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October-December 2019
Volume 37 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 459-601

Online since Monday, May 18, 2020

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Novel 2019-coronavirus on new year's Eve Highly accessed article p. 459
Parakriti Gupta, Kapil Goyal, Poonam Kanta, Arnab Ghosh, Mini P Singh
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_54  PMID:32436867
An ongoing apocalyptic outbreak of a new virus causing pneumonia-like clusters in Wuhan city, China, has gleamed the world. The outbreak, confirmed on the New Year's Eve 2020, has known no boundaries since then. The number has surpassed that of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and is uninterruptedly escalating. Being an RNA virus, it has a propensity to mutate due to the low proofreading capacity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Step-wise mutations have led to the gradual spillover of virus and after crossing the inter-species interface, the virus has adapted itself for a stable human-to-human transmission. The disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV)-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can prove deadlier if the so-called 'super-spreading events' emerge with time. Recent research has shown the maximum homology of 99% of SARS-CoV-2 to pangolins associated coronavirus, owing to which these can serve as potential intermediate host. India is responding swiftly to the emergency situation, and the whole of the country is under lockdown since 25 March 2020, to ensure social distancing. All the international flights are padlocked and the travellers are being screened at airports and seaports via thermal sensors, and quarantine for a period of 14 days is recommended. Three hundred and forty-five patients across the country tested positive with six fatalities as of 22 March 2020. No specific anti-CoV drugs are currently available. Patients are being treated with protease drugs are inhibitors, remdesivir, chloroquine, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibitors, ivermectin, sarilumab and tocilizumab, though none of these is Food and Drug Administration approved and are undergoing trials. Preventive measures such as social distancing, quarantine, cough etiquettes, proper hand washing, cleaning and decontaminating the surfaces are the mainstay for curbing the transmission of this virus. The present review highlights the update of novel SARS-CoV-2 in context to the Indian scenario.
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SPECIAL ARTICLE Top

A comparative assessment of clinical, pharmacological and antimicrobial profile of novel anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus agent levonadifloxacin: Therapeutic role in nosocomial and community infections p. 478
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Shoma Vinay Rao, Barney Isaac, Abi Manesh, Senthur Nambi, Subramanian Swaminathan, Vasanth Nagvekar, Vivek Nangia, Peter Victor John, Balaji Veeraraghavan
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_34  PMID:32436868
Staphylococcus aureus is of significant clinical concern in both community- and hospital-onset infections. The key to the success of S. aureus as a pathogen is its ability to swiftly develop antimicrobial resistance. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is not only resistant to nearly all beta-lactams but also demonstrates resistance to several classes of antibiotics. A high prevalence of MRSA is seen across worldwide. For many decades, vancomycin remained as gold standard antibiotic for the treatment of MRSA infections. In the past decades, linezolid, daptomycin, ceftaroline and telavancin received regulatory approval for the treatment of infections caused by resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Although these drugs may offer some advantages over vancomycin, they also have significant limitations. These includes vancomycin's slow bactericidal activity, poor lung penetration and nephrotxicity;linezolid therapy induced myelosuppression and high cost of daptomycin greatly limits their clinical use. Moreover, daptomycin also gets inactivated by lung naturally occurring surfactants. Thus, currently available therapeutic options are unable to provide safe and efficacious treatment for those patients suffering from hospital-acquired pneumonia, bloodstream infections (BSIs), bone and joint infections and diabetic foot infections (DFI). An unmet need also exists for a safe and efficacious oral option for switch-over convenience and community treatment. Herein, the review is intended to describe the supporting role of anti-staphylococcal antibiotics used in the management of S. aureus infections with a special reference to levonadifloxacin. Levonadifloxacin and its prodrug alalevonadifloxacin are novel benzoquinolizine subclass of quinolone with broad-spectrum of anti-MRSA activity. It has been recently approved for the treatment of complicated skin and soft-tissue infection as well as concurrent bacteraemia and DFI in India.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Performance of three commercial assays for colistin susceptibility in clinical isolates and Mcr-1 carrying reference strain p. 488
