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  ~ Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2017
Volume 35 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 323-438

Online since Thursday, October 12, 2017

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Laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis: Advances in technology and drug susceptibility testing Highly accessed article p. 323
Seema Oommen, Nandita Banaji
There have been rapid technological advances in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its drug susceptibility in clinical samples. These include advances in microscopic examination, in vitro culture and application of molecular techniques. The World Health Organization (WHO) has played a large role in evaluating these technologies for their efficacy and feasibility, especially in the developing countries. Amongst these, the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), through its national network of designated microscopy centres and intermediate reference laboratories, has adopted certain technologies that are currently implemented in India. Advances in microscopy technology include fluorescent microscopy using light-emitting diode source, sodium hypochlorite microscopy and vital fluorescent staining of sputum smears. Automation of in vitro culture has markedly reduced the turnaround time (TAT), even in smear-negative samples, and permits simultaneous detection of resistant mutants. Molecular detection of drug resistance has further reduced the TAT, and the cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test with its performance convenience and rapid results, appears poised to become the future of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in all settings, provided the cost of testing is reduced especially for use in private diagnostic settings. This article reviews technologies currently available for the diagnosis of TB, keeping in mind the WHO recommendations and the RNTCP practices. This is a thematic synthesis of data available on diagnosis in literature, preserving the conclusions of the primary studies.
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Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus co-infection in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis p. 332
Prabha Desikan, Zeba Khan
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have several important similarities including worldwide distribution, hepato-tropism, similar modes of transmission and the ability to induce chronic infection that may lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Since both viruses are individually known to cause the pathologies mentioned above, co-infection with both HBV and HCV would be expected to be linked with higher morbidity as well as mortality and impact healthcare resource utilisation. Precise estimate of the prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection would be needed to formulate policy decisions and plan communal health interventions. This systematic review and meta-analysis, therefore, aims to understand the prevalence of HBV and HCV co-infection in India based on the available literature. Following PRISMA guidelines, primary studies reporting the prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection in India were retrieved through searches conducted in PubMed, Google SCHOLAR, Medline, Cochrane Library, WHO reports, Indian and International journals online. All online searches were conducted between December 2016 and February 2017. Meta-analysis was carried out using StatsDirect statistical software. Thirty studies published between 2000 and 2016 conducted across six regions of India were included in this review. The pooled HBV/HCV co-infection prevalence rate across the thirty studies was 1.89% (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.2%–2.4%). A high heterogeneity was observed between prevalence estimates. The HBV/HCV co-infection prevalence in different subgroups varied from 0.02% (95% CI = 0.0019%–0.090%) to 3.2% (95% CI = 1.3%–5.9%). The pooled prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection in India was found to be 1.89%. This systematic review and meta-analysis revealed high prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection in chronic liver patients, followed by HIV-positive patients, and then followed by persons who inject drugs and kidney disease patients.
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Optimisation of antimicrobial dosing based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles Highly accessed article p. 340
Grace Si Ru Hoo, Yi Xin Liew, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa
While suboptimal dosing of antimicrobials has been attributed to poorer clinical outcomes, clinical cure and mortality advantages have been demonstrated when target pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) indices for various classes of antimicrobials were achieved to maximise antibiotic activity. Dosing optimisation requires a good knowledge of PK/PD principles. This review serves to provide a foundation in PK/PD principles for the commonly prescribed antibiotics (β-lactams, vancomycin, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides), as well as dosing considerations in special populations (critically ill and obese patients). PK principles determine whether an appropriate dose of antimicrobial reaches the intended pathogen(s). It involves the fundamental processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination, and is affected by the antimicrobial's physicochemical properties. Antimicrobial pharmacodynamics define the relationship between the drug concentration and its observed effect on the pathogen. The major indicator of the effect of the antibiotics is the minimum inhibitory concentration. The quantitative relationship between a PK and microbiological parameter is known as a PK/PD index, which describes the relationship between dose administered and the rate and extent of bacterial killing. Improvements in clinical outcomes have been observed when antimicrobial agents are dosed optimally to achieve their respective PK/PD targets. With the rising rates of antimicrobial resistance and a limited drug development pipeline, PK/PD concepts can foster more rational and individualised dosing regimens, improving outcomes while simultaneously limiting the toxicity of antimicrobials.
