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  ~ Table of Contents - Current issue
April-June 2015
Volume 33 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 203-337

Online since Friday, April 10, 2015

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The narrow road to the indigenous rotavirus vaccine p. 203
BK Das
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154847  PMID:25865968
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Ureaplasma: Current perspectives p. 205
P Kokkayil, B Dhawan
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154850  PMID:25865969
Ureaplasma species are the most prevalent genital Mycoplasma isolated from the urogenital tract of both men and women. Ureaplasma has 14 known serotypes and is divided into two biovars- Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum. The organism has several genes coding for surface proteins, the most important being the gene encoding the Multiple Banded Antigen (MBA). The C-terminal domain of MBA is antigenic and elicits a host antibody response. Other virulence factors include phospholipases A and C, IgA protease and urease. Besides genital tract infections and infertility, Ureaplasma is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and diseases in the newborn (chronic lung disease and retinopathy of prematurity). Infection produces cytokines in the amniotic fluid which initiates preterm labour. They have also been reported from renal stone and suppurative arthritis. Genital infections have also been reported with an increasing frequency in HIV-infected patients. Ureaplasma may be a candidate 'co factor' in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the mainstay of diagnosis. Commercial assays are available with improved turnaround time. Micro broth dilution is routinely used to test antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates. The organisms are tested against azithromycin, josamycin, ofloxacin and doxycycline. Resistance to macrolides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones have been reported. The susceptibility pattern also varies among the biovars with biovar 2 maintaining higher sensitivity rates. Prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy is essential to prevent long term complications of Ureaplasma infections. After surveying PubMed literature using the terms 'Ureaplasma', 'Ureaplasma urealyticum' and 'Ureaplasma parvum', relevant literature were selected to provide a concise review on the recent developments.
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An analysis of underlying factors for seasonal variation in gonorrhoea in India: A 6-year statistical assessment p. 215
M Kakran, M Bala, V Singh
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154853  PMID:25865970
Purpose: A statistical assessment of a disease is often necessary before resources can be allocated to any control programme. No literature on seasonal trends of gonorrhoea is available from India. Objectives: The objectives were (1) to determine, if any, seasonal trends were present in India (2) to describe factors contributing to seasonality of gonorrhoea (3) to formulate approaches for gonorrhoea control at the national level. Materials and Methods: Seasonal indices for gonorrhoea were calculated quarterly in terms of a seasonal index between 2005 and 2010. Ratio-to-moving average method was used to determine the seasonal variation. The original data values in the time-series were expressed as percentages of moving averages. Results were also analyzed by second statistical method i.e. seasonal subseries plot. Results: The seasonally adjusted average for culture-positive gonorrhoea cases was highest in the second quarter (128.61%) followed by third quarter (108.48%) while a trough was observed in the first (96.05%) and last quarter (64.85%). The second quarter peak was representative of summer vacations in schools and colleges. Moreover, April is the harvesting month followed by celebrations and social gatherings. Both these factors are associated with increased sexual activity and partner change. A trough in first and last quarter was indicative of festival season and winter leading to less patients reporting to the hospital. Conclusion: The findings highlight the immediate need to strengthen sexual health education among young people in schools and colleges and education on risk-reduction practices especially at crucial points in the calendar year for effective gonorrhoea control.
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Utility of whole-cell repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) for the rapid detection of nosocomial outbreaks of multidrug resistant organisms: Experience at a tertiary care center in North India p. 221
G Singh, M Biswal, V Hallur, KLN Rao, P Ray, V Gautam, SB Appannanavar, N Taneja
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154857  PMID:25865971
Background: There is a huge need to develop molecular typing methods which are simple to perform, rapid and cost effective to confirm clonality of nosocomial isolates in outbreak situations. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate a hospital outbreak of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Klebsiellapneumoniae septicemia in a paediatric surgery intensive care unit (PSICU) using a repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR). Materials and Methods: MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from an outbreak of nosocomial sepsis were typed byREP-PCR using consensus primers. Isolates from different intensive care units (ICUs) but with similar antibiogram were also genotyped for comparison. Results and Conclusion: A cluster of twelve MDR K Pneumoniae septicemia cases was identified at the PSICU by genotyping using REP-PCR. Surveillance cultures failed to pick up any source of infection. REP-PCR was found to be a rapid and simple tool for investigation outbreaks in hospitals. Due to early detection we could initiate infection control practices with focus on hand washing and prevent the further transmission of the organism.