Chand Wattal, Neeraj Goel, Jaswinder Kaur Oberoi, Sanghamitra Datta, Reena Raveendran
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_92  PMID:32436869
Objective: Commercially available antibiotic susceptibility tests (cAST) for colistin are reported to shows variable performance. The current controversy on the colistin susceptibility testing and scarce data from India has left the clinical laboratories in a dilemma on the appropriate and practical approach to tackle the colistin antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) issue. This study was aimed to evaluate the performance of commonly used cAST for colistin against broth microdilution (BMD) as the reference method in the clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: Colistin AST was performed on 225 nonduplicate isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii by BMD as the reference method and compared with Vitek-2, Micronaut-S and E-test. The accuracy of the various cASTs was analysed by assessing categorical and essential agreement (EA). Results: We observed an overall categorical agreement of 98.2%, 99.6% and 96.4% and EA of 92%, 92.4% and 72% for Vitek-2, Micronaut-S and E-test, respectively. Unacceptable rates of major error (10.5%) and very major error (21%) were observed for P. aeruginosa with Vitek-2 and E-test, respectively. All the categorical errors (CEs) (7.7%) with Vitek-2 were seen for minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging within two-fold dilution breakpoint of 2 mg/L. Conclusion: Micronaut-S was found to be an acceptable method for colistin AST. In contrast, E-test was unreliable in terms of EA. Vitek-2 was found to be reliable for colistin AST, although it was more prone to CE near the colistin breakpoints.
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Effectiveness of hand hygiene promotional program based on the WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy, in terms of compliance and decontamination efficacy in an indian tertiary level neonatal surgical intensive care unit p. 496
Alphonsa Muth Thomas, Sukhwinder Kaur, Manisha Biswal, KL N Rao, Shashi Vig
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_47  PMID:32436870
Background: The WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy (MHHIS) has been proposed to improve the Hand Hygiene (HH) compliance of the WHO recommendations on HH.Therefore, the current study was planned in our neonatal unit with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of a Hand Hygiene Promotional Program (HHPP) based on the WHO MHHIS, in terms of compliance and decontamination efficacy among the health-care workers (HCWs) in the unit. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the WHO MHHIS on HH compliance and decontamination efficacy. Methods: The HHPP was carried out in our neonatal surgical intensive care unit from July to August 2013. A pre-intervention phase consisted of assessment of ward infrastructure, HH knowledge and perception, determination of HH compliance and collection of hand rinse samples from the HCWs before and after handwashing. Intervention phase consisted of changing traditional to elbow-operated taps, display of posters and reminders, placement of soaps in water draining trays, autoclaved single-use paper towels for hand drying, availability of hand rubs and training sessions for health-care providers. In the post-intervention phase, all the assessments and observations of pre-intervention phase were repeated. Results: HHPP resulted in a significant increase in overall HH compliance from 26.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.9–29.3) to 65.3% (95% CI 62.4–68.2) (P < 0.001) and reduction in load of microorganisms (P = 0.013). There was a significant improvement in HH knowledge (P < 0.001), and perception surveys revealed high appreciation of each strategy component by the participants. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study about the effect of implementation of the WHO MHHIS from an Indian hospital. HHPP was found to be effective in terms of HH compliance and decontamination efficacy. Its implementation is highly recommended to promote HH in a developing country like India.