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Recurrent urinary tract infections in women: How promising is the use of probiotics? p. 347
Varsha Gupta, Deepika Nag, Pratibha Garg
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) currently rank amongst the most prevalent bacterial infections, representing a major health hazard. UTIs in females usually start as vaginal infections and ascend to the urethra and bladder. Recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) can be defined as at least three episodes of UTI in 1 year or two episodes in 6 months. Various antibiotics have been the mainstay of therapy in ameliorating the incidence of UTIs, but recurrent infections continue to afflict many women. It necessitates the exploitation of alternative antimicrobial therapy. Probiotics have been shown to be effective in varied clinical trials for long-term preventions of rUTI. Because Escherichia coli is the primary pathogen involved in UTIs which spreads from the rectum to vagina and then ascends up the sterile urinary tract, improving the gut or vaginal flora will thus impact the urinary tract. Since a healthy vaginal microbiota is mainly dominated by Lactobacillus species, in this context, exogenously administered probiotics containing Lactobacilli play a pivotal role in reducing the risk of rUTI. The concept of artificially boosting the Lactobacilli numbers through probiotic administration has long been conceived but has been recently shown to be possible. Lactobacilli may especially be useful for women with a history of recurrent, complicated UTIs or on prolonged antibiotic use. Probiotics do not cause antibiotic resistance and may offer other health benefits due to vaginal re-colonisation with Lactobacilli. However, more comprehensive research is still needed, to recommend for probiotics as an alternative to antibiotics.
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Review on transovarial transmission potentiality of dengue vectors: An international perspective with special reference to North-Eastern region of India p. 355
Monika Soni, Jitendra Sharma
Despite extensive research in vaccine development, there is at present no known method of controlling dengue except by the mosquito vectors. Virologic surveillance which involves the detection of dengue virus (DENV) in human serum and followed by isolation of virus using cell culture or mosquito inoculation is used as an early warning symptom to predict the outbreak. The technique is not much effective as the virus is in the human population. However, if the virus is detected in mosquito before it can infect humans could be more effective approach. One of the great mysteries about the epidemiology of dengue is how the virus persists in the interepidemic period. So far, no such studies on dengue vectors have been conducted in the north-eastern region of India, especially in Assam and the dengue cases are increasing every year. There are no reports on the identification of active and potential role of dengue vector responsible for the transmission of dengue in this state. Such type of study will give an overall picture of potential dengue vector responsible for human DENV infection and the viral load carried by the mosquito species in different generations. Such study will be useful in helping the public health personnel.
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Discriminatory power of three typing techniques in determining relatedness of nosocomial Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from a tertiary hospital in India p. 361
Swathi Purighalla, Sarita Esakimuthu, Mallika Reddy, George K Varghese, Vijay S Richard, Vasan K Sambandamurthy
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the discriminatory power of two DNA-based technique and a protein-based technique for the typing of nosocomial isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. A second objective was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and characterise the presence of genes encoding extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases. Materials and Methods: Forty-six K. pneumoniae isolates from patients with bloodstream infections at a tertiary care hospital in India between December 2014 and December 2015 were studied. All isolates were typed using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and ESBLs were detected using the BD Phoenix system. The types of ESBL and carbapenemase genes present were detected using PCR. Results: Isolates were subtyped into 31, 30 and 33 distinct genotypes by ERIC-PCR, RAPD and MALDI-TOF, respectively. Several isolates displaying identical DNA fingerprints were binned into different branches based on their proteomic fingerprint. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that 33/46 strains were multidrug resistant (MDR); a majority of the strains (83%) were sensitive to colistin. PCR-based analysis demonstrated 19 strains to harbour two or more ESBL and carbapenemase genes. Conclusion: ERIC-PCR was the most reproducible method for typing K. pneumoniae isolates and could not be substituted by MALDI-TOF for clonality analysis. A high degree of genetic diversity and the presence of MDR genes highlight the challenges in treating K. pneumoniae-associated infections.
