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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 416--417

Clinical and laboratory evidence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among women of reproductive age in rural area of Malwa region of Punjab

R Bansal, N Jindal, B Chand 
 Department of Microbiology, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College, Faridkot, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
R Bansal
Department of Microbiology, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College, Faridkot, Punjab
India

How to cite this article:
Bansal R, Jindal N, Chand B. Clinical and laboratory evidence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among women of reproductive age in rural area of Malwa region of Punjab.Indian J Med Microbiol 2013;31:416-417

How to cite this URL:
Bansal R, Jindal N, Chand B. Clinical and laboratory evidence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among women of reproductive age in rural area of Malwa region of Punjab. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2013 [cited 2020 Aug 8 ];31:416-417
Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2013/31/4/416/118883

Full Text

Dear Editor,

Apropos the article entitled "Clinical and laboratory evidence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among women of reproductive age in rural area of Wardha, Maharashtra" . [1] We want to share our experience of the Trichomonas infection among females of reproductive age of Malwa region of Punjab from where there is dearth of information on this subject. Retrospective analysis of direct wet mount microscopic examination of the vaginal discharge/secretions of 401 females presenting with symptoms of vaginal discharge, vulvovaginal irritation, itching, burning, dysuria and dysperunia to the Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI)/Reproductive Tract Infection (RTI) clinic of tertiary care hospital of Guru Gobind Singh Medical College, Faridkot from January 2010 to December 2012 was done. After taking the consent of the patients, vaginal discharge/secretions were collected with sterile swabs in test tubes containing 0.2 ml of 5% glucose saline. The swab was swirled properly and a drop was observed under microscope (400×) for the morphology and motility of Trichomonas within half an hour of collection of the specimen. The overall prevalence during the three years of study was 6.1% (26/401) and the prevalence during the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 was 7.24% (10/138), 5.1% (7/137) and 7.14% (9/126), respectively. Statistically the difference in prevalence between the consecutive years was insignificant (P > 0.05).

The correlation of the clinical signs and symptoms with laboratory evidence of the infection showed that the classical frothy discharge was actually present in 52 (13%) females while purulent vaginal discharge was there in 349 (84%). On examination, strawberry cervix (vulval erythema with punctate haemorrhagic spots) was observed in only one patient. Other studies have also reported low sensitivity of clinical spectrum for the diagnosis of Trichomonas infection. [1],[2],[3]

Trichomoniasis is the most common curable sexually transmitted disease (STD) infecting an estimated 180 million females annually. [3] In India, its reported prevalence among symptomatic patients varies between 4.28% and 12.06% [1],[2],[3],[4],[5] The observed prevalence in the present study (6.1%) in more than that reported by Kaur et al., from Chandigarh, but less than that of investigators from other parts of India. [1],[2],[5] This variation could be because of difference in patient population studied, difference in their sociodemographic profiles and the techniques employed for the diagnosis of the infection. Despite the availability of various other techniques (papanicolaou and acridine orange staining, culture and molecular methods), direct mount microscopy still remains the sole screening method of this infection because of its reliability, economy and ease of use in the resource constrained clinical laboratory set up. [1],[2],[5] Statistically insignificant difference in its prevalence in the 3 years of the present study shows that inspite of the implementation of National Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Control Program (NACP) III, Trichomoniasis is persisting at almost same rate in Malwa region of Punjab. Recent studies have demonstrated that Trichomoniasis not only causes vaginitis, it also increases the risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. [2],[5]

This underscores the need of aggressive implementation of public health programme for the accurate diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection based on laboratory evidence and treatment of this easily treatable sexually transmitted disease.

References

2Fule SR, Fule RP, Tankhiwale NS. Clinical and laboratory evidence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among women of reproductive age in rural area. Indian J Med Microbiol 2012;30:314-6.
3Preethi V, Mandal J, Halder A, Parija SC. Trichomoniasis: An update. Trop Parasitol 2011;1:73-5.
4Kaur S, Khurana S, Bagga R, Wanchu A, Malla N. Trichomoniasis among women in North India: A hospital based study. Indian J Sex Transm Dis 2003;29:76-81.
5Kaur K, Jindal N, Aggarwal A, Nagpal M. Trichomoniasis in Amritsar (Punjab). J Parasit Dis 2011;25:65-9.
6Madhivanan P, Bartman MT, Pasuti L, Krupp K, Arun A, Reingold AL, et al. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young reproductive age women in India: Implications of treatment and prevention. Sex Health 2009;6:339-44.