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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Dengue NS1 antigen detection: A useful tool in early diagnosis of dengue virus infection
S Datta, C Wattal
April-June 2010, 28(2):107-110
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.62484  PMID:20404453
Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of NS1 antigen (Ag) assay as an early marker for dengue virus (DV) infection. Materials and Methods: Group I evaluated the performance of NS1 antigen (Ag) assay in comparison to MAC-ELISA and their detection rate when performed together in a single sample. Six hundred acute/early convalescent sera were screened by both the assays. Group II evaluated the efficacy of a single assay in 30 acute phase sera of paediatric OPD patients screened only by NS1 Ag assay. Group III evaluated the specificity of NS1 assay in comparison to MAC-ELISA on 40 samples included as controls. Results: In Group I, 140 (23.3%) and 235 (39.1%) samples were positive by NS1 assay and MAC-ELISA respectively. The detection rate increased to 320 (53.3%) when both the assays were used together on a single sample. NS1 Ag positivity varied from 71.42% to 28.4% in acute and early convalescent sera, conversely IgM detection rate was 93.61% and 6.38% in early convalescent and acute phase sera respectively (P < 0.0001). In Group II, 66.66% (20) samples were positive by NS1 assay. All the samples in Group III were negative showing 100% specificity of both the assays. Conclusion: NS1 Ag assay holds promise in early diagnosis of dengue infection. When used in combination with MAC-ELISA on a single sample it significantly improves the diagnostic algorithm without the requirement of paired sera.
  132,507 1,845 19
REVIEW ARTICLES
Edible vaccines: Current status and future
P Lal, VG Ramachandran, R Goyal, R Sharma
April-June 2007, 25(2):93-102
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.32713  PMID:17582177
Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.
  118,621 4,487 28
SPECIAL ARTICLE
Quality control of culture media in a microbiology laboratory
S Basu, A Pal, PK Desai
July-September 2005, 23(3):159-163
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.16586  PMID:16100420
The nature of reporting of a microbiology laboratory depends upon the quality of the culture media used. Quality of media directly affects the observations and inferences drawn from the cultural characteristics of microorganisms. Checking of different parameters of media such as growth supporting characteristics, physical characteristics, gel strength and batch contamination can help to assess their quality. There are different methods to check all these parameters systematically. The meticulous performance of quality control of culture media can assure precision in reporting.
  91,506 2,607 4
REVIEW ARTICLES
Meningococcal disease: History, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevention
V Manchanda, S Gupta, P Bhalla
January-March 2006, 24(1):7-19
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.19888  PMID:16505549
Meningoccocal disease has repeatedly caused outbreaks worldwide. There has been sudden surge of cases of meningococcemia and meningococcal meningitis in early 2005 in Delhi, India and neighboring states of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. As of June 17, 2005, 429 probable cases of meningococcal disease have been reported in Delhi out of which 128 cases have revealed microbiological evidence of Neisseria meningitidis . It is possible that the number of cases was in excess of the numbers notified. During this episode drug susceptibility testing by MIC method (E-test) using break points recently recommended by NCCLS/CLSI, revealed that all isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, rifampicin and ceftriaxone. As regards to ciprofloxacin, about two third of the isolates tested were found to be 'non-susceptible' (MIC =0.03g/mL- 0.190g/mL). All the isolates were found resistant to cotrimoxazole (MIC> 16g/mL). Repeated outbreaks, decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, which is commonly used for chemoprophylaxis of meningococcal disease, highlights the need for a constant surveillance system. Present review deals with various aspects of Neisseria meningitidis and meningococcal disease in view of recent episode.