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Emergence of HIV-1 drug-resistant variants in women following antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of mother to child transmission p. 225
M Mani, VV Ramalingam, J Lionel, SA Christina, J Sachithanandham, A Peedicayil, R Kannangai
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154860  PMID:25865972
Purpose: Emergence of drug resistance following HIV prophylaxis has an important impact on ART program. Objective: To investigate the emergence of drug resistance in HIV-1 infected pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Fifty-three HIV-1 infected pregnant women who had received 4-12 weeks of antenatal AZT followed by Nevirapine during delivery and Combivir [AZT + 3TC] for 1 week postpartum (group-1, n = 48) or who come at the time of delivery and received Nevirapine followed by Combivir for 1 week (group-2, n = 5) were recruited. Samples were collected prior to the start of the prophylaxis and 5-8 weeks postpartum. In addition, a third sample was collected between 26-65 weeks postpartum from 7 women. Amplification of HIV-1 pol gene and drug resistance analysis was done. Result: Two (3.8%) women in group-1 showed transmitted drug resistance and they continued to show this even at 6 weeks postpartum. One (2%) woman from group-1 showed a mutation after 6-8 weeks of prophylaxis. Among the samples collected between 26-65 weeks postpartum, 3/7 (43%) showed mutations and all these women belong to group-1. Women belonging to group-2 didn't show mutation prior to or following prophylaxis. Conclusion: In contrast to the available data among pregnant women with ART prophylaxis, our data showed reduced frequency of mutations following 5-8 weeks of postpartum but an emergence of mutation later (26-65 weeks). The addition of Combivir with the single dose Nevirapine during delivery and the early stage of the disease with higher CD4 counts could be the reasons for this.
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High prevalence of class 1 integrons in clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from India p. 231
NP Marathe, SS Nagarkar, AA Vaishampayan, MH Rasane, SA Samant, V Dohe, A Kagal, YS Shouche, N Deshpande
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154905  PMID:25865973
Introduction: Class1 integrons are one of the prevalent mechanisms of antibiotic resistance gene transfer in Gram-negative organisms, but their prevalence and role in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of class 1 integrons in clinical isolates of MRSA. Materials and Methods: Total 143 MRSA isolates obtained from two different cities in India (Pune and Mumbai) were characterized by biochemical tests, and the antibiotic sensitivity was performed using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The presence of class 1 integrons, sul1/qacE1 region of class 1 integron and mecA gene among these isolates was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: All 143 isolates were mecA positive and coagulase-positive. Overall, 71% of the MRSA isolates carried class 1 integrons; 58% (45/77) of the isolates obtained from Mumbai and 85% (56/66) of the isolates from Pune carried class 1 integrons. In all, 39% of these isolates carried sul1/qacEΔ1 region, thus confirming the association of class 1 integrons with antibiotic resistance genes. Along with β-lactam antibiotics the MRSA isolates were resistant to several other antibiotics, with resistance to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole being observed in 75%, 66% and 60% of the isolates, respectively. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of class 1 integrons in MRSA isolates from India. The study provides insights into the prevalence of a novel mechanism adapted by MRSA for the propagation of antibiotic resistance genes.
