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   1999| October-December  | Volume 17 | Issue 4  
 
 
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Dot ELISA for antigen specific Circulating immune complex detection in Kala-azar
J Amita, B Mamta
October-December 1999, 17(4):190-193
ABSTRACT: Present study compares two simple ELISA tests for detection of antigen specific immune complexes (CIC) in the sera of patients of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Their role in diagnosis of VL is evaluated. Sera from 50 positive controls, 50 negative controls (25 each endemic and nonendemic) and 40 patients (10 each of leprosy, malaria, amoebic hepatitis and tuberculosis) were tested. Immune complexes were precipitated with polyethylene glycol and their presence was tested by microwell and dot-ELISA. It was noted that both the ELISA were 100 percent sensitive, while dot ELISA was more specific compared to microwell ELISA (97.7 percent and 91.1 percent respectively with dot and microwell ELISA). The cross reactivity with dot-ELISA was 5.0 percent and with microwell ELISA, 20.0 percent. Hence dot-ELISA is preferred over microwell ELISA because it is simple to perform, needs less test time, is adaptable for field testing, needs least laboratory facilities and is more specific.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Tonsillar Core microflora : a true indicator of chronic tonsillitis
L Vaid, A Pandey, R Chaudhry
October-December 1999, 17(4):173-176
ABSTRACT: The microbial flora of 60 patients with chronic tonsillitis undergoing tonsillectomy were studied to determine the correlation between surface swab culture and tonsillar core culture. The surface swab culture which was collected immediately before surgery and the operated specimen of tonsil (tonsillar core), both were subjected for microbiological investigations. In 40 percent of cases pathogens were isolated both by surface and core cultures. The largest group that is in 48.3 percent, pathogens were isolated by the core culture but not by the surface culture, thus surface culture did not reliably reflect the core pathogens leading to a misdiagnosis of the aetiological agent. Staphylococcus aureus and group A beta haemolytic Streptococci were the predominant aerobes isolated both on surface and core cultures. Bacteroides spp. (four isolate), Fusobacterium spp. (one isolate) and Peptostreptococcus spp. (two isolates) were the anaerobes isolated only form core culture. Characterisation of the anaerobic isolates were done by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The study highlights the discrepancies between surface swab culture and tonsillar core culture. Therefore the rationale of treatment of chronic tonsillitis should be directed at micro-organisms isolated by core cultures.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Detection of extended spectrum BETA-LACTAMASE produces among surgical wound infections and burns patients in JIPER
AN Ananthakrishnan, R Kanungo
October-December 1999, 17(4):160-165
ABSTRACT: A total of 100 consecutive patients admitted to the surgical wards with would infections (pre- and post-operative) and burns between May-June 1999 were studied. A total of 156 isolates were obtained from these patients. Of these, 32 organisms (20.5 percent of the total isolates) were found to be Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers; the commonest were Escherichia coli (18 isolates) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7 isolates). Among the different clinical samples, ESBL producers were found most commonly in cases of diabetic fasciitis (27 percent of isolates), and postoperative would infections (22.4 percent of isolates). Nineteen percent, 9.38 percent and 28.13 percent of the ESBL strains were found to be susceptible to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol respectively. Fifty three percent of the ESBL strains showed intermediate or sensitive zones to cefotaxime by the disk-diffusion method.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Comparison of enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody test for the detection of chlamydia trachomatis in non-gonococcal urethritis
D Nair, P Bhalla, MD Mathur
October-December 1999, 17(4):184-186
ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection has been problematic due to the labor-intensive culture techniques. Non-culture techniques made a breakthrough in the diagnosis of this condition. The culture techniques for this pathogen have been standardized in most laboratories, thus non-culture methods have become the mainstay in routine screening this organism. The Direct Fluorescent Antibody test (DFA) and Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) are the two primary non-culture technique being used frequently. In this study, 124 male STD attendees were screened and 32 were found to suffer from non-gonococcal urethritis. Urethral samples collected from these patients were subjected to DFA and EIA tests. Fourteen samples were positive by DFA and EIA tests each. Both the tests were positive in 12 patient. The EIA test when compared to DFA gave a sensitivity of 75 percent, specificity of 88.0 percent and efficiency of 87.5 percent. Thus the EIA was found to be a cheap and effective screening assay in developing countries.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Molecular method in diagnosis and epidemiology of fungal infections