  69,744 2,389 43
REVIEW ARTICLE
Extended spectrum -lactamases (ESBL) - An emerging threat to clinical therapeutics
U Chaudhary, R Aggarwal
April-June 2004, 22(2):75-80
PMID:17642700
Extended spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs) are plasmid mediated, TEM and SHV derived enzymes, first isolated in Western Europe in mid 1980s, most commonly in Klebsiella spp., followed by Escherichia coli. These enzymes are capable of hydrolyzing broad spectrum cephalosporins and monobactams but inactive against cephamycins and imipenem. In addition, ESBL producing organisms exhibit coresistance to many other classes of antibiotics resulting in limitation of therapeutic option. Several risk factors have been suggested. A variety of classification schemes have been developed. Recently, Bush-Jacoby-Medeiros scheme integrated functional and molecular characteristics. ESBLs have serine at their active site and attack the amide bond in the lactam ring of antibiotics causing their hydrolysis. Because of inocolum effect and substrate specificity their detection is a major challenge. Two indicators of ESBLs are eight fold reduction in MIC and potentiation of the inhibitor zone of third generation cephalosporin in the presence of clavulanic acid. Incidence of these organisms is being continuously increasing through out the world with limited treatment alternatives. It becomes necessary to know the prevalence of these organisms and to formulate treatment policy. Moreover, restricted use of the third generation cephalosporins lead to withdrawal of selective pressure and use of lactam and -lactamase inhibitor combinations may exert reverse mutation on these enzymes.
  60,504 3,375 50
Chikungunya fever: A re-emerging viral infection
M Chhabra, V Mittal, D Bhattacharya, UVS Rana, S Lal
January-March 2008, 26(1):5-12
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.38850  PMID:18227590
Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a re-emerging viral disease characterized by abrupt onset of fever with severe arthralgia followed by constitutional symptoms and rash lasting for 1-7 days. The disease is almost self-limiting and rarely fatal. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a RNA virus belonging to family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Molecular characterization has demonstrated two distinct lineages of strains which cause epidemics in Africa and Asia. These geographical genotypes exhibit differences in the transmission cycles. In contrast to Africa where sylvatic cycle is maintained between monkeys and wild mosquitoes, in Asia the cycle continues between humans and the Aedes aegypti mosquito. CHIKV is known to cause epidemics after a period of quiescence. The first recorded epidemic occurred in Tanzania in 1952-1953. In Asia, CHIK activity was documented since its isolation in Bangkok, Thailand in 1958. Virus transmission continued till 1964. After hiatus, the virus activity re-appeared in the mid-1970s and declined by 1976. In India, well-documented outbreaks occurred in 1963 and 1964 in Kolkata and southern India, respectively. Thereafter, a small outbreak of CHIK was reported from Sholapur district, Maharashtra in 1973. CHIKV emerged in the islands of South West Indian Ocean viz. French island of La Reunion, Mayotee, Mauritius and Seychelles which are reporting the outbreak since February, 2005. After quiescence of about three decades, CHIKV re-emerged in India in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu since December, 2005. Cases have also been reported from Rajasthan, Gujarat and Kerala. The outbreak is still continuing. National Institute of Communicable Diseases has conducted epidemiological, entomological and laboratory investigations for confirmation of the outbreak. These have been discussed in detail along with the major challenges that the country faced during the current outbreak.
  46,799 2,946 75
REVIEW ARTICLES
Review of clinical and laboratory features of human Brucellosis
BG Mantur, SK Amarnath, RS Shinde
July-September 2007, 25(3):188-202
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.34758  PMID:17901634
Infection with Brucella spp. continues to pose a human health risk globally despite strides in eradicating the disease from domestic animals. Brucellosis has been an emerging disease since the discovery of Brucella melitensis by Sir David Bruce in 1887. Although many countries have eradicated B. abortus from cattle, in some areas B. melitensis and B. suis have emerged as causes of this infection in cattle, leading to human infections. Currently B. melitensis remains the principal cause of human brucellosis worldwide including India. The recent isolation of distinct strains of Brucella from marine mammals as well as humans is an indicator of an emerging zoonotic disease. Brucellosis in endemic and non-endemic regions remains a diagnostic puzzle due to misleading non-specific manifestations and increasing unusual presentations. Fewer than 10% of human cases of brucellosis may be clinically recognized and treated or reported. Routine serological surveillance is not practiced even in Brucella - endemic countries and we suggest that this should be a part of laboratory testing coupled with a high index of clinical suspicion to improve the level of case detection. The screening of family members of index cases of acute brucellosis in an endemic area should be undertaken to pick up additional unrecognised cases. Rapid and reliable, sensitive and specific, easy to perform and automated detection systems for Brucella spp. are urgently needed to allow early diagnosis and adequate antibiotic therapy in time to decrease morbidity / mortality. The history of travel to endemic countries along with exposure to animals and exotic foods are usually critical to making the clinical diagnosis. Laboratory testing is indispensable for diagnosis. Therefore alertness of clinician and close collaboration with microbiologist are essential even in endemic areas to correctly diagnose and treat this protean human infection. Existing treatment options, largely based on experience gained > 30 years ago, are adequate but not optimal. In our experience, an initial combination therapy with a three drug-regimen followed by a two-drug regimen for at least six weeks and a combination of two drugs with a minimum of six weeks seems warranted to improve outcome in children and adult patients respectively with laboratory monitoring. A safe and effective vaccine in humans is not yet available. Prevention is dependent upon the control of the disease in animal hosts, effective heat treatment of dairy produce and hygienic precautions to prevent occupational exposure. This review compiles the experiences and diagnostic and treatment paradigms currently employed in fighting this disease.