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Comparative evaluation of two rapid Salmonella-IgM tests and blood culture in the diagnosis of enteric fever p. 237
KJ Prasad, JK Oberoi, N Goel, C Wattal
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154861  PMID:25865974
Purpose: Enteric fever is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. An early and accurate diagnosis is necessary for a prompt and effective treatment. We have evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of two Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests (Typhidot-IgM and Enteroscreen-IgM) as compared to blood culture in rapid and early diagnosis of enteric fever. Materials and Methods: A total of 2,699 patients' serum samples were tested by Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests and blood culture. Patients were divided into two groups. Test group - patients with enteric fever and blood culture positives for Salmonella Typhi; and three types of Controls, i.e. patients with non-enteric fever illnesses, normal healthy controls and patients positive for S. Paratyphi- A. In addition to this we have also evaluated the significance of positive Salmonella-IgM tests among blood culture-negative cases. Results: The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the Typhidot-IgM test and Enteroscreen-IgM test considering blood culture as gold standard were 97.29% and 88.13%, 97.40% and 87.83%, 98.18% and 92.03%, 96.15% and 82.27%, respectively. Typhidot-IgM test was found to be significantly more sensitive and specific as compared to Enteroscreen-IgM. Among blood culture-negative patients, Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests detected 72.25% additional cases of enteric fever. Although the Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests are meant to diagnose S. Typhi only, but these tests detect S. Paratyphi- A also. Thirty-eight patients who were blood culture-positive for S. Paratyphi- A were also positive by Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests. Conclusion: Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests offer an advantage of increased sensitivity, rapidity, early diagnosis and simplicity over blood culture.
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Is non-woven fabric a useful method of packaging instruments for operation theatres in resource constrained settings? p. 243
GS Devadiga, VMP Thomas, S Shetty, MS Setia
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154862  PMID:25865975
Introduction: Studies have highlighted the advantages and disadvantages of woven and non-woven fabrics. The present study assessed the change in resterilisation proportion after introduction of non-woven fabric for packaging of instruments and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of non-woven fabrics compared with woven fabrics. Materials and Methods: The present study is a secondary data analysis of resterilisation data collected from November 2009 to August 2013. We calculated the proportions (and their 95% confidence intervals) of resterilisation done every month. The proportion over time was compared using a Chi-square test for trend. We used linear regression analysis to adjust for the number of surgeries performed every month. We also compared the cost of woven and non-woven fabrics. Results: Of the total 117,335 surgical packets prepared during the study period, 1900 were resterilised; thus, the overall proportion was 1.62% (95% CI: 1.55% to 1.69%). The resterilisation proportion was 8.95% (95% CI: 7.73% to 10.17%) in November 2009 and was 0.38% (95% CI: 0.16% to 0.62%) in August 2013 (P < 0.001). After adjusting for the total number of surgeries conducted every month, we found that the number of packets resterilised reduced every month (per month reduction: -1.97, 95% CI: -2.76 to -1.18). The total cost (initial preparation and resterilisation) for 100 units of woven fabric is INR 6359.41 per month (confidence limit estimates: 6228.20 to 6430.62) and for non-woven fabric was INR 6208.50 (confidence limit estimate: INR 6194.90 to 6223.35) (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The introduction of non-woven spunbond-meltblown-spunbond fabrics did reduce the proportion of resterilisation of packaged instruments. The decline was sharp and sustained over time, even after accounting for the change in the number of procedures. Furthermore, though the switch from woven to non-woven fabric was cost-effective in our situation, it may not be directly translated to other scenarios.
