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   2001| April-June  | Volume 19 | Issue 2  
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Botulism: An update
S Mohanty, B Dhawan, R Chaudhry
April-June 2001, 19(2):35-43
Botulism is a paralytic illness caused by the action of a neurotoxin elaborated by Clostridium botulinum. Other clostridial bacteria, like C.butyricum and C.baratii can also produce the toxin leading to signs and symptoms of botulism. Though rare, the illness is potentially fatal and can masquerade as other illnesses making diagnosis difficult. Physicians need to familiarize themselves with the disease as prompt recognition and early treatment can considerably curtail the fatal outcome in the affected and prevent additional cases in the unaffected. New diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive modalities to tackle the disease have come into focus. Botulinum toxin, generally considered a potent poison, is successfully being used for treatment of various neuromuscular disorders representing one of the most dramatic role reversals of modern times.
  15,087 581 -
Culture of body fluids using the bact/alert system
V Lakshmi
April-June 2001, 19(2):44-50
The BacT/Alert system was evaluated for its utility to recover clinically significant bacteria from several sterile body fluids, other than blood. Of the1500 specimens processed, 530 (35.33%) cultures were recorded positive by the BacT/Alert bottles while only 379 (25%) cultures were recovered on the plate cultures. The mean time to detection was <12 hours for Gram-negative organisms and 12 - 16 hours for the Gram-positive organisms. The rapid detection of important pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Salmonella typhi, within 12 hours of inoculation, is of particular interest especially in serious infections like deep-seated abscesses. This enabled the treating physician to start the specific and appropriate antibiotics early and facilitated a better prognosis in the patient. The system is also very efficient in the early detection of anaerobes from the clinical specimens.
  13,560 362 -
Study of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates from high risk patients
S Vidhani, PL Mehndiratta, MD Mathur
April-June 2001, 19(2):13-16
MRSA is an important hospital pathogen, the incidence of which is increasing every year especially in high risk groups. The present study was performed in high risk patients admitted in burns and orthopaedic units of LN hospital to study the infection rate of MRSA from these units. The proportion of MRSA amongst S. aureus isolates was found to be 51.6% and these isolates were multidrug resistant. Phage typing of these isolates gave a typeability of 41.8% using the MRSA set of phages. Biotyping of these isolates could divide them into four groups. The study shows a high incidence of MRSA from burns and orthopaedic units with a high level of antibiotic resistance amongst these isolates.
  12,536 1,074 -
Haemagglutination, haemolysin production and serum resistance of proteus and related species isolated from clinical sources
M Mishra, YS Thakar, AA Pathak
April-June 2001, 19(2):5-11
A total of 148 strains of Proteus and related species comprising of Proteus mirabilis (116), Proteus vulgaris (24), Providentia rettgeri (4), Providentia alcalifaciens (2), Providentia stuarti (1) and Morganella morganii (1), isolated from various sources, were examined for haemagglutination (HA), haemolysin production (HL) and serum resistance (SR). Maximum isolates were obtained from urine (47.30%) and pus (40.54%) and they were multidrug resistant. The sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin was 78.38%, Gentamicin: 62.84%, Cefotaxime: 29.73%, Norfloxacin: 22.97%, Tetracycline: 20.95% and Ampicillin: 6.76%. There were four commonest resistance patterns shown by 58.62% of Proteus mirabilis and 66.67% of Proteus vulgaris strains. Haemagglutination was shown by 91 (61.49%) strains, HL production in 126 (85.14%) strains and SR by 124 (83.78%) isolates. All the three i.e. HA, HL and SR were simultaneously present in 77 (52.27%) strains, any two were present in 40 (27.03%) strains and any one was positive in 30 (20.03%) strains. Thus in as many as 147 (98.32%) isolates, any one or more virulence factors were present. The virulence in commensal pathogen like Proteus is basically a multifactorial phenomenon. The presence of more virulence factors in one strain may increase its pathogenic ability. The evaluation of multiple virulence factors instead of one single parameter will be of greater help in assessing its pathogenic potential.
  9,734 318 -
Colonization of pregnant women and their newborn infants with group-B streptococci
AA Kulkarni, SG Pawar, CA Dharmadhikari, RD Kulkarni
April-June 2001, 19(2):1-4
As group B streptococci (GBS) prevalence varies from place to place and this organism is responsible for serious infections in newborns such as septicaemia and meningitis, the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of GBS in pregnant women and their neonates. From June 1998 to April 1999 a total of 317 pregnant women and their neonates were examined for GBS. GBS colonization rate was 2.52% and 1.26% in pregnant women and their neonates respectively. Four sites - viz. throat, external ears, external nares and stump of umbilicus from neonates were found to be equally colonized by GBS immediately after birth and at the time of discharge from hospital, except the umbilicus which was not swabbed at the time of discharge. None of the neonates developed GBS related sepsis. Selective broth medium (SBM) was found to be a superior transport method over Stuart transport medium and filter paper method. All the isolates were sensitive to Ampicillin, Erythromycin, Penicillin followed by Chloramphenicol 66.6% (12/18). All the strains were resistant to Gentamicin, followed by Tetracycline 94.4% (17/18) and Kanamycin 88.8% (16/18).