  40,280 3,787 142
Probiotics
V Gupta, R Garg
July-September 2009, 27(3):202-209
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.53201  PMID:19584499
The term "probiotic" was first used in 1965, by Lilly and Stillwell, to describe substances secreted by one organism which stimulate the growth of another. The use of antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy and irradiation, amongst other means of treatment, may cause alterations in the composition and have an effect on the GIT flora. Therefore, the introduction of beneficial bacterial species to GI tract may be a very attractive option to re-establish the microbial equilibrium and prevent disease. Prebiotic is a non-digestible food ingredient that confers benefits on the host by selectively stimulating one bacterium or a group of bacteria in the colon with probiotic properties. Both probiotics and prebiotics are together called as Synbiotics. Various bacterial genera most commonly used in probiotic preparations are Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Escherichia, Enterococcus, Bacillus and Streptococcus . Some fungal strains belonging to Saccharomyces have also been used. Probiotics have been shown to be effective in varied clinical conditions- ranging from infantile diarrhoea, necrotizing enterocolitis, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, relapsing Clostridium difficle colitis, Helicobacter pylori infections, inflammatory bowel disease to cancer, female uro-genital infection and surgical infections. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has proven beneficial affects on intestinal immunity. It increases the number of IgA and other immunoglobulins secreting cells in the intestinal mucosa. It also stimulates local release of interferons. It facilitates antigen transport to underlying lymphoid cells, which serves to increase antigen uptake in Peyer's patches. Probiotics are live microorganisms, so it is possible that they may result in infection in the host. The risk and morbidity of sepsis due to probiotic bacteria should be weighed against the potential for sepsis due to more pathological bacteria and the morbidity of diseases for which probiotic bacteria are being used as therapeutic agents. Also, future, well-designed placebo controlled studies with validated results are required for ascertaining the true health benefits of probiotics The important point in this regard is careful selection of the probiotic agent, its dose standardization and a thorough knowledge of its beneficial effects.
  37,136 4,278 84
SPECIAL ARTICLE
Quality assurance in microbiology
DR Arora
April-June 2004, 22(2):81-86
PMID:17642701
Quality assurance (QA) is the total process whereby the quality of laboratory reports can be guaranteed. The term quality control covers that part of QA, which primarily concerns the control of errors in the performance of tests and verification of test results. All materials, equipment and procedures must be adequately controlled. Culture media must be tested for sterility and performance. Each laboratory must have standard operating procedures (SOPs). QA of pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical stages of microbiological procedures should be incorporated in SOPs. The laboratory must be well lit with dust-free air-conditioned environment. Environmental conditions should be monitored. Supervisory and technical personnel should be well qualified. The laboratory should participate in external and internal quality assurance schemes.
  35,901 1,958 3
BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Hypochlorite (1%) is inefficient in decontaminating blood containing hypodermic needles
V Chitnis, DS Chitnis, S Patil, S Chitnis
October-December 2002, 20(4):215-218
PMID:17657074
Infectious biomedical waste and sharps have a potential hazard of transmission of pathogens. Among sharps, used needles form a major share and disinfection by 1 % hypochlorite is recommended in biomedical waste management rules of India. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of hypochlorite for the decontamination of needles. Needles (16 g) filled with suspensions of standard strains and clinical isolates of gram positive and gram negative bacteria in plain normal saline and in human blood containing anticoagulant, were exposed to 1% hypochlorite and the surviving bacteria were subjected to viable counts. The observations indicated that 85 - 90 % of the needles filled with bacterial suspensions in saline are disinfected to a level of >5 log bacterial reduction (standard disinfection) on exposure to hypochlorite but only 15 to 30% needles contaminated with the challenge bacteria suspended in blood showed >5 log reduction in viable counts. Thus, hypochlorite treatment is inadequate for disinfecting needles contaminated with pathogenic bacteria in presence of blood and should not be recommended as an option for disinfection of the needles.