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Incidence, risk factors, microbiology of venous catheter associated bloodstream infections - A prospective study from a tertiary care hospital p. 248
M Kaur, V Gupta, S Gombar, J Chander, T Sahoo
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.153572  PMID:25865976
Purpose : Central venous catheters (CVCs) though indispensable in current medical and intensive care treatment, also puts patients at risk of catheter related infection (CRI) resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. We analysed the incidence, risk factors, bacteriological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates in central venous catheter associated bloodstream infection (CVC-BSI) in the intensive care unit (ICU) patients and studied the formation of biofilm in CVCs. Materials and Methods: The following case control study included 115 patients with CVC in situ. Quantitative blood cultures (QBC) and catheter tip cultures were performed for the diagnoses. Direct catheter staining was done for an early diagnosis by acridine orange (AO) and Gram staining methods. Biofilm production in catheters was detected by 'tissue culture plate' (TCP) method. The results were analysed using the computer-based program statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS). Results : In 25/115 patients, definite diagnosis of CVC-BSI was made. The mean age was 48.44 ± 17.34 years (cases) vs 40.10 ± 18.24 years (controls) and the mean duration of catheterisation was 25.72 ± 8.73 days (cases) vs 11.89 ± 6.38 days (controls). Local signs of infection (erythema, tenderness and oozing) were found more significantly in CVC-BSI cases. The AO staining was more sensitive and Gram staining of catheters showed higher specificity. Staphylococcus aureus followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and non-albicans Candida were common CVC-BSI pathogens. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains were isolated in bacterial agents of CVC-BSI. Non-albicans Candida and Enterococcus faecalis showed strong biofilm production. Conclusion : The incidence of CVC-BSI was 21.73% and the rate was 14.59 per 1000 catheter days. Prolonged ICU stay and longer catheterisation were major risk factors. S. aureus was isolated most commonly in CVC-BSI cases. The menace of multidrug resistance and biofilm formation in CVCs is associated with CVC-BSI.
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Impact of informational feedback to clinicians on antibiotic-prescribing rates in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi p. 255
C Wattal, N Goel, S Khanna, SP Byotra, R Laxminarayan, A Easton
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.153582  PMID:25865977
Context: Antimicrobial use has been associated with increasing antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need for judicious use of antimicrobials. Informational feedback has been shown to result in changes in behavioural practices of physicians in certain healthcare settings. We conducted this study to see if the passive informational feedback can reduce in antimicrobial usage in a tertiary care centre. Aims: The study was undertaken to evaluate if the feedback to clinicians on their own antibiotic prescription results in any change in their antibiotic prescription habits. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at a tertiary care setting involving 33 units of different specialties. These units were split into 10 groups based on specialty and were allocated randomly to the control (16 units) and intervention (17 units) arms of the study. This study was a prospective intervention to assess the effect of prescribing feedback on clinical prescribing practices. Materials and Methods: In the intervention arm, information on resistance rates and antibiotic-prescribing patterns was provided to all doctors. Behavioural change was assessed by comparing baseline prescribing rates of each unit with prescribing rates after the intervention. In the control arm, only information on monthly resistance rates was provided. Statistical Analysis : Change in the antimicrobial prescribing rates in the treatment group was assessed by using a Student's t-test. Results: The mean antibiotic use for all the specialties was 189 DDDs/100BDs. The prospective intervention did not elicit any effect on the antibiotic prescribing practices of the physicians. Low prescribers continued to prescribe antibiotics at a low rate, and high prescribers continued to prescribe at a high rate. Conclusions: In view of unfavourable results of passive intervention in the above study, active intervention may be more effective.
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Feedback to clinicians on antibiotic prescription habits: How effective are they? p. 260
S Joshi
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154868  PMID:25865978
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Vancomycin MIC creep in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from 2006 to 2010 in a hospital in China p. 262
W Chang, Xiaoling Ma, P Gao, X Lv, H Lu, F Chen
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.148837  PMID:25865979
Purpose: To assess whether vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creeps among clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a regional hospital in China. Furthermore, to analyze the causes of vancomycin MIC creeps and the relationship between vancomycin MICs and the outcome among patients with MRSA infection. Materials and Methods: All clinical isolates of MRSA from 2006-2010 were retrieved and tested by the broth microdilution procedure to determine their vancomycin MIC. Meanwhile, related patient records were analyzed. Results: While all isolates were susceptive to vancomycin, the percentage of isolates with a vancomycin MIC = 1 mg/L increased significantly from 2006 (37.0%) to 2010 (75.7%). Meanwhile, vancomycin usage density (DDDs/1000 bed-days) had increased significantly from 2006-2010. Mean linear correlation analysis showed a statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.905, P < 0.05) between the consumption of vancomycin and the percentage of MRSA isolates with a vancomycin MIC = 1 mg/L. Clinical records revealed high vancomycin MIC was associated with a higher microbiologic failure rate in MRSA bloodstream infections. Conclusions: The data demonstrated vancomycin MIC creep among clinical isolates in our hospital, and the MIC creep may be caused by the increasing usage of vancomycin. Furthermore, the analysis strongly suggested this shift of vancomycin MIC within the susceptible range may be associated with an increasing probability of treatment failure.