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Antimicrobial prescribing patterns of surgical speciality in a tertiary care hospital in India: Role of persuasive intervention for changing antibiotic prescription behaviour p. 369
Chand Wattal, Shilpi Khanna, Neeraj Goel, Jaswinder Kaur Oberoi, BK Rao
Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics globally has been linked to increase in antibiotic resistance. Objectives: This interventional study assessed the impact of antibiotic prescription feedback and focus group discussions (FGD) on hospital-based prescribers before and after the FGD. Study Design: The present study was performed at a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, wherein 45 units from surgical specialities were included for FGD. Thirty-five units were assessed for the antibiotic usage during 12 months pre-intervention and 3 and 6 months post-intervention period. The outcome measured was a change in antibiotic prescription rates reflected as daily defined doses per 100 bed days as defined by the World Health Organisation. Results: Reduction in the level of antibiotic consumption was observed in 15 of 35 units (42.85%) during the 3 months post-intervention period, which was significant (P < 0.05) in 3/35 (8.57%) surgical units. A significant reduction (P < 0.05) was observed for the units of endoscopic gynaecology, super-speciality and transplant surgery units B and C, and orthopaedic unit C during the 6 months period. Decreasing trend (P < 0.05) was observed in 2/35 (5.71%) units during the entire period. Overall reduction of antibiotic consumption (1.88%) was observed, with an increase in the use of low-end antibiotics and a decrease in the use of high-end antibiotics. Conclusion: The present study clearly demonstrates a weak impact of FGD in changing antibiotic prescribing behaviour. Further analysis of the sustainability of FGD and its long-term impact on antimicrobial resistance needs to be evaluated. The effect of continuous educational sessions and multifaceted interventions cannot be ignored.
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Diagnostic efficacy of microscopy, rapid diagnostic test and polymerase chain reaction for malaria using bayesian latent class analysis p. 376
Sreemanti Saha, Rahul Narang, Pradeep Deshmukh, Kiran Pote, Anup Anvikar, Pratibha Narang
Introduction: The diagnostic techniques for malaria are undergoing a change depending on the availability of newer diagnostics and annual parasite index of infection in a particular area. At the country level, guidelines are available for selection of diagnostic tests; however, at the local level, this decision is made based on malaria situation in the area. The tests are evaluated against the gold standard, and if that standard has limitations, it becomes difficult to compare other available tests. Bayesian latent class analysis computes its internal standard rather than using the conventional gold standard and helps comparison of various tests including the conventional gold standard. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care hospital setting, we have evaluated smear microscopy, rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of malaria using Bayesian latent class analysis. Results: We found the magnitude of malaria to be 17.7% (95% confidence interval: 12.5%–23.9%) among the study subjects. In the present study, the sensitivity of microscopy was 63%, but it had very high specificity (99.4%). Sensitivity and specificity of RDT and PCR were high with RDT having a marginally higher sensitivity (94% vs. 90%) and specificity (99% vs. 95%). On comparison of likelihood ratios (LRs), RDT had the highest LR for positive test result (175) and the lowest LR for negative test result (0.058) among the three tests. Conclusion: In settings like ours conventional smear microscopy may be replaced with RDT and as we move toward elimination and facilities become available PCR may be roped into detect cases with lower parasitaemia.
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Standardization of a two-step real-time polymerase chain reaction based method for species-specific detection of medically important Aspergillus species p. 381
P Das, P Pandey, A Harishankar, M Chandy, S Bhattacharya, A Chakrabarti
Purpose: Standardization of Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) poses two technical challenges (a) standardization of DNA extraction, (b) optimization of PCR against various medically important Aspergillus species. Many cases of aspergillosis go undiagnosed because of relative insensitivity of conventional diagnostic methods such as microscopy, culture or antigen detection. The present study is an attempt to standardize real-time PCR assay for rapid sensitive and specific detection of Aspergillus DNA in EDTA whole blood. Materials and Methods: Three nucleic acid extraction protocols were compared and a two-step real-time PCR assay was developed and validated following the recommendations of the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative in our setup. In the first PCR step (pan-Aspergillus PCR), the target was 28S rDNA gene, whereas in the second step, species specific PCR the targets were beta-tubulin (for Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus), gene and calmodulin gene (for Aspergillus niger). Results: Species specific identification of four medically important Aspergillus species, namely, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger and A. terreus were achieved by this PCR. Specificity of the PCR was tested against 34 different DNA source including bacteria, virus, yeast, other Aspergillus sp., other fungal species and for human DNA and had no false-positive reactions. The analytical sensitivity of the PCR was found to be 102 CFU/ml. Conclusion: The present protocol of two-step real-time PCR assays for genus- and species-specific identification for commonly isolated species in whole blood for diagnosis of invasive Aspergillus infections offers a rapid, sensitive and specific assay option and requires clinical validation at multiple centers.