  34,885 292 -
GUEST EDITORIAL
Re-emergence of Chikungunya virus in India
V Ravi
April-June 2006, 24(2):83-84
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.25175  PMID:16687855
  33,030 1,935 135
REVIEW ARTICLE
Onychomycosis - epidemiology, diagnosis and management
R Kaur, B Kashyap, P Bhalla
April-June 2008, 26(2):108-116
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.40522  PMID:18445944
Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts or nondermatophyte molds and represents about 30% of mycotic cutaneous infections. Increasingly onychomychosis is being viewed as more than a mere cosmetic problem. In spite of improved personal hygiene and living environment, onychomycosis continues to spread and persist. The prevalence rate of onychomycosis is determined by age, predisposing factor, social class, occupation, climate, living environment and frequency of travel. Onychomycosis in immunocompromised patients can pose a more serious health problem. Dermatophytes are the most frequently implicated causative agents in onychomycosis. Previously regarded as contaminants, yeasts are now increasingly recognised as pathogens in fingernail infections, as are some moulds. Clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis is based on the patients' history; a physical examination, microscopy and culture of nail specimens. The treatment of onychomycosis has been attempted throughout the ages, but only in the last two decades have safe, effective systemic treatments been available for this chronic superficial fungal disease. Oral Griseofulvin and Ketoconazole; once the agents of choice for the treatment of onychomycosis, have been superseded by newer systemic compounds that have a higher cure and lower relapse rates, cause fewer side effects and are suitable for short-term dosing.
  31,068 2,313 68
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Postoperative wound infection in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A prospective study with evaluation of risk factors
JY Bhatia, K Pandey, C Rodrigues, A Mehta, VR Joshi
October-December 2003, 21(4):246-251
PMID:17643036
PURPOSE: Wound infection is an important cause of morbidity and occasional mortality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). The aim of this study was to report postoperative wound infection in CABG surgery patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing CABG surgery between January 1998 and October 1999 have been studied. The exclusion criteria included, age less than 30 years, penicillin / cephalosporin allergy and associated other cardiac pathologies. The parameters studied were age, sex, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, chronic renal failure, previous surgeries, alcohol consumption, smoking, length of pre and postoperative hospital stay, antibiotic prophylaxis, MRSA screening, and duration of surgery. Wounds were classified as per modified CDC's NNIS criteria. Suspected sites of infection were cultured and antibiotic susceptibility of cultured organisms was tested. Postoperative follow up was for two months. RESULTS: Six hundred and fifteen patients were studied. Of these 116 (18.86%) developed SSI, involving sternum 75%, leg 21.3%, and forearm sites 3.44%. Organisms isolated at sternum site were MSSE, MRSA, and MRSE, at leg site E. coli and MSSE, and at forearm site MSSE and MSSA. Sternal site, obesity, diabetes mellitus and female sex were associated with significantly higher infection rates (p= 0.001). No antibiotic protocol proved more effective. SSI increased the postoperative hospital stay and the total treatment cost. CONCLUSIONS: Post CABG surgery SSI rate is high. Sternum and leg are the common infection sites. Obesity, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and female sex are associated with higher infection rates. "Higher" antibiotics do not lower postoperative infection rates.