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Comparative evaluation of microscan walkaway 96 plus ID/AST system and mikrolatest broth microdilution kit in assessing In vitro colistin susceptibility of carbapenem-resistant clinical gram-negative bacterial isolates: Experience from a tertiary care teaching hospital in Rishikesh, Uttarakhand p. 502
Ravi Indrapal Singh, Mohit Bhatia, KR Anusha, Vanya Singh, Balram Ji Omar, Pratima Gupta
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_19_437  PMID:32436871
Context: As reports on colistin resistance are slowly emerging from different parts of the world, it is imperative that the clinical microbiology laboratories should generate accurate in vitro colistin susceptibility results. Aim: The aim is to generate preliminary data on the diagnostic utility of MicroScan WalkAway 96 Plus Identification ID/ Antimicrobial susceptibility testing AST system in determining in vitro colistin susceptibility of carbapenem-resistant clinical Gram-negative bacterial isolates. Settings and Design: A pilot study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital located in Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, between May and June 2019. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from various non-repetitive clinical samples during the study period, were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing using MicroScan ID/AST system. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to confirm identity of these isolates. Additional colistin susceptibility testing of all test isolates was performed using Mikrolatest minimum inhibitory concentration antibiotic susceptibility testing kit (reference method), which is based on broth micro dilution (BMD) principle. Statistical Analysis Used: Fisher's exact test. Results: 11.8% (4/34) of the test isolates (100% [2/2] Acinetobacter junii, 10% [1/10] E. coli and 14.3% [1/7] P. aeruginosa respectively) exhibited in vitro colistin resistance by BMD method. Categorical agreement between MicroScan ID/AST system and Mikrolatest kit w. r. t in vitro colistin susceptibility test results was as follows: 71.4% (Acinetobacter baumannii), 85.7% (P. aeruginosa) and 100% (A. junii, A. johnsonii, E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae), respectively. Two major errors (MEs) for A. baumannii and one very ME for P. aeruginosa respectively were observed. Conclusions: Data generated by this study will be of help to the clinicians who are often faced with the dilemma of treating multi drug resistant infections with limited treatment options.
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Microbiological profile of infections of the hip joint: An Indian perspective p. 509
A Arunshankar, VJ Chandy, Divyaa Elangovan, TD Hariharan, John Antony Jude Prakash, Rahul George, Anil T Oommen, Pradeep M Poonnoose
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_31  PMID:32436872
Background: Knowledge of the local microbiological epidemiology helps in formulating protocols for appropriate treatment of hip infections. The aim of this study was to profile the organisms cultured from infected hips. Methods: The microbiological profile and sensitivity pattern of organisms in eighty infected hips were reviewed. Results: Infection was secondary to arthroplasty in 35, fracture surgery in 34 and primary septic arthritis in 11. Twenty percent of the infections were polymicrobial, whereas the rest were monomicrobial. Fifty-five percent were Gram-positive, of which 45% were Staphylococcus species (36% methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, 20% methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and 44% coagulase sensitive Staphylococcal species). All Staphylococcus species were sensitive to vancomycin, but 20% of Enterococcus species were resistant to vancomycin. One-third of the Enterococcus species and 2% of Staphylococcus species were resistant to teicoplanin. Escherichia coli (n = 10) and Pseudomonas sp. (n = 13) were the most common Gram-negative organism. Although 18% of the Gram-negative organisms were carbapenem resistant, all were sensitive to colistin. Conclusion: Staphylococcus sp. was the most common pathogen found in hip infections. However, the high incidence of Gram-negative infection requires that prophylactic antibiotics cover these organisms as well. The high resistance to first-line antibiotics should be taken into consideration while making protocols. The knowledge of the microbial profile is especially important when considering arthroplasty for arthritis secondary to hip infections.