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Spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from extra pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Puducherry, India p. 267
G Kandhakumari, S Stephen, S Sivakumar, S Narayanan
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154871  PMID:25865980
Purpose: Genotyping studies like spoligotyping are valuable tools in understanding the genetic diversity and epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Though there are reports of spoligotyping of M. tuberculosis isolates from pulmonary specimens from different parts of India, spoligotyping of extra pulmonary tuberculosis isolates are very few. Puducherry has not yet recorded spoligopatterns of M. tuberculosis from either pulmonary or extra pulmonary (EPTB) specimens. The aim of this study is to analyze the spoligotype patterns of EPTB strains circulating in Puducherry and neighboring districts of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: During June 2011 to December 2013, 570 EPTB specimens were processed by culturing on to Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium and automated Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube system (MGIT960). Identification of M. tuberculosis was carried out as per standard procedures, and MPT 64 antigen positivity in a commercial immunochromatography kit. Spoligotyping was carried out at National Institute of Research in Tuberculosis (ICMR), Chennai. Results: M. tuberculosis was isolated from 67 single EPTB specimens (11.8%) like pus/cold abscess (34), TB spine (10), pleural fluid (10), urine (5), tissue bit (2), lymph nodes (2), ascitic fluid (2), synovial fluid (1) and endometrial curetting (1). Among 67 isolates with 41 spoligopatterns, EAI lineage with 28 isolates (41.8%) predominated followed by 18 orphans (26.9%), 10 Beijing (14.9%) and 8 U (11.9%). BOVIS1_BCG (ST482), T1-T2 (ST78) and H3 (ST50) were represented by one strain each (1.5%). C onclusions: Spoligotyping plays a significant role in the epidemiology of tuberculosis. Three spoligotypes, T1-T2 (ST78), EAI6 (ST292) and U (ST1429) are reported for the first time in India.
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Development of touch down-multiplex PCR for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis p. 271
V Hallur, R Sehgal, S Khurana
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154874  PMID:25865981
Purpose: The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is challenging since conventional methods like culture and immunofluorescence are not universally available. Serology, which is used regularly might be negative during early phase of infection and in immunosuppressed patients or may remain positive for a long time. Several molecular tests have been used for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, but none of them have an internal control which would inform us regarding the presence of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors thus, undermining the confidence of a laboratory physician. Materials and Methods: We designed a multiplex PCR containing primers targeting human beta globin gene which would act as internal control and two primers against the B1 gene and 5s gene which aid in sensitive detection of T. gondii. Results: Multiplex PCR had a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 100%. Conclusion: Multiplex PCR may provide a sensitive and specific tool for diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.
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Poor performance characteristics of conventional PCR in detection of respiratory syncytial virus-experience of a tertiary care centre in Southern India p. 274
G Nandhini, S Sujatha, N Jain, R Dhodapkar, T Kadhiravan, S Krishnamurthy
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154875  PMID:25865982
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of contagious acute respiratory infections in children and older adults. Since there are contradictory reports regarding the efficacy of different methods to detect RSV, we evaluated the performance of the conventional PCR versus real-time PCR in 222 patients with acute respiratory infections (ARI) recruited between January 2012 and March 2013. Conventional PCR had a very poor sensitivity of 40% (95% CI: 19.2-63.9%) and failed to detect RSV in respiratory samples with low viral load. Thus, it may be prudent to replace it with real-time PCR to achieve precise diagnosis.