A Chakrabarti, R Kaur, S Das
October-December 1999, 17(4):146-152
ABSTRACT: Fungal infections have increased in incidence over the last two decades. However, most infections are diagnosed postmortem due to low sensitivity of conventional diagnostic methods. Recent progress in molecular biology may improve diagnostic capabilities. Several fungal specific probes as well as PCR based assays are being developed, and these may supplement, or perhaps even replace traditional methods for antemortem detection of candidemia, invasive aspergillosis and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Molecular methods like multilocus enzymes electrophoresis, (MLE0 restriction enzyme analysis (REA), DNA hybridisation analysis, karyotyping and the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of random polymorphic DNA fragments (RAPD) have also been used for understanding the epidemiology of fungal infections especially in nosocomial outbreaks. Recently, polymorphism of intergenic spacer region or rRNA repeat units, non transcribed spacer (NTS) region in rDNA and nucleotide sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS 1 and 2) have been used for typing medically important fungi. Molecular methods also help in differentiation of relapse from reinfection in certain clinical situation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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CASE REPORT
Empyema thoracis with Candida tropicals
B Chatterjee, M Arya, P Gupta, SP Sahoo, A Chakrabarti
October-December 1999, 17(4):189-190
ABSTRACT: A case of esophageal perforation with esophago-pleural fistula, presumptively of tuberculous origin, developed a thoracic empyema from which Candida tropicalis was repeatedly isolated in very large numbers. The patients ultimately recovered with tube thoracostomy, esophageal diversion and anti-tuberculosis therapy. No antifungal chemotherapy was used during the entire illness. Candida tropicalis in this case was a potentially valuable diagnostic clue to the presence of an abnormal communication between the gastro-intestinal tract and the pleural cavity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Changing face of nosocomial candidemia
A Chakrabarti, K Singh, S Das
October-December 1999, 17(4):160-166
ABSTRACT: The number of nosocomial blood stream infections due to Candida species has increased dramatically over the last two decades though the overall picture in Indian hospitals is not clear, studies available from few institutions corroborates the same trend as the rest of the world. Since the introduction of fluconazole and intraconazole, many studies have documented an increase in prevalence of non-albicans Candida infections particularly with the agents that are less susceptible to triazoles. However, the issue of correlation between antifungal use and shift in the spectrum of fungal pathogens is still controversial. Possibly this is influenced by patient population, the various treatment regimens or other supportive measures employed at specific institutions. Many of the infections arise from endogenous sources. But increase in exogenous acquisition of newer agents or previously known agents from hands of health care workers, infusates and inanimate environment warrants a close surveillance and routine monitoring of this condition. Improved typing methods help to investigate the outbreaks and to understand the epidemiology of this disease. This would help us to plan the rational preventive measures.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Prevalence of genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women
R Khan, AK Gulati
October-December 1999, 17(4):170-172
ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas in 235 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic and 50 non-pregnant controls attending the family planning clinic at Varanasi. Mycoplasmas were recovered from 75.3 percent pregnant women , of which 23.4 percent were positive for M.hominis, 69.8 percent for U.urealyticum and 17.9 percent for both. Whereas, in the control group, mycoplasmas were isolated from 64.0 percent women, of which 30.0 percent had M.hominis, 52.0 percent had U.urealyticum and 18.0 percent had both. M.hominis was isolated usually in association with U.urealyticum in both groups of women. M.fermentans and M.genitalium were not isolated. U.urealyticum was isolated at a significantly higher rate from pregnant than non-pregnant women. Further, there was no significant association observed between prevalence of M.hominis or U.urealyticum with sampling site, age, parity, gestation, height and weight of the women.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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CASE REPORT
Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus bacteremia in a lymphoma patient
M Purva, R Chaudhary, B Dhawan, N Sharma, L Kumar
October-December 1999, 17(4):194-195
ABSTRACT: The emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci represents a serious threat to hospitalized patients with impaired host defences. Isolation of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from blood in a patient of non-Hodgkins lymphoma is reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such report from India.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Comparison of assessment of viability by normal mouse foot pad and PCR
UD Gupta, K Katoch, RK Sharma, HB Singh, M Natarajan, D Singh, VD Sharma, VM Katoch
October-December 1999, 17(4):187-189
ABSTRACT: Comparision of viability assessment by mouse foot pad and PCR assay was studied in biopsy specimens from borderline lepromatous/lepromatous (BL/LL) cases. Biopsies were taken before the start of treatment and after treatment with various chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic regimens. These biopsies were processed and inoculated into mouse food pad (MFP) and also used for PCR assay by amplifying a part of 18kDa gene of M. leprae. It was observed that the trends of loss of viability by mouse foot pad correlated with reduction in PCR positivity. However, in 4-12.5 percent of leprosy cases PCR signals were found to persist even after MFP becoming negative at different time intervals. It appears that DNA targeting PCR may be suitable only for monitoring trends of therapeutic response. However, alternative methods are required to investigate the basis of persisting PCR signals.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Reappraisal of HIV post exposure prophylaxis
UK Baveja
October-December 1999, 17(4):153-159
ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is spreading in the community rapidly in India. Health care workers (HCW0 are an important group of individuals who are at risk as an occupational hazard. The risk will be reduced on following universal precautions while handling HIV infected patients or material. Inspite of precautions, percutaneous injuries or mucosal splashes with infected blood or body fluids could still happen. Hence, it is necessary to be aware of post exposure prohylaxis (PEP) options and recommendations. The appropriate usage of antiretroviral drugs is best achieved by using guidelines based on the exposure code (EC) and HIV status code (HIV SC).
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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CASE REPORT
Red-grain actinomycotic mycetoma due to an unusual organism
PK Maiti, PK Halder, Bandyopadhyay
October-December 1999, 17(4):191-192
ABSTRACT: Although many red pigment producing soil isolates of actinomycetes have been identified, Actinomadura pelletieri was the only known red grain producing human mycetoma agent. Recently while investigating a mycetoma case in the Mycology Department, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, red grains similar to those of A. pelletieri were detected but organism had different cultural and biochemical characteristics. The isolate was provisionally identified as Actinomadura vinacea by red soluble production in SDA medium, positive casein hydrolysis and negative hydrolysis test of xanthine, hypoxanthine, tyrosin and nitrate reduction.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Hepatitis B Virus infection in HIV infected patients
AG Dhanvijay, YS Thakar, CA Chande
October-December 1999, 17(4):167-169
ABSTRACT: 175 serum specimens from patients confirmed to have human immunodificiently virus (HIV) infection were tested for the presence of hepatitis B Surface antigen (HBsAg) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). These 175 patients were from different high risk groups of HIV infection and were classified into asymptomatic, lymphadenopathy associated syndrome (LAS0, AIDS related complex (ARC) and AIDS categories as per CDC criteria. A commercial latex agglutination test for HBsAg was used for its detection. HBsAg was detected in 49 patients. These 49 patients include 11 blood donors, 9 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 7 sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients, nine AIDS related illness patients, 3 contacts of HIV positive patients, 3 heterosexuals, 4 hepatitis patients and 1 each with candidiasis, Lymphadenopathy associated syndrome (LAS) and blood transfusion related HIV infected patient. We observed that 28 percent of the HIV infected individuals harbour HBV simultaneously in contrast to 2 percent among controls, the difference is statistically significant (p0,00001). The prevalence of HBsAg was observed in all the stages of HIV infection. The prevalence was slightly more in symptomatic group as compared to asymptomatic groups, but the difference was not statistically significant.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Incidence of hepatitis B infection in HIV seropositive patients in Visakhapatnam
