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Year : 2008  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 284--285

Comparison of ELISA and rapid screening tests for the diagnosis of HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C among healthy blood donors in a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai

VP Torane, JS Shastri 
 Department of Microbiology, TNMC and BYL Nair Ch Hospital, Mumbai - 400 008, India

Correspondence Address:
V P Torane
Department of Microbiology, TNMC and BYL Nair Ch Hospital, Mumbai - 400 008
India

How to cite this article:
Torane V P, Shastri J S. Comparison of ELISA and rapid screening tests for the diagnosis of HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C among healthy blood donors in a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai.Indian J Med Microbiol 2008;26:284-285

How to cite this URL:
Torane V P, Shastri J S. Comparison of ELISA and rapid screening tests for the diagnosis of HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C among healthy blood donors in a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2008 [cited 2019 Dec 8 ];26:284-285
Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2008/26/3/284/42071

Full Text

Dear editor,

Blood transfusion services is a vital part of modern health care system. [1] With every unit of blood there is 1% chance of transfusion associated problems including transfusion transmitted diseases. [2] Transfusing infected blood to unsuspected patients in need is a crime. It is mandatory to test each and every unit of donor blood for antibodies to HIV-1 and 2, Syphilis, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B surface antigen and peripheral smear for malarial parasite. [3] ELISA is recommended and preferred screening technique for blood banks. Many blood banks still do not have this facility. They prefer rapid, easy to perform and user friendly kits [4] and their manufacturers strongly recommend their use. A preliminary study was therefore conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these rapid testing kits for screening blood donors.

Thirty blood samples reactive and non-reactive by the standard ELISA tests each for HIV, HBsAg and HCV were considered for processing by the rapid tests. The rapid test for HIV was done with Comb Aids - RS, HBsAg with Hepacard and HCV with Gold Spot HCV. A comparative evaluation of ELISA and rapid test results was done, considering ELISA as a standard test [Table 1].

The reactive samples had higher optical density (OD) values. Failure of the rapid kits to detect HIV, HBV and HCV reactive samples may be due to 1. Inadequate coating of the antigens, 2. Nature of the antigens used and 3. Genetic heterogeneity of the virus.

Most of these rapid assays use recombinant proteins from the prototype virus alone, specifically for HCV. Variants of HCV may differ substantially in nucleotide sequence from one another and show varied geographical and epidemiological distributions. [4],[5]

This shows that the rapid tests are inferior compared to ELISA. They have not shown any promising results in our study and hence should not be recommended in transfusion centre for screening blood donors.

 Acknowledgements



F.P.Candes, Prof and Head of Department, Dr. Yasmin Khatib, Lecturer, Department of Pathology, Dr. R.N.Cooper Hospital, Mumbai.Dr. Pandit, Prof and Head of Department, Dr. Jayshree Sharma, Incharge Blood Bank, Department of Pathology, K.E.M Hospital, Mumbai.

References

1Transfusion medicine. Technical manual, 2 nd ed. WHO; 2003. p. 151.
2Garg S, Mathur DR, Garg DK. Comparison of seropositivity of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in replacement and voluntary blood donors in western India. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2001;44:409-12.
3Nanu A, Sharma SP, Chatterjee K, Jyoti P. Markers for transfusion transmissible in north Indian voluntary and replacement blood donors: Prevalence and trends 1989-1996. Vox Sang 1997;73:70-3.
4Kaur H, Dhanao J, Oberoi A. Evaluation of rapid kits for detection of HIV, HbsAg and HCV infections. Indian J Med Sci 2000;54:432-4.
5Raghuraman S, Subramanium T, Abraham P, Sridharan G. Evaluation of rapid assay for HCV antibody detection. Indian J Med Microbiol 1999;7:140-1.