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Detection of mutations in mtrR gene in quinolone resistant strains of N.gonorrhoeae isolated from India p. 277
SV Kulkarni, M Bala, J Bhattacharya, A Risbud
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154878  PMID:25865983
Background and Objectives: Emergence of multi-drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae resulting from new genetic mutation is a serious threat in controlling gonorrhea. This study was undertaken to identify and characterise mutations in the mtrR genes in N.gonorrhoeae isolates resistant to six different antibiotics in the quinolone group. Materials and Methods: The Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of five quinolones for 64 N.gonorrhoeae isolates isolated during Jan 2007-Jun 2009 were determined by E-test method. Mutations in MtrR loci were examined by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing. Results: The proportion of N.gonorrhoeae strains resistant to anti-microbials was 98.4% for norfloxacin and ofloxacin, 96.8% for enoxacin and ciprofloxacin, 95.3% for lomefloxacin. Thirty-one (48.4%) strains showed mutation (single/multiple) in mtrR gene. Ten different mutations were observed and Gly-45 → Asp, Tyr-105 → His being the most common observed mutation. Conclusion: This is the first report from India on quinolone resistance mutations in MtrRCDE efflux system in N.gonorrhoeae. In conclusion, the high level of resistance to quinolone and single or multiple mutations in mtrR gene could limit the drug choices for gonorrhoea.
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Frequency of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing urinary isolates of Gram-negative bacilli among patients seen in a multispecialty hospital in Vellore district, India p. 282
B Nandagopal, S Sankar, K Sagadevan, H Arumugam, MV Jesudason, K Aswathaman, A Nair
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.153563  PMID:25865984
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing strains of Coliform bacilli are on the rise and present a major threat especially in India. We assessed the frequency of ESBL producers among urinary isolates from patients presenting urinary tract infections. ESBL screening was done using Double Disk Synergy Test (DDST) and confirmed using E-test and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). With E-test, 92.2% were positive for ESBL. In PCR, 100% strains were positive for any of the three gene targets tested. CTX-M was positive in majority of the strains followed by TEM and SHV. Two (3.22%) strains were positive for all the three genes; 21% strains were positive for both TEM and CTX-M genes. There was no statistically significant difference in the findings of E-test and PCR testing in the determination of ESBL producers (Fisher exact test P = 0.15). The strength of agreement between them was 'fair' (k = 0.252). Continuous monitoring of ESBL producers among Indian strains is important to rationalize the antibiotic policy to be followed.
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Superbugs causing ventilator associated pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital and the return of pre-antibiotic era! p. 286
S Qureshi, C Agrawal, M Madan, A Pandey, H Chauhan
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.153566  PMID:25865985
The rise in super bugs causing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity despite recent advances in management owing to the looming 'antibiotic apocalypse'. The aetiology and susceptibility pattern of the VAP isolates varies with patient population, type of intensive care unit (ICU) and is an urgent diagnostic challenge. The present study carried out for a period of one year in a tertiary care hospital, enrolled patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) for ≥48 hrs. Endotracheal aspirates (ETA) from suspected VAP patients were processed by semi quantitative method. Staphylococus aureus, members of Enterobacteriaceae were more common in early onset VAP (EOVAP), while Nonfermenting Gram negative bacilli (NFGNB) were significantly associated with late onset VAP (LOVAP). Most of the isolates were multi drug resistant (MDR) super bugs. With limited treatment options left for this crisis situation like the pre-antibiotic era; it is an alarm for rational antibiotic therapy usage and intensive education programs.
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A simple and rapid method for the quantitation of secreted hepatitis B virions in cell culture models p. 290
J Samal, M Kandpal, P Vivekanandan
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.153568  PMID:25865986
Cell culture models for hepatitis B virus (HBV) remain the mainstay for screening and testing the efficacy of anti-hepatitis B virus agents. Gradient-based ultracentrifugation followed by Southern Blotting is used for hepatitis B virion estimation in cell culture; this method has several limitations. We report the development of an assay using a commercially available HBsAg-ELISA plate for immunocapture followed by real-time PCR for quantification of hepatitis B virions in cell cultures. This assay is rapid, highly sensitive (50 copies/reaction) and highly specific for virion-associated DNA. In addition, the assay requires only 20 μL of supernatant, allowing scaling down of transfections.