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Molecular and phylogenetic evidence of chikungunya virus circulating in Assam, India p. 389
Prafulla Dutta, Siraj Ahmed Khan, Naba Kumar Hazarika, Sumi Chetry
Purpose: Northeast Region of India possesses an abundant number of Aedes mosquitoes, the common vector for Dengue and Chikungunya (CHIK). Dengue is reported every year from Assam, but active surveillance for CHIK virus (CHIKV) infection is lacking in this part of India. Therefore, this present study has been undertaken to detect any CHIKV infection during a dengue outbreak in Assam. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 dengue negative samples collected from Guwahati were screened for the presence of CHIK IgM antibodies. Further, all the samples were processed for CHIKV RNA detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Phylogenetic analysis was done by Maximum Likelihood method using Kimura-2 parameter model. Results: No IgM positivity was found in the processed samples; however, 7 samples were positive for CHIKV by RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the circulating CHIKV belonged to Eastern, Central and Southern African genotype. Sequence analysis showed two uniform nucleotide substitutions and very less amino acid substitution. Conclusion: Silent existence of CHIKV beside dengue is reported from this study. Therefore, CHIKV diagnosis should be included as a regular practice for active surveillance of the disease and its accomplishment before commencing an outbreak.
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Systemic antibody response to Chlamydia Trachomatis infection in patients either infected or reinfected with different Chlamydia serovars p. 394
Vivek Kumar Gupta, Courtney Alice Waugh, Noa Ziklo, Wilhelmina M Huston, Jane S Hocking, Peter Timms
Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent for the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in both developed and developing countries. The aim of present study was to characterize the antibody response between two groups of individuals, having either a single C. trachomatis infection and or repeated infections. Material and Methods: Current study consisted of two groups, one with an initial Chlamydia infection and a second with repeated infections. A titre based estimation of specific serum (IgG and IgA) levels using ELISA were performed, which further validated by western blot. In vitro neutralizing ability of each patient's serum against both homologous and heterologous strains was also determined. Results: Individuals infected with one of the C. trachomatis serovars D, E or K exhibited a strong systemic antibody response as characterized by ELISA and western blot. These individuals may have developed at least some level of protection as they only represented single infection. By comparison, individuals infected with serovar D, E or F that exhibited low systemic antibody response often presented repeated C. trachomatis infections, suggesting an association with poor immune response. An in vitro neutralizing level of 60-90% was observed in the human sera against homologous serovar D and two heterologous C. trachomatis serovars E and K, compared to <40% against heterologous serovars F. Conclusion: Individuals infected with serovars D and K showed a potential association between circulating antibody response and re-infection risk. While the patients infected with serovars E showed a disconnection between systemic antibody response and re-infection risk.
