and also in a few patients with past HBV infection and who could be asymptomatic carriers of HBV infection.
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A new approach to differentiate recent vs chronic toxoplasma infection: Avidity elisa in toxoplasma serology
P Yasodhara, BA Ramalakshmi, M KJ Sarma
July-September 2001, 19(3):145-148
PMID:17664818
The diagnosis of toxoplamosis during pregnancy is based on maternal serology, due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease. Detection of specific IgM although is the method used all over the world to detect acute infection, persistence of IgM for long periods poses problems in distinguishing acute from chronic infection, which is of crucial importance in pregnancy. Avidity ELISA is a method recently developed to distinguish IgG antibodies developed at an early stage of infection from those that reflect past immunity. The avidity assay uses protein-denaturing agents and is a modification of an ELISA. The usefulness of this technique was tested on sera of 113 pregnant women screened for Toxoplasma specific IgG/IgM antibodies. Nine of the sixteen sera positive for IgM/IgG antibodies and three sera positive for IgG alone were subjected to avidity ELISA. Only three sera were positive for low avidity IgG indicative of recent infection. All the three sera positive for IgG alone showed high avidity.
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Microbes and blood transfusion
S Narayan
July-September 2001, 19(3):119-126
PMID:17664813
Transfusion medicine has been constantly evolving through the years with improved technologies that enhance the capability of identifying existing and newer emerging transfusion transmissible infections (TTI). In spite of the efforts made by blood banks the risk of TTI remains. This article deals with the various steps involved in ensuring blood safety, i.e. donor selection, role of screening donated blood for known and emerging infections, issues and assessment of threat posed by the risk, methodologies employed for testing and possible suggestions to improve transfusion services. While the threat of TTI remains, with a concerted effort of private and government organisations, and co-operation from the diagnostic companies, it is possible to raise the levels of blood safety. A surveillance system is also essential to identify any new agents that might pose a threat in a geographic area and to include them too in the screening process.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Bacteriological study of pyogenic meningitis with special reference to C-reactive protein
SS Tankhiwale, PM Jagtap, RK Khadse, SV Jalgaonkar
July-September 2001, 19(3):159-160
PMID:17664824
Seventy five clinically, biochemically and microscopically diagnosed cases of pyogenic meningitis including 28 adults and 47 paediatric patients were studied. Gram positive isolates in adults and gram negative bacilli in paediatric age group were the predominant organisms. Estimation of C-reactive protein (CRP) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum was done in all cases as an early marker for rapid diagnosis of pyogenic meningitis. Simultaneous estimation of CRP levels in serum and CSF was found to have a significant diagnostic utility as compared to culture.
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Evaluation of a novel, two component, two step AFB cold staining method
DG Tripathi, MW Desai, AM Mesquita
July-September 2001, 19(3):163-165
PMID:17664826
AFB smear is a clinically useful and a cost effective test for screening of sputum samples for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Routinely, Ziehl Neelsen stain, using the traditional hot staining procedure is the mainstay of sputum smear AFB tests. We have evaluated a novel two components, two step cold AFB stain to establish its sensitivity, simplicity and reproducibility as compared to the traditional 'ZN Hot' stain still regarded as the standard AFB stain in routine laboratory practice. This study was conducted over a period of four months at the TB Hospital, Taleigao Goa. Comparatively the two components, two step AFB stain was easy to use, time, labour and cost saving. It gave reproducible results during the study period. The most important characteris tics were that it nearly doubled (~91%) the detection rate of AFB positive sputum in our hospital.