  32,281 903 21
Detection of biofilm formation among the clinical isolates of staphylococci: An evaluation of three different screening methods
T Mathur, S Singhal, S Khan, DJ Upadhyay, T Fatma, A Rattan
January-March 2006, 24(1):25-29
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.19890  PMID:16505551
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate three methods for detection of biofilm formation in staphylococci. Methods: For detection of biofilm formation, 152 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were screened by tissue culture plate (TCP), Tube method (TM) and Congo red agar (CRA) method. Results: Of the 152 Staphylococcus spp. 88(57.8%) displayed a biofilm-positive phenotype under the optimized conditions in the TCP method and strains were further classified as high 22 (14.47 %) and moderate 60 (39.4 %) while in 70 (46.0 %) isolates weak or no biofilm was detected. Though TM correlated well with the TCP test for 18 (11.8 %) strongly biofilm producing strains, weak producers were difficult to discriminate from biofilm negative isolates. Screening on CRA does not correlate well with either of the two methods for detecting biofilm formation in staphylococci. Conclusion: The TCP method was found to be most sensitive, accurate and reproducible screening method for detection of biofilm formation by staphylococci and has the advantage of being a quantitative model to study the adherence of staphylococci on biomedical devices.
  30,767 2,233 83
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Scrub typhus and spotted fever among hospitalised children in South India: Clinical profile and serological epidemiology
BS Kalal, P Puranik, S Nagaraj, S Rego, A Shet
July-September 2016, 34(3):293-298
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.188315  PMID:27514949
Background: Rickettsial infections are re-emerging. In India, they are now being reported from several areas where they were previously unknown. Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology, clinical profile and outcome of serologically-confirmed scrub typhus and spotted fever among children in a tertiary care hospital in Bengaluru. Materials and Methods: Hospitalised children aged <18 years, with clinical features suggestive of rickettsial disease admitted between January 2010 and October 2012 were included prospectively. Diagnosis was based on scrub typhus and spotted fever-specific IgM and IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Of 103 children with clinical features suggestive of rickettsial illness, ELISA test confirmed 53 cases for scrub typhus, 23 cases for spotted fever group and 14 with mixed infection. The average age was 7.3 (±3.9) years and 44 (71.0%) children were male. Majority of cases were from Karnataka (50%), Andhra Pradesh (32.3%) and Tamil Nadu (17.7%). Common clinical features included fever (100%, average duration 11 days), nausea and vomiting (44%), rash (36%); eschar was rare. Compared to the ELISA test, Weil-Felix test (OX-K titre of 1:80) had a sensitivity and specificity of 88.7% and 43.9%, respectively. Treatment with chloramphenicol or doxycycline was given to the majority of the children. Complications included meningoencephalitis (28%), shock (10%), retinal vasculitis (10%) and purpura fulminans (7%). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the burden of rickettsial infection among children in India is high, with a substantially high complication rate. Rickettsial-specific ELISA tests can help in early diagnosis and early institution of appropriate treatment that may prevent life-threatening complications.
  30,484 1,717 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Recent advances in rhinosporidiosis and rhinosporidium seeberi
SN Arseculeratne
July-September 2002, 20(3):119-131
PMID:17657050
Rhinosporidiosis and its causative pathogen Rhinosporidium seeberi have been known for over a hundred years. Yet unresolved enigmas in rhinosporidiosis include the mode of infection, mechanisms of spread, mechanisms of immunity, some aspects of histopathology e.g. the significance of transepidermal elimination of sporangia, the cause of the variation in cell infiltration patterns in rhinosporidial tissues and their correlations with immune status, and the absence of the Splendore-Hoeppli reaction which is well-marked in invasive, classical mycoses. This review describes the main features of rhinosporidiosis and discusses recent work which clarifies some of these enigmas. Recent work included in this review are molecular biological classification of R.seeberi among the hydrophilic organisms of the former DRIP clade, establishment of a method for the purification of the developmental stages, and some aspects of the immunology of R.seeberi with reference to mechanisms of immune evasion - antigenic variation, host immunoglobulin binding, immune deviation in relation to the chronicity, recurrence and dissemination seen in rhinosporidiosis. The mechanism of endospore release from the sporangium has been described. Some problems involved in the resolution of enigmas that persist are briefly discussed.