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A cost-effective carbohydrate fermentation test for yeast using microtitre plate p. 293
A Kali, S Srirangaraj, PMV Charles
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154884  PMID:25865987
Carbohydrate fermentation test is a well-established technique for speciation of bacteria and fungi. However, long incubation period, cost and procedural complexity may limit its use. Here, we describe a simple modification of conventional carbohydrate fermentation technique using microtitre plate. Thirty-one yeast isolates were identified based on their fermentation property by microtitre plate method and results were compared with conventional method. The modified method had 85.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The average time taken to produce positive reaction was 24 hours. When compared with conventional method, modified method reduced turn-around time and cost of processing without significant increase in discordant results.
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Small colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus: A clinical and laboratory challenge p. 296
MO Ahmed
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154886  PMID:25865988
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Emergence of balamuthia mandrillaris meningoencephalitis in India p. 298
S Khurana, V Hallur, MK Goyal, R Sehgal, BD Radotra
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154887  PMID:25865989
We report two cases of fatal chronic meningoencephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in immunocompetent men. Diagnosis of amoebic meningoencephalitis was made ante-mortem in one case and postmortem in another by histopathological examination and confirmed by demonstration of B. mandrillaris deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
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Ludwig's angina by Salmonella Typhi: A clinical dilemma p. 300
RK Mahajan, S Sharma, P Madan, N Sharma
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154889  PMID:25865990
Salmonella Typhi has rarely been associated with focal abscesses; and in literature, there is no evidence of its association with abscesses in the neck spaces. Ability of Salmonella Typhi to invade and localise in the neck spaces not only poses a diagnostic challenge but also underscores the necessity to understand the mechanisms that facilitate Salmonella Typhi to establish infections at sites completely non-traditional to the organism.
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Mycotic keratitis due to Engyodontium album: First case report from India p. 303
DC Thamke, DK Mendiratta, A Dhabarde, AK Shukla
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154890  PMID:25865991
Engyodontium album is a rare and an unusual human pathogen. It is a common inhabitant of waste and moist material and frequently isolated from substrates such as paper, jute, linen and painted walls. This fungus grew within 3 days on SDA with chloramphenicol from corneal scrapping of a 70-year-old male farmer with a history of trauma by unknown vegetative matter. The fungus can be confused with Tritirachium sp and Beauveria sp.
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Bordetella trematum bacteremia in an infant: A cause to look for p. 305
R Saksena, V Manchanda, M Mittal
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154891  PMID:25865992
Bordetella trematum spp. nov. has been isolated from wounds, ear infections and diabetic ulcers. We report a case of a 7-month-old infant with fever, vomiting and abnormal body movements with bacteremia caused by this novel species. The infant responded to fluoroquinolone and macrolide combination therapy.
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An unusual case of lung abscess caused by Acremonium species treated with itraconazole p. 307
MS Qazi, SS Bowalekar, VS Wanjare, A Shankar
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154893  PMID:25865993
We present a report of a 37-year-old female with lung abscess due to Acremonium species that responded to oral itraconazole. There was a marked clinical as well as radiological improvement in patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of lung abscess due to Acremonium species which was treated by oral itraconazole. This cost-effective treatment modality proved to be significant in improving symptoms as well as morbidity in this patient.
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Pyonephrosis due to Chryseobacterium gleum: A first case report p. 311
S Garg, SB Appannanavar, B Mohan, N Taneja
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154894  PMID:25865994
Chryseobacterium spp are widely distributed in nature but data of their isolation from clinical samples is scanty. Here, we report the first case of AmpC producing C. gleum causing pyonephrosis in a patient having bilateral nephrolithiasis on double J (DJ) stent. The present isolate was resistant to vancomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, carbapenems and ciprofloxacin and susceptible to tetracycline and minocycline. The patient was treated with tetracycline and recovered without the need for removal of the DJ stent. The environmental surveillance carried out to trace the nosocomial origin of the isolate was negative. Since antimicrobial susceptibility of this isolate is different from previous reports, we emphasise that in vitro susceptibility testing should be sought to choose optimal antimicrobial agents for these Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Bacilli (NFGNBs) with different susceptibility patterns.