MV Ramanamma, TV Ramani
October-December 1999, 17(4):170-171
ABSTRACT: One hundred and forty serum specimens from patients seropositive for HIV were tested by reverse passive haemagglutination test for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Among the 140 sera, 104 were from patients attending STD clinic, 24 were from blood donors, and 12 were from patients with AIDS related complex (ARC). HBsAg was detected in 20 sera. These 20 patients included 6 ARC patients, 4 blood donors and 10 patients attending STD clinic with history of promiscuity. The total percent positivity of HBsAg in HIV seropositives was 14.3 percent as against 1.43 percent in HIV seronegative controls.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Identification and partial purification of Endo-a-N-acetyl galactosaminidase from salmonella typhimurium
H Yamini, Srivastava, K Shanmugapriya, SN Devaraj
October-December 1999, 17(4):177-179
ABSTRACT: Bacterial invasion of the intestinal mucosa is a significant event in pathogenicity of Salmonella typhimurium which is one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. Due to the penetrative nature of S. typhimurium, a search for a mucinase with specific alpha N-acetyl galactosaminidase was undertaken. Herein we report the identification of an alpha-N-acetyl galactosaminidase enzyme in the culture filtrate of S. typhimurium and partial purification of the enzyme from a wild strain of S. typhimurium and its plasmid cured counterpart.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Isolation rates of mycobacterial species from Varanasi (North India)
J Agarwal, S Anupurba
October-December 1999, 17(4):178-179
ABSTRACT: Five hundred and seventy four clinical samples from patients in and around Varanasi with suspected pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis were processed for isolation of mycobacteria. Fifty isolates were identified to species level using morphological and biochemical characteristics. Forty six (92 percent) were identified as M.tuberculosis, two (4 percent) as M. scrofulaceum and one each (2 percent) as M.kansasii and M. vaccae. Among 46 M tuberculosis isolates, two (4.3 percent) were niacin negative variants of human tubercle bacilli. (178-179)
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Bacteriology of intractranial abscesses with special reference to anaerobes
A De, P Das, A Sharma
October-December 1999, 17(4):184-188
ABSTRACT: The bacteriologic findings of 38 patients with intracranial abscesses are presented. Thirty patients presented with brain abscess and 8 with subdural empyema. Out of 38, there were 36 adults and only 2 children. Predisposing conditions could be identified in 30 instances (79 percent). Sinusitis was the commonest (33.3), followed by chronic suppurative otitis media (26.7 percent) and trauma (20 percent). The commonest site of abscess was frontal lobe (50 percent) followed by the temporal lobe (13.2 percent). Aerobic organisms alone were recovered in 50 percent, anaerobic organisms alone in 18.4 percent, and mixed aerobic and anaerobic organisms in 31.6 percent patients. A total of 37 aerobes were recovered, of which Staphylococcus aureus was maximum (28), followed by Proteus mirabilis (7) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (5). There were 19 anaerobic isolates and the predominant anaerobes were anaerobic Gram positive cocci (11) and Bacteroides fragilis (5). Overall mortality in our study was 7.9 percent.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Filarial worm in the eye
S Rodrigues, MJW Pinto, Vs Naik, UPS Usgaonkar, N Nadkarni, MP Verenkar
October-December 1999, 17(4):200-200
Full text not available   
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Spectrum of bacterial isolates in high risk areas of a tertiary care hospital : 3-year study
H Kapoor, M Sumathi, P Aggarwal, SD Jain, J Kaur
October-December 1999, 17(4):166-169