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EDITORIAL
Guest editorial the tragedy of tigers: Lessons to learn from nandankanan episode
SC Parija, S Bhattacharya
July-September 2001, 19(3):116-118
PMID:17664812
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SPECIAL ARTICLE
Neuronal apoptosis in herpes simplex virus - 1 Encephalitis (HSE)
S Athmanathan, BV Vydehi, C Sundaram, GK Vemuganti, J MK Murthy
July-September 2001, 19(3):127-131
PMID:17664814
Herpes simplex virus infections are encountered often due to their ubiquitous nature. Common sites involved include skin, mucous membrane, genitalia, eye and the nervous system. HSV infection of the central nervous system can be life threatening. Little is known about the pathogenesis of this cataclysmic disease, at the cellular level. Virus induced apoptosis may play a role in the molecular pathogenesis of encephalitis. This study aims to detect the presence of apoptosis: a) In the brain tissue obtained at autopsy from a patient who succumbed to Herpes simplex virus - 1 encephalitis (HSE) and b) In a human glioblastoma cell line (SNB 19). Wedge tissue samples were obtained from the inferior surface of the frontal lobe and fixed in buffered formalin. Tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histopathological analysis. An indirect immunoperoxidase assay was performed for the detection of HSV -1 antigen in the tissue sections. Apoptosis in the brain tissue was detected employing the TUNEL assay (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT) mediated deoxy Uridine Triphosphate Nick End Labeling) using a commerically available kit (TdT Fragel DNA fragmentation detection kit, Oncogene Research Products, CA). HSV-1 induced apoptosis of SNB 19 cells were detected in-vitro by: a) Membrane blebbing assay and b) Hoechst 33258 staining. Classical features of viral encephalitis including the presence of intranuclear inclusions, neuronal loss and perivascular cuffing were seen in the tissue sections. The immunoperoxidase assay revealed the presence of abundant viral antigen in the neurons, microglial and satellite cells. TUNEL assay revealed many apoptotic neurons, microglial and satellite cells. In-vitro assays showed evidence of HSV-1 induced apoptosis in the SNB 19 cell line. These results suggest that virus induced apoptosis may play a role in the molecular pathogenesis of HSE. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the role of HSV-1 induced apoptosis, especially employing cell lines of neuronal origin.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among methicillin resistant staphylococcus isolates in Assam
D Majumder, JN Sarma Bordoloi, AC Phukan, J Mahanta
July-September 2001, 19(3):138-140
PMID:17664816
Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a referral hospital in Assam was studied. Methicillin resistance among the Staphylococcus aureus isolates was 52.9% and 15% among the coagulase negative staphylococci. Resistance to all antibiotics tested among the methicillin resistant and methicillin sensitive staphylococci was found to be 23.2% and 6.6% respectively. Higher resistance to multiple antibiotics in methicillin resistant strains as compared to methicillin sensitive strains was found to be statistically significant. Ciprofloxacin resistance among the strains was still lower in comparison to the findings from other parts of the country.
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CASE STUDY
Cryptococcal meningitis in aids patients - A report of two cases
U Arora, A Aggarwal
July-September 2001, 19(3):153-154
PMID:17664821
A fiftyfive year old gentleman with HIV infection was investigated for meningitis.Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated.Second case was a lady of 42 years, with HIV infection, was also investigated for meningitis. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated. Antigen was detected in CSF as well as serum in both the cases.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients
G Manoharan, BK Padmavathy, S Vasanthi, R Gopalte
July-September 2001, 19(3):157-158
PMID:17664823
Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8%
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CASE STUDY
Salmonella enteritidis meningitis - A case report
A Varaiya, K Saraswathi, U Tendolkar, A De, S Shah, M Mathur
July-September 2001, 19(3):151-152
PMID:17664820
A male infant admitted with pyogenic meningitis with protein energy malnutrition developed fatal infection due to Salmonella enteritidis. The same organism was isolated from CSF and blood cultures.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Penicillin resistant neisseria gonorrhoeae at Aurangabad
GS Bhatambare, RP Karyakarte
July-September 2001, 19(3):155-156
PMID:17664822
A total of 101 male patients with signs and symptoms suggestive of gonococcal urethritis were studied and 60 showed growth of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on culture. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Four strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin. The resistant strains were tested for production of b-lactamase. The rapid iodometric method for detection of b-lactamase showed that two strains produced b-lactamase.
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CASE STUDY
Clostridium ramosum in a case of cerebellar abscess
R Set, S Kandian, GV Koppikar
July-September 2001, 19(3):149-150
PMID:17664819
A case of cerebellar abscess due to Clostridium ramosum is reported here. The microbiological workup has been discussed.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATION
EMM types of streptococcus pyogenes in Chennai
T Menon, AM Whatmore, S Srivani, MP Kumar, N Anbumani, S Rajaji
July-September 2001, 19(3):161-162
PMID:17664825
The M protein of group A Streptococcus (GAS) is the major virulence factor and is coded by the emm gene. The current serologic M typing methods are now being replaced by alternate means of M type deduction such as emm gene sequencing. This is the first report of emm types of GAS which are prevalent in south India. We found no marked preponderance of any single emm sequence among our clinical isolates with 11 emm sequences being present in 34 isolates.
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EDITORIAL
Impact of human genome sequencing on microbiology
SE Hasnain
July-September 2001, 19(3):114-115
PMID:17664811
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CORRESPONDENCE
Reporting for cryptosporidium species in routine stool microscopy
A Chaudhury
July-September 2001, 19(3):166-166
PMID:17664827
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Author's reply
N Malla
July-September 2001, 19(3):0-0
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2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04