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Utility of dried blood spots in detecting helicobacter pylori infection p. 514
Abhinendra Kumar, Sharayu Mhatre, Rajesh Dikshit
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_19_441  PMID:32436873
Purpose: Identifying infectious pathogens by collecting intravenous blood (IVB) is a well-established procedure, however, the collection of IVB in field epidemiological study is challenging. The dried blood spot (DBS) as an alternative to IVB has been introduced, although, there is a limited study to demonstrate the utility of DBS stored at various storage conditions and transported at different periods. This is an observational study, which evaluates the effectiveness of DBS in field epidemiological studies to identify infectious pathogens. Materials and Methods: A total of 264 paired DBS samples prepared from IVB, stored at 4°C, −20°C after period 24, 48 and 72 h. Serologically, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] IgG antibody detected against Helicobacter pylori infection from DBS and compared with IVB. Results: Quantitatively, IgG antibody reactivity showed >87% correlation between IVB and DBS samples stored at 4°C or −20°C within 48 h of transport duration. DBS stored at 4°C shows, equal sensitivity 87.5% and specificity 95% before 48 h of transport duration, while at −20°C storage similar sensitivity 87.5% observed but slightly less specificity 86.36% observed as compared to 24 h of transport duration. One-way analysis of variance showed, nonsignificant difference at both (−20°C and 4°C) the stored condition with P value (P > 0.851) and (P > 0.477). Kappa values showed good inter-rater reliability between DBS and IVB in a range (0.77–0.81). Conclusion: No significant difference was observed in detecting H. pylori when ELISA was conducted using IVB or DBS stored at 4°C and transported even after 48 h. This confirms that DBS collected even in compromised conditions in the field can be used for detecting infection.
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The incidence, aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of central line-associated bloodstream infections in intensive care unit patients at a private tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India p. 521
Tanu Singhal, Sweta Shah, Pooja Thakkar, Reshma Naik
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_3  PMID:32436874
Background: There is a need to generate accurate data on temporal trends in incidence rates, aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in the Indian setting. Aim: To study the incidence, aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of CLABSI in adult, paediatric and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in a tertiary care private hospital in Mumbai, India. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observational study conducted at the adult, paediatric and NICUs of tertiary care private hospital from 2011 to 2018. CLABSI was defined as per the Centers for Disease Control criteria. Surveillance of CLABSI in the intensive care units (ICUs) was conducted using a form adapted from the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium surveillance system. The incidence rates of CLABSI (per 1000 central line days), crude mortality, aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility were calculated and reported. Results: Six hundred and eighty-six episodes of CLABSI were recorded, and the overall incidence of CLABSI was 5/1000 catheter days, 4.1 in the adult ICU, 5 in the paediatric ICU and 9 in the newborn ICU. Crude mortality in patients with CLABSI in the adult, paediatric and NICUs was 45%, 30% and 7%, respectively. Of the 752 isolates, 80% were Gram negative, 10% Gram positive and 10% yeast. The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers was 80%, and rates of carbapenem resistance were on an average 50%. Conclusions: The CLABSI rates at a well-equipped tertiary care hospital are still significantly higher than the USA benchmarks. Alarming rates of drug resistance in Gram-negative pathogens were seen.
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Adaptation of blaNDMthrough IncP plasmid within broad host range p. 527
Nargis Alom Choudhury, Deepjyoti Paul, Bhaskar Jyoti Das, Debadatta Dhar(Chanda), Amitabha Bhattacharjee
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_48  PMID:32436875
Introduction: It was also known that the IncP-1 plasmids are ubiquitous in environmental bacteria and those reside in soil, sewage, marine sediments and in manure. The blaNDMis associated with resistance determinants along with various mobile elements such as plasmid, insertion sequences and transposons, which facilitates its horizontal dissemination. These plasmids, if tracked, can be a starting point for the control of infection due to multidrug-resistant pathogens. The aim of the study was to investigate that IncP-type plasmids carrying blaNDMis adapted in different hosts. Materials and Methods: Thirteen of the isolates were harbouring IncP-type plasmid and they all were Escherichia coli isolated from hospitalised patients of Silchar Medical College and Hospital, India. The isolates were checked for susceptibility test, and the stability was assessed by a serial passage. These isolates were further subjected to transcriptional analysis of NDM gene as well as plasmid copy number alteration. Results: The study isolates were highly stable, and the resistance gene (blaNDM) was retained within isolates till 55th subsequent serial passages. Plasmid copy number alteration was random in isolates when exposed to carbapenem antibiotics, whereas increasing trend in transcriptional expression was observed with the increase in imipenem concentration. Conclusion: This study was able to underscore the presence of IncP plasmid that was harbouring blaNDMand was maintained within diverse host. The finding also highlights the adaptation of the broad-host-range plasmid that responds in terms of transcriptional expression under antibiotic exposure.
