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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 316-

Clinico-epidemiological profile of human immunodeficiency virus infection over a period of 3 years in a north Indian tertiary care hospital

C Jagdish, G Varsha, K Manpreet, S Nidhi 
 Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College Hospital, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
G Varsha
Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College Hospital, Chandigarh
India

How to cite this article:
Jagdish C, Varsha G, Manpreet K, Nidhi S. Clinico-epidemiological profile of human immunodeficiency virus infection over a period of 3 years in a north Indian tertiary care hospital.Indian J Med Microbiol 2013;31:316-316

How to cite this URL:
Jagdish C, Varsha G, Manpreet K, Nidhi S. Clinico-epidemiological profile of human immunodeficiency virus infection over a period of 3 years in a north Indian tertiary care hospital. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2013 [cited 2020 Apr 3 ];31:316-316
Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2013/31/3/316/115671

Full Text

Dear Editor,

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a burden globally and presents serious public health problems in the developing countries, especially in India. [1] Despite, the improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and care in many regions of the world, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has killed millions of people. [2] Overall, the average prevalence rate of HIV among adults in India is about 0.9% and it accounts for 10% of global HIV burden and 65% of that in South and South-east Asia. [3] HIV/AIDS epidemic has devastated many individuals, families and communities. As the epidemic evolves further, rates will continue to rise in communities and nations where poverty, social inequalities and weak health infrastructures facilitate spread of the virus. [4]

The present retrospective study was carried out over a period of 3 years, from March 2009 to February 2012. The Department of Microbiology in our hospital acts as a zonal referral centre of national AIDS control organisation under the auspices of state AIDS control organisation. The analysis of available data was performed to determine and review the distribution and the presentation of HIV-infected patients in this region.

The total number of patients presenting with HIV during the study period was 237 (171 [72.15%] males and 66 [27.85%] females). The most common age group infected was in the range of 30-39 years followed by 20-29 years and 40-49 years. Heterosexual transmission was the predominant mode of infection (95.78%, 227/237). Two cases presented with a history of blood transfusion and five patients gave a history of intravenous drug use. Three cases were of perinatal transmission of HIV from mother to child; both of their parents were infected with HIV.

Tuberculosis (25%) was the most common opportunistic infection followed by Candida (20%), herpes simplex virus (1%). Among the AIDS indicator conditions, the common clinical presentations were fever (57%), weight loss (45%), asthenia (43%), cough (18%), diarrhoea (12%) and primary generalised lymphadenopathy (10%). The maximum number of cases came from the surrounding cities of Haryana (41.93%) followed by Punjab (30.64%) and Chandigarh (21.5%). Chandigarh is currently facing problem, which may be because of migration of the population to urban areas, lack of awareness about HIV among potential high risk groups, gender disparity, social stigma associated with HIV etc.

The present study highlights the epidemiological data and clinical presentation of HIV infection from the northern part of India. Epidemiological studies should be carried out in various settings to understand the role and complex relations of innumerable behavioural, social and demographic factors, which will help, interrupt and control the transmission of HIV/AIDS. The Government of India launched the free ART programme on 1 April 2004 since then more and more patients are put on ART treatment with rapid expansion of the programme. [5] Case detection and health education are presently the only ways to combat the catastrophe. Information, education and communication create HIV/AIDS awareness among the general population. It also implements awareness for reducing the stigma and discrimination and influence on individual behaviour that protects people against HIV infection.

References

1AIDS Epidemic Update. WHO/UNAIDS, December 2010. Available from: http://www.unaids.org/en/HIV-data. [Last Accessed on 2013 Jun 10].
2HIV and AIDS statistics commentary. UNAIDS/WHO AIDS epidemic update, November 2007. Available from: http://www.avert.org. [Last Accessed on 2013 Jun 10].
3HHS/CDC Global AIDS program (GAP) in India. The GAP India Fact sheet. Available from: http://www. cdc.gov/nchstp/od/gap/countries/India.htm. [Last Accessed on 2013 Jun 10].
4Steinbrook R. HIV in India: A complex epidemic. N Engl J Med 2007;356:1089-93.
5Shet A, DeCosta A, Heylen E, Shastri S, Chandy S, Ekstrand M. High rates of adherence and treatment success in a public and public-private HIV clinic in India: Potential benefits of standardized national care delivery systems. BMC Health Serv Res 2011;11:277.