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Evaluation of concurrent malaria and dengue infections among febrile patients p. 402
Parul D Shah, Tanmay K Mehta
Context: Despite a wide overlap between endemic areas for two important vector-borne infections, malaria and dengue, published reports of co-infections are scarce till date. Aims: To find the incidence of dengue and malaria co-infection as well as to ascertain the severity of such dengue and malaria co-infection based on clinical and haematological parameters. Setting and Design: Observational, retrospective cross-sectional study was designed including patients who consulted the tertiary care hospital of Ahmedabad seeking treatment for fever compatible with malaria and/or dengue. Subjects and Methods: A total of 8364 serum samples from clinically suspected cases of fever compatible with malaria and/or dengue were collected. All samples were tested for dengue NS-1 antigen before 5 days of onset of illness and for dengue IgM after 5 days of onset of illness. In all samples, malaria diagnosis was based on the identification of Plasmodium parasites on a thin and thick blood films microscopy. Results: Only 10.27% (859) patients with fever were tested positive for dengue and 5.1% (434) were tested positive for malaria. 3.14% (27) dengue cases show concurrent infection with malarial parasites. Hepatomegaly and jaundice 37.03% (10), haemorrhagic manifestations 18.51% (5) and kidney failure 3.7% (1), haemoglobin <12 g/dl 100% (27) and thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150,000/cmm) 96.29% (26) were common in malaria and dengue co-infections and were much more common in Plasmodium falciparum infections. Conclusion: All febrile patients must be tested for malaria and dengue, both otherwise one of them will be missed in case of concurrent infections which could lead to severe diseases with complications.
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Detection of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori by polymerase chain reaction using residual samples from rapid urease test p. 406
Jae-Sik Jeon, Jae Kyung Kim, Ga-Yeon Kim
Background: Approximately 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, which corresponds to a high infection rate. Furthermore, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori has increased with the recent rise in use of antibiotics for H. pylori elimination, suggesting growing treatment failures. Aim: The study was aimed to assess the use of residual samples from rapid urease test (RUT) for biomolecular testing as an effective and accurate method to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Settings and Design: This study was a retrospective study performed using data obtained from medical records of previously isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: RUT was conducted for 5440 biopsy samples from individuals who underwent health examination in South Korea. Subsequently, 469 RUT residual samples were randomly selected and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed a concordance between the results of PCR and conventional RUT in 450 of 469 samples, suggesting that the H. pylori PCR test is a time- and cost-effective detection method. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that PCR test can aid physicians to prescribe the appropriate antibiotics at the time of diagnosis, thus preventing the reduction in H. pylori eradication due to antibiotic resistance, averting progression to serious diseases and increasing the treatment success rate.
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Epidemiology of malaria and MSP-2 gene-based genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum from patients attending community health centre, Jiribam, Manipur p. 410
Indu Sharma, Appu Saikia, Paromita Chakraborty
Two millilitres of peripheral blood was collected from 323 patients of different age groups and rapid diagnosis (RDT test) was performed. Parasite genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and MSP-2 gene-based diversity and polymorphism was determined followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using Taq 1 and Vsp 1 digestion of each polymerase chain reaction product to analyse MSP-2 genotypes. Twenty-six sequences of P. falciparum MSP-2 gene were retrieved from the current GenBank database to represent strains from various geographical locations and were analysed for the Taq 1 and Vsp 1 enzyme restriction sites using in silico restriction digestion in Sequence Manipulation Suite, Version 2.
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Survivability and fitness cost of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus p. 415
Avinash Singh, Sanjay Singh, Jyoti Singh, Mohibur Rahman, Ashutosh Pathak, Kashi Nath Prasad
The aim of this study was to observe the survivability and fitness cost of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus(hVISA) isolates. Survivability study was performed on dry cotton swab, and fitness cost was evaluated by estimating growth kinetics and generation time constant in BACTEC automated system. Total mean maximum time of recovery on primary culture was 4.1 and 7.1 weeks (P = 0.0001) for hVISA and vancomycin-sensitive S. aureus (VSSA), respectively, in dry starved condition. No significant difference between the mean value of lag phase duration (P = 0.89) was noted between hVISA and VSSA isolate in growth kinetics. However, we observed lesser generation time of hVISA isolates compared to S. aureus ATCC 29213 (P = 0.0076). This study concluded that a significant difference in generation time between VSSA and hVISA and suggests that hVISA have fitness cost compared to VSSA. However, further studies with more cases are required.
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Investigation of an outbreak of varicella in Chandigarh, North India, using a real-time polymerase chain reaction approach p. 417
Mini P Singh, Ramanpreet Kaur, Archit Kumar, Madhu Gupta, Shubha Garg, RK Ratho
Outbreaks of varicella are reported when susceptible population accumulates. This study reports a chickenpox outbreak in Burail in August 2014, wherein 20 laboratory-confirmed cases were identified by the detection of varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA and VZV IgM antibodies. The viral load between vesicular swabs and serum samples from 8 patients with active lesions was found to have good correlation and further also related with disease severity. Real-time polymerase chain reaction can be useful for early diagnosis of an outbreak and vesicular swab can be used as a less invasive sample for assessing the disease severity.