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Is it safe to do a single-stage implant exit and primary hip replacement? clinical and microbiological profiling p. 531
Rahul George, TD Hariharan, A Arunshankar, Divyaa Elangovan, Binesh Lal, VJ Chandy, AT Oommen, Pradeep Mathew Poonnoose
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_40  PMID:32436876
Background: A single-stage implant revision for failed fixation of proximal femoral fractures is performed only when there is no evidence of infection. Else, a two-staged revision is preferred - where the definitive revision surgery is done a few months after the implant exit. This study aims to audit the safety and incidence of culture positivity in single-stage revisions. Materials and Methods: Forty one of 284 patients that presented over the last 12 years for implant exchange of the hip, had a single stage revision surgery for failed fixation of a fracture of the hip, as there was no obvious evidence of infection at the time of implant exit. Results: Micro-organisms were grown in 51% of the 41 hips. 76% were gram positive, of which 63% were Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS). 50% of CoNS and 75% of S. aureus were resistant to oxacillin, but susceptible to Vancomycin. Of the gram negative organisms, 2 (Enterobacter sp) were resistant to carbapenam, while others were susceptible. Preoperative ESR and CRP, individually, had low specificity – 50% for ESR >30mm at 1 hour and 62% for CRP>10. The combined use of ESR > 30mm and CRP>10 increased the specificity to 90%. 12% of the patients had immediate postoperative complications that required a wash out in theatre. The long term clinical follow up of these patients is limited. Conclusion: This study suggests that implant exit and simultaneous arthroplasty for failed fracture fixation should be done with caution due to the high possibility of infection. It may be prudent to opt for a 2 stage revision.
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Epidemiology and Antifungal Susceptibility of Infections Caused by Trichosporon Species: An Emerging Non-Candida and Non-Cryptococcus Yeast Worldwide p. 536
Sukhwinder Singh, Malini Rajinder Capoor, Swati Varshney, Dipendra Kumar Gupta, Pradeep Kumar Verma, V Ramesh
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_19_146  PMID:32436877
Introduction: Over the past four decades, there has been an increase in the number of fatal opportunistic invasive trichosporonosis cases especially in immunocompromised hosts. Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical details and antifungal susceptibility pattern of the patients with Trichosporon infections. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four clinical isolates of Trichosporon species isolated from blood, samples, pleural fluid and nail were included in this study, over a period of 12 years (2005–2016) in a tertiary hospital in North India. The isolates were characterised phenotypically and few representative isolates were sequenced also. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 2012. Results: Trichosporon spp. from blood culture (57.78%), nail (37.5%) and pleural fluid (4.17%). On phenotypic tests, 79.16% of the isolates were Trichosporon asahii, followed by Trichosporon dermatis (8.33%), Trichosporon japonicum (4.17%), Trichosporon ovoides (4.17%) and Trichosporon mucoides (4.17%). The MIC range of Trichosporon species from invasive infections were fluconazole (0.06–256 μg/ml), amphotericin B (0.125–16 μg/ml), voriconazole (0.0616–8 μg/ml), posaconazole (0.0616–32 μg/ml) and caspofungin (8–32 μg/ml). The isolates from superficial infection were resistant to fluconazole (0.06–256 μg/ml) and itraconazole (0.125–32 μg/ml), all were susceptible to ketoconazole and while only two were resistant to voriconazole (0.25–4 μg/ml). Conclusion: T. asahii was the most common isolate. Disseminated trichosporonosis is being increasingly reported worldwide including India and represents a challenge for both diagnosis and species identification. Prognosis is limited, and antifungal regimens containing triazoles appear to be the best therapeutic approach. In addition, accurate identification, removal of central venous lines and voriconazole-based treatment along with control of underlying conditions were associated with favourable outcomes.