  31,255 864 -
Biomedical waste in laboratory medicine: Audit and management
V Chitnis, K Vaidya, DS Chitnis
January-March 2005, 23(1):6-13
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.13865  PMID:15928414
Pathology, microbiology, blood bank and other diagnostic laboratories generate sizable amount of biomedical waste (BMW). The audit of the BMW is required for planning proper strategies. The audit in our laboratory revealed 8 kgs anatomical waste, 600 kgs microbiology waste, 220 kgs waste sharps, 15 kgs soiled waste, 111 kgs solid waste, 480 litres liquid waste along with 33000 litres per month liquid waste generated from labware washing and laboratory cleaning and 162 litres of chemical waste per month. Section wise details are described in the text. Needle sharps are collected in puncture proof containers and the needles autoclaved before sending to needle pit. The glass forms the major sharp category and is disinfected with hypochlorite before washing/recycling. All microbiology waste along with containers/plates/tubes are autoclaved before recycling/disposal. The problem of formalin fixed anatomical waste as histology specimens is pointed out. The formalin containing tissues cannot be sent for incineration for the fear of toxic gas release and the guidelines by the Biomedical waste rule makers need to be amended for the issue. The discarded/infected blood units in blood bank need to be autoclaved before disposal since chemical treatments are difficult or inefficient. The liquid waste management needs more attention and effluent treatment facility needs to be viewed seriously for hospital in general. The segregation of waste at source is the key step and reduction, reuse and recycling should be considered in proper perspectives.
  30,556 1,329 6
CASE REPORTS
A successful management of dengue fever in pregnancy: Report of two cases
N Singh, KA Sharma, V Dadhwal, S Mittal, AS Selvi
October-December 2008, 26(4):377-380
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.43577  PMID:18974496
In the most recent outbreak of degue fever in India, we encountered at least seven cases of fever with thrombocytopenia in pregnancy but only two were seropositive for dengue. In one of the cases there was postpartum hemorrhage while in the other case there was perinatal transmission to the neonate requiring platelet transfusions. The diagnostic difficulties in pregnancy and the management are discussed.
  30,392 586 4
REVIEW ARTICLE
Association of Parasitic Infections and Cancers
S Khurana, ML Dubey, N Malla
April-June 2005, 23(2):74-79
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.16044  PMID:15928434
Recent advances in the fields of molecular biology, epidemiology and infectious diseases have led to significant revelations to clarify the relationship between cancer and infective agents. This article reviews the relationship between parasitic infections and carcinogenesis and the possible mechanisms involved. Few parasites, e.g., Schistosoma haematobium and Opisthorchis viverrini have been found to be strongly associated with bladder cancer and cholangiocarcinoma respectively. The evidence for the association of several other parasites and cancers has also been postulated.
  29,690 1,224 42
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Yeast identification in routine clinical microbiology laboratory and its clinical relevance
S Agarwal, V Manchanda, N Verma, P Bhalla
April-June 2011, 29(2):172-177
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.81794  PMID:21654115
Rapid identification of yeast infections is helpful in prompt appropriate antifungal therapy. In the present study, the usefulness of chromogenic medium, slide culture technique and Vitek2 Compact (V2C) has been analysed. A total of 173 clinical isolates of yeast species were included in the study. An algorithm to identify such isolates in routine clinical microbiology laboratory was prepared and followed. Chromogenic medium was able to identify Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Trichosporon asahii. Chromogenic medium was also helpful in identifying "multi-species" yeast infections. The medium was unable to provide presumptive identification of C. pelliculosa, C. utilis, C. rugosa, C. glabrata and C. hemulonii. Vitek 2 compact (V2C) differentiated all pseudohypae non-producing yeast species. The algorithm followed was helpful in timely presumptive identification and final diagnosis of yeast infections, including multi-species yeast infections.
  28,532 853 1
Antibiotic resistance of Gardnerella vaginalis in recurrent bacterial vaginosis
P Nagaraja
April-June 2008, 26(2):155-157
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.40531  PMID:18445953
Fifty strains of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from 321 high vaginal swabs over a period of five months were tested for their antibiotic sensitivity. Sixty eight per cent of all isolates were resistant to metronidazole while 76% were sensitive to clindamycin. All the strains isolated from cases with recurrence of infection were resistant to metronidazole. Clindamycin therapy has a better clinical efficacy than metronidazole in cases of recurrent bacterial vaginosis.