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Identification of carbapenemase-mediated resistance among Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream isolates: A molecular study from India p. 421
Srujana Mohanty, Mittal Gajanand, Rajni Gaind
Acquired resistance in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) conferred by carbapenemases is a major concern worldwide. Consecutive, non-duplicate isolates of Escherichia coli (EC) and Klebsiella pneumoniae from clinically diagnosed bloodstream infections were screened for the presence of carbapenem resistance by standard disk-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoints using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase-encoding genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Of 387 isolates (214 K. pneumoniae, 173 EC) tested, 93 (24.03%) were found to be CRE. Of these, 71 (76.3%) were positive for at least one tested carbapenemase gene. The frequency of carbapenemase genes was New Delhi metallo-β-lactamse-1 (65.6%), oxacillinase (OXA)-48 (24.7%), OXA-181 (23.6%), Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (6.4%) and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (2.1%). Our study identified presence of carbapenemases in a large proportion of CRE isolates. Delineation of resistance mechanisms is important in view of future therapeutics concerned with the treatment of CRE and for aiding control efforts by surveillance and infection control interventions.
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Hantavirus and tuberculosis co-infection in an Indian child p. 426
Someshwar Chate, Ira Shah, Hiren Doshi
Hantaviruses are a group of antigenically distinct viruses carried out in rodents and insectivores. Humans are accidental hosts and get infected by aerosols generated from contaminated urine, faeces and saliva of infected rodents. Hantaviruses are identified as aetiological agents of two human diseases, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus causing pulmonary renal disease has rarely been reported in children in India. Hantavirus infection is uncommon under the age of 12 years. We report a 9-year-old girl from Mumbai, India with fever, bilateral pleural effusion, thrombocytopaenia, haemoconcentration and oliguria due to hantavirus infection. She also had associated tuberculosis.
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A case of sterile pyuria caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis: A diagnostic challenge p. 429
Agrima Mian, Sujeesh Sebastian, Nazneen Arif, Manish Soneja, Benu Dhawan
Sterile pyuria is a highly prevalent condition with a wide aetiological spectrum, which often challenges the diagnostician. We describe the case of a middle-aged female admitted to the medical Intensive Care Unit for acute gastroenteritis, whose urinalysis revealed persistent sterile pyuria. Polymerase chain reaction assay in urine was positive for Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis. She responded to antimicrobial therapy. We hereby reflect on the approach to a case of sterile pyuria and review the available literature on this entity.
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Multiple parasitic and viral infections in a patient living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy p. 432
K Deepika, Nonika Rajkumari, AS Liji, Subhash Chandra Parija, Abdoul Hamide
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are more prone for gastrointestinal infections causing diarrhoea, particularly with parasites. Parasitic infections have been regularly reported in such patients. A female patient confirmed positive for HIV 1 on antiretroviral therapy came with complaints of chronic diarrhoea for the past 7 months. Her initial CD4 count was 89 cells/μl of blood, and antibodies to cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 virus were found to be positive in the patient's serum, but there was no HIV-associated retinopathy. Her stool examination showed decorticated fertilised eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, cysts of Blastocystis sp. and Entamoeba species in the unconcentrated sample and oocysts of Cystoisospora species, egg of Schistosoma haematobium and eggs of Trichuris trichiura in the concentrated. The patient responded well to cotrimoxazole and albendazole, and repeat samples were negative for all these parasites.
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Multidrug-resistant Candida auris: Need for alert among microbiologists p. 436
Kamini Walia, Anuradha Chowdhary, VC Ohri, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
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In vitro fosfomycin susceptibility against carbapenem-resistant or extended-spectrum beta–lactamase-producing gram-negative fosfomycin-naive uropathogens: An alluring option or an illusion p. 437
Manisa Sahu, Sanjith Saseedharan, Pallavi Bhalekar
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2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

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