ABSTRACT: Profile of bacterial isolates from clinical specimens of patients admitted in high risk areas viz. two Intensive Care (ICU) and Neonatal Units of Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi, were studied annually from 1995-1997. Gram negative bacteria were the predominant isolates (67.9 percent). Antimicrobial resistance among these isolates was investigated. Klebsiella sp. (30-45 percent) was the commonest from all the high risk areas. A decline in the incidence of Escherichia coli from 9 percent to 1 percent was observed in both the ICUs. There was a sudden spurt of Enterobacter sp. (26 percent) isolation in Neonatal units during late 1995 and early 1996. Baseline data was compiled in 1995 and a special infection control program was instituted following which the rate of antimicrobial resistance among most of the isolates declined by 1997. There was a clear cut correlation between resistance rising during increased antibiotic use and falling after a reduction in use.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Study of aeromonas in Goa
G Kaur, S Rodrigues, MP Verenkar
October-December 1999, 17(4):180-183
ABSTRACT: The study included a bacteriological analysis of 687 diarrhoeal stool samples with over a period of one year with special attention to Aeromonas species. Fifty-three strains of Aeromonas (7.7 percent) were isolated along with other enteric pathogens. Among the media used Ampicillin Blood agar proved to be most useful yielding 88.67 percent of Aeromonas isolates. Biochemical speciation identified A. caviae to be predominant biotype (83.8 percent). The pathogenic potential of A. hydrophila as correlated to the presence of cellular exudate.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Diagnosis of acute respiratory adenoviral infections in children by dot-elisa
U Tuteja, HV Batra
October-December 1999, 17(4):172-177
ABSTRACT: Throat swab samples from 30 hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections were inoculated in HIp-2 cell line for virus isolation. Employing hexon group specific monoclonal antibody (ADV-1), a dot-ELISA detected adenoviral antigens in 15 infected culture supernatants, 12 of which were positive in the adenoviral neutralization test. Antibodies to adenoviral types, 3-5, 7 and 8 could be demonstrated in 10 of the 12 neutralization test positive cases using dot-ELISA.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Evaluation of a rapid HIV antibody test
A Antonyraj, KJ Prakash, R Kannangai, S Ramalingem
October-December 1999, 17(4):194-194
Full text not available   
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Preliminary hospital based serological study of respiratory syncytial Virus infection in Pondicherry.
BV Navaneeth, RS Rao
October-December 1999, 17(4):180-183
ABSTRACT: Serum samples of 378 individuals belonging to different age group without complaints of respiratory infections (asymptomatic) attending out patient departments were collected randomly for a period of one year and tested for anti-RSV IgG antibody by ELISA. Anti RSV IgG was found in 24.3 percent with a higher proportion (47.6 percent) being in 0-9 years. The antibody showed a declining trend with increase in age and was detectable throughout the year with peak positivity in the month of November. Both children and adult were exposed to RSV.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Emergence of vibrio cholerae 0139 in Mumbai (Maharashtra, India)
AA Joshi, D Turbadkar, A Deshmukh, PJ Dalal
October-December 1999, 17(4):198-198
Full text not available   
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CASE REPORT
Mycobacteremia in aids patients-report of 2 cases
L Deodhar
October-December 1999, 17(4):196-197
ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis is one of the most common opportunistic infection in AIDS patients Twelve HIV seropositive patients who had disseminated tuberculosis were investigated for mycobacteremia. Their blood cultures collected in MyCO/F LYTIC medium were processed in BACTEC. In two samples Mycobacterium tuberculosis was grown after 18-20 days of incubation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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HBV Carriage rate in women attending antenatal clinic
AR Anvikar, AA Gaikwad, AB Deshmukh, AS Damle, J Ather
October-December 1999, 17(4):193-193
Full text not available   
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Anaerobic bacteremias
A De, M Mathur
October-December 1999, 17(4):201-201
Full text not available   
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Emergence of vibrio cholerae 0139 during 1995 in Orissa, India : a retrospective study
BB Pal, HK Khuntia
October-December 1999, 17(4):195-196
Full text not available   
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Human immunodeficiency virus-2 prevalence in South Orissa
KL Pattnaik, SK Mohanty, SK Ghosh, M Chayani
October-December 1999, 17(4):199-199
Full text not available   
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2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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