  9,066 410 -
Prevalence of specific IGM due to toxoplasma, rubella, CMV and c.trachomatis infections during pregnancy
P Yasodhara, BA Ramalakshmi, AN Naidu, L Raman
April-June 2001, 19(2):52-56
One hundred and seventy five apparently normal asymptomatic pregnant women were studied prospectively and 247 women with different complications of pregnancy were screened at the time of delivery for infections like Chlamydia trachomatis, Toxoplasma, Rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV). One hundred and forty two women with normal outcome of pregnancy served as controls. Specific IgM due to these agents were determined in the sera using commercial diagnostic kits. Results of the study showed that chlamydial infection was the most prevalent (29.8%) followed by Toxoplasmosis (13.1), Rubella (6.5%) and CMV (5.8%). Adverse outcome was seen among those seropositive for Chlamydia, Toxoplasmosis and Rubella. CMV showed no association with adverse outcome of pregnancy. Since Chlamydia and Toxoplasmosis are amenable to treatment with antibiotics, screening for these infections and appropriate treatment would improve outcome of pregnancy.
  7,815 466 -
First documented transmission of HIV infection in a health care worker in West Bengal
DK Neogi
April-June 2001, 19(2):33-34
This is a case report of HIV infection in a nursing staff in Kolkata. She got the infection through needle stick injury while transferring blood from a syringe to specimen collection tube without taking any precaution and no post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) was advised. This is the first documentation of transmission of HIV infection in a worker engaged in health care delivery system in Bengal.
  7,465 132 -
Anti - H. pylori IgG seroprevalence rates in asymptomatic children and adults from South India
V Kate, N Ananthakrishnan, C Ratnakar, S Badrinath
April-June 2001, 19(2):20-25
This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of H.pylori in asymptomatic children and compare it with that seen in the asymptomatic adult population from south India. One hundred and five children and one hundred adults admitted to the wards for conditions other than gastrointestinal disorders were included for this study. H.pylori status was determined by ELISA for IgG. The prevalence of H.pylori in children of various ages varied from 44% to 46% with an overall prevalence of H.pylori in children of 45%. 67% of adults were infected with H.pylori which was significantly higher than children (P = 0.002). The prevalence of H.pylori increased markedly with age with the maximum colonization (74%) occurring in young adults (16-30 years). The antibody levels too followed a similar pattern. In conclusion, it was seen that almost half the children in south India acquire H.pylori infection early in life which increases slowly and steadily with a peak prevalence in the young adults. Gender does not affect the prevalence in children and adults. As age advances further there is a slight decline in the prevalence of H.pylori infection. The immune response reflected by the levels of the antibody levels also follows the same pattern.
  6,447 255 -
Pancreatic abscess caused by s. typhi
M Arya, PK Arya
April-June 2001, 19(2):18-19
A case of pancreatic abscess due to Salmonella typhi in a 40-year-old male is presented. The patient was managed by percutaneous needle aspiration and antibiotic therapy.
  5,767 159 -
Identification of leptospiral isolates by bacterial restriction endonuclease analysis (Brenda)
MD Venkatesha, P Ramadass
April-June 2001, 19(2):26-29
DNA samples from 19 reference serovars belonging to 19 different serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and two serovars belonging to Leptospira biflexa were examined by bacterial restriction endonuclease analysis using EcoR I and Hae III enzymes. All the serovars gave unique restriction patterns that differed from each other. DNA from 10 local isolates digested with these enzymes produced patterns which on comparison with the standard patterns produced by reference strains could be identified to serovar level.
  5,459 215 -
Unimicrobial appendicitis due to non-vaccine serotype of streptococcus pneumoniae: Implications for and management and prevention
S Bhattacharya, R Kanungo, MK Natarajan, VN Mahalakshmi, K Srinivasan
April-June 2001, 19(2):59-61
The aetiology of appendicitis is usually polymicrobial. We report a rare case of appendicitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae as the only causative organism. The case assumes significance because it occurs in the absence of any predisposing factor for invasive pneumococcal infection, it is unimicrobial, it may lead to the misdiagnosis of primary peritonitis due to pneumococcus, and it undermines the efficacy of polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine.
  5,405 152 -
Emergence of V.cholerae O 139 in Berhampur, Orissa
B Samal, SK Ghosh, SK Mohanty, KL Pattnaik, SK Sahu
April-June 2001, 19(2):31-31
  3,931 112 -
Serological evidence in suspected cases of leptospirosis in and around Manipal
P Sugandhi Rao, VS Sridhar
April-June 2001, 19(2):32-32
  3,742 183 -

2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04