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Evaluating the PGMY-centre hospitalier universitaire vaudois assay as a cost-effective tool for human papillomavirus genotyping in HIV-infected women p. 542
Pallavi Ravindra Baliga, Raghavendran Anantharam, Vinotha Thomas, Priscilla Rupali, Manu Chopra, Susanne Pulimood, Jessie Lionel, Abraham Peedicayil, Rajesh Kannangai, Manu Gnanamony, Priya Abraham
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_101  PMID:32436878
Aims: Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer among women, worldwide. HIV-positive women tend to have persistent infection and infection with multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) types. There is a need for affordable HPV DNA tests as viable alternatives to the existing costly commercial assays. The aim of the study was to establish PGMY-CHUV reverse hybridization assay as a cost-effective tool for HPV genotyping. Study Design: This was a prospective study conducted in a tertiary care centre from March 2011 to July 2012. Subjects and Methods: Fifty cervical brush samples from HIV-infected women and 43 WHO reference samples were tested by both the CHUV assay and linear array (LA). Results: The CHUV assay in comparison to the LA showed a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 52% and a moderate agreement for all samples that were compared. However, most high-risk HPV types were identified amongst the clinical samples, and the entire range of genotypes in the WHO reference panel was detected. Statistical Analysis: The accuracy indices such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. The level of agreement (kappa value) between the two assays was also calculated. Conclusion: The CHUV assay had an acceptable sensitivity, but it lacked specificity for HPV detection. Despite the lower rates of detection of multiple infections from clinical samples, better results were obtained with the WHO reference samples and the ability of the assay to identify the entire range of genotypes suggests that it can be an efficient tool for genotyping.
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Immune response during influenza virus infection among the population of Assam, Northeast India p. 549
Mousumi Dutta, Prafulla Dutta, Subhash Medhi, Biswajyoti Borkakoty, Dipankar Biswas
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_19_211  PMID:32436879
Introduction: The pathogenicity of influenza virus infection is modulated by the cytokine expressions in patients. The present study was aimed to measure some important pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in influenza-infected population of Assam, Northeast India. Materials and Methods: Influenza viruses consisting of subtypes influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, H3N2 and influenza-B were detected in patients with symptoms of influenza-like-illness by Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Relative messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) quantification of four pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, interferon-gamma [IFN-γ] and tumour necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α]) and one anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) were measured in influenza-positive cases and non-influenza controls, by real-time RT-PCR. The plasma concentration of the cytokines was determined using cytometric-bead-array with flow cytometry. Results: Influenza viruses were detected in 14.28% (50/350) of 350 patients screened. The expression of IL-6 was significantly raised in cases compared to controls (P = 0.018). IL-8 and IL-10 were also raised in cases, compared to controls (P = 0.284 and P = 0.018). An increased plasma TNF-α was observed in cases (1.36-fold and P = 0.289). The mRNA expression of IFN-γ was also increased in cases compared to controls (0.87-fold). However, the plasma level of IFN-γ was higher in the non-influenza controls compared to cases. Conclusions: The study revealed a differential cytokine profile during influenza virus infection in the population, which may influence disease severity. An extended study on host immune response may provide better insights for the use of cytokine antagonists in therapeutic treatments among severe cases of influenza virus infection.