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A rare case of onychomycosis caused by Emericella quadrilineata (Aspergillus tetrazonus) p. 314
D Sharma, MR Capoor, V Ramesh, S Gupta, MR Shivaprakash, A Chakrabarti
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.153561  PMID:25865995
Onychomycosis is a common chronic nail disorder where dermatophytes are the predominant pathogens. However, non-dermatophytic moulds like Aspergillus can also be implicated as the causative agents. Herein, we report a rare case of onychomycosis due to Emericella quadrilineata ( Aspergillus tetrazonus) in an apparently immunocompetent host.
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Aspergillus infection in urinary tract post-ureteric stenting p. 316
P Rao
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154895  PMID:25865996
Fungal infections of the urinary tract are usually encountered following prolonged antibiotic use, instrumentation and indwelling urinary catheters. These type of infections are mostly seen in immuno-compromised patients. Candida is the most common among the fungal infections of urinary tract followed by Aspergillus infection. Here is a case report of a 26 year old diabetic female who presented with abdominal pain, fever, nausea and vomiting. She had undergone double-J stenting 15-20 days back. The cause of the symptoms was not detected till the patient underwent C.T Scan-KUB with excretory urography which showed the displaced D-J stent. Then on performing replacement of D-J stent, cystoscopy was done and the tissue sample was sent for microbiological and histopathological examination. On Microbiological examination, Aspergillus flavus was isolated from the tissue, which was culprit behind the disease. Patient was then treated with anti-fungal drugs, following which she gradually improved.
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Biofilm formation by bacterial isolates from patients on indwelling medical devices p. 319
M Gogoi, A Sharma, NK Hazarika
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154896  PMID:25865997
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Comparison of selective and enrichment media for isolation of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from rectal swab specimens p. 320
G Ongut, OK Ozyurt, BO Baysan, D Daglar, D Ogunc, D Inan, D Colak, YY Senol, F Gunseren
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154897  PMID:25865998
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Urban leptospirosis: A report of two cases p. 321
P Sarguna, M Raja Rao, S Sivakolundu, R Chaurasia, M Sritharan, K Shankar
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154898  PMID:25865999
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An interesting case of pyelonephritis due to inactive and an atypical uropathogenic Escherichia coli p. 323
KA Chopdekar, A Singh, CA Chande, SG Joshi, AS Chowdhary
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154899  PMID:25866000
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Human ocular thelaziasis: A case report from Karnataka p. 324
SK Prabhakar, GS Vijaykumar, BS Mahesh, Shanthamallappa
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154900  PMID:25866001
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Clinical and demographic profile of patients reporting for Clostridium difficile infection in a tertiary care hospital p. 326
C Vaishnavi, M Singh, P Kapoor, R Kochhar
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.153570  PMID:25866002
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Prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcal isolates in a tertiary care hospital in North India p. 327
S Tyagi, A Oberoi
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.153576  PMID:25866003
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Cases of "Measles" in adult age group of St. John's Medical College Boy's Hostel, Bangalore, South India p. 328
DP Sinha, CG Raut, NJ Shaikh, H Jayaprakash, MJ Manjunatha, H Hanumiah
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.153574  PMID:25866004
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Isolation of Francisella tularensis from blood culture p. 329
SD Nirkhiwale, GS Gehlot, AK Bandi, AN Jasani
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154901  PMID:25866005
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Seroprevalence of chlamydia trachomatis in infertile women in a tertiary care hospital: A pilot study p. 331
DG Mohan, AK Borthakur
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154902  PMID:25866006
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Uncommon causes of fungal sinusitis from Eastern India p. 332
R Ujjwayini, S Dutta
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154903  PMID:25866007
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Snippets p. 334
P Desikan
DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154904  PMID:25866008
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Molecular epidemiology of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus colonizing the anterior Nares of school children of Udupi Taluk: Erratum p. 337

DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.154906  PMID:25866009
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2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04