  27,570 884 19
CASE STUDY
Hydatid cyst of the left ventricle of the heart
CV Umesan, VM Kurian, S Verghese, A Sivaraman, KM Cherian
April-June 2003, 21(2):139-140
PMID:17643003
Hydatid disease of the heart is rare. We report a case of hydatid cyst of left ventricle in a forty year old lady where the diagnosis was made intra-operatively. The transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography showed a mixed echogenic mass arising from the left ventricle. The diagnosis of hydatid cyst was confirmed by the demonstration of scolex and hooklets in the cyst fluid. Hydatid cyst should be a differential diagnosis for a mixed echogenic mass on echocardiography.
  27,600 198 5
REVIEW ARTICLE
Alternatives to the tuberculin skin test: Interferon-γ assays in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis infection
M Pai
July-September 2005, 23(3):151-158
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.16585  PMID:16100419
For nearly a century, there were no alternatives to the tuberculin skin test (TST) for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection. Because of advances in immunology and genomics, for the first time, an alternative has emerged in the form of T cell based interferon-g (IFN-g) assays, a new generation of in vitro tests of cellular immunity. These assays measure cell mediated immune response by quantifying IFN-g released by T cells in response to stimulation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. Although early versions of IFN-g assays used purified protein derivative (PPD) as the stimulating antigen, newer versions use antigens that are significantly more specific to M. tuberculosis. These specific antigens include ESAT-6 and CFP-10. These proteins, encoded by genes located within the region of difference 1 (RD1) segment of the M. tuberculosis genome, are more specific to M. tuberculosis than PPD because they are not shared with any BCG substrains or several nontuberculous mycobacterial species. A review of current evidence on the performance of IFN-g assays and TST suggests that both the TST and IFN-g assays have advantages and limitations, and both tests appear to be useful at this time. The emergence of IFN-g assays is a much anticipated, welcome development that has, for the first time, increased the choice of tests available for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection. Because both tests have their strengths and limitations, the decision to select one over the other will depend on the population, the goal of testing, and the resources available. To fully evaluate the utility of IFN-g assays in high burden countries such as India, long-term cohort studies are needed to determine the association between positive IFN-g results and the subsequent risk of active disease.
  26,218 1,550 63
REVIEW ARTICLES
Laboratory quality management system: Road to accreditation and beyond
V Wadhwa, S Rai, T Thukral, M Chopra
April-June 2012, 30(2):131-140
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.96647  
This review attempts to clarify the concepts of Laboratory Quality Management System (Lab QMS) for a medical testing and diagnostic laboratory in a holistic way and hopes to expand the horizon beyond quality control (QC) and quality assurance. It provides an insight on accreditation bodies and highlights a glimpse of existing laboratory practices but essentially it takes the reader through the journey of accreditation and during the course of reading and understanding this document, prepares the laboratory for the same. Some of the areas which have not been highlighted previously include: requirement for accreditation consultants, laboratory infrastructure and scope, applying for accreditation, document preparation. This section is well supported with practical illustrations and necessary tables and exhaustive details like preparation of a standard operating procedure and a quality manual. Concept of training and privileging of staff has been clarified and a few of the QC exercises have been dealt with in a novel way. Finally, a practical advice for facing an actual third party assessment and caution needed to prevent post-assessment pitfalls has been dealt with.
  25,982 1,116 1
BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Enterobacter cloacae: A predominant pathogen in neonatal septicaemia
A Mahapatra, SK Ghosh, S Mishra, D Pattnaik, K Pattnaik, SK Mohanty
April-June 2002, 20(2):110-112
PMID:17657046
A total of 120 blood samples from neonates presenting with clinical signs of septicaemia were subjected for culture using brain heart infusion agar biphasic medium (BHI BPM) and glucose broth. Bacterial agents were isolated from 48 numbers (40%) of cultures. Gram-negative bacilli were isolated in maximum percentage (88.45%) of cases whereas gram-positive bacteria (coagulase negative staphylococci and group B streptococci) in 11.6% of cultures. E.cloacae (39.5%) was maximally isolated among the pathogenic bacteria followed by K.pneumoniae (23.2%), E.coli (11.6%) and others like Acinetobacter spp. (6.9%), Citrobacter freundi (4.6%) and P.mirabillis (2.3%). All the gram-negative bacilli isolates showed 100% susceptibility to amikacin, whereas 85% of E.cloacae isolates were sensitive to the same. Thus E.cloacae was found to be a predominant moderately sensitive pathogen in neonatal septicemia.
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2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04