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Types of human papillomavirus observed in hospital-based population p. 557
Priyanka Wagh, Priyanka Kulkarni, Shilpa Kerkar, Hemant Tongaonkar, Kedar Deodhar, Bharat Rekhi, Vinita Salvi, Hemangi Chaudhari, Himangi Warke, Jayanti Mania-Pramanik
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_19_451  PMID:32436880
Background and Objectives: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer, a major cause of cancer mortality in Indian women. The current study was undertaken to add information to the existing data on HPV type distribution in Indians, in an attempt to document HPV types for future vaccination programme, if any. Materials and Methods: HPV infection was screened in 223 cervical cancer cases and 2408 healthy women without cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (control). HPV was typed using polymerase chain reaction, Southern hybridisation using specific probes and HPV GenoArray (Hybribio) test. Results: HPV DNA was found in 92.8% of cases and 7.3% of controls. Of the 383 HPV-infected women, 30.0% had single infection; 50.9% had multiple infections (two or more types) and 19.1% were infected with HPV types other than HPV-16, -18, -6 and -11. Besides HPV-16, HPV-51 and HPV-33 were also seen as single infection in cases. In cases, HPV-18 or its homologous HPV-45 was always present as co-infection with HPV-16 or with other high-risk type. Binary logistic regression (backward) analysis highlighted significant association of age, parity and socioeconomic status with HPV infection. The present study highlighted the presence of multiple HPV infection (186 of 207, 89.9%) along with HPV-16 in women with cervical cancer. In control, 27.3% were co-infected with other sexually transmitted infections, while Chlamydia trachomatis infection was seen in 13% of cases. Conclusions: The study highlighted the type of HPV infection seen among the hospital-based population. For better screening, HPV tests available in the market should include all the types seen in the population.
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Currently circulating genotypes of hepatitis E virus in India, 2014–2018 p. 563
Fernandes M Mevis, Sasidharanpillai Sabeena, Ramachandran Sanjay, Sudandiradas Robin, Santhosha Devadiga, Varamballi Prasad, Dsa Oliver, Alyusif Ameen, Govindakarnavar Arunkumar
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_19_449  PMID:32436881
Purpose: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen causing acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Clinical manifestations often occur in young adults with an increased mortality rate among pregnant women. HEV genotypes 1 and 4 are mainly reported among humans and swines, respectively. Aims: The aim was to study the currently circulating genotypes of HEV in India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out at Manipal Institute of Virology to know the circulating genotypes of hepatitis E, spanning over 5 years from August 2014 to September 2018. The serum samples screened serologically positive and confirmed positive for active infection by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Real Star® HEV RT-PCR Kit 2.0, Altona Diagnostics, GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) were further subjected to nested conventional PCR targeting the RdRp gene of non-structural ORF1 region. The purified PCR product was sequenced in BigDye Terminator v3.1 Cycle Sequencing Kit (Life Technologies, Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA). The chromatograms obtained by sequencing were analysed using Sequencher 5.4.6, and HEV FASTA sequences were compared with reference sequences for HEV in GenBank Nucleotide Blast. Results: During the study period, there were 317 cases of laboratory-confirmed cases of acute viral hepatitis comprising 202, 70, 43 and 2 cases of hepatitis A, E, B and C, respectively. Serum samples of 70 acute hepatitis cases were positive for anti-hepatitis E IgM. According to the clinical case classification, there were 66 cases of acute viral hepatitis and four cases of fulminant hepatic liver failure. The mean age of the patients was 30.3 years (standard deviation = 12.5). The samples from various parts of India were genotyped as 1a. Conclusion: The HEV genotypes 1a was observed to be the currently circulating strain in the regions studied.
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Epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of human rhinovirus/Enterovirus in Odisha, Eastern India p. 569
Swagatika Panda, Nirmal Kumar Mohakud, Soumya Panda, Subrat Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_23  PMID:32436882
Introduction: Human rhinovirus (HRV) and Enterovirus (ENV) are the major causes of childhood acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). This study sought to understand the distribution pattern of HRV subgroups, their seasonality and association with respiratory complications in patients at a tertiary care hospital. Results: Of the total 332 ARTI samples, 82 (24.7%) were positive for ENV/HRV. Twenty positive samples were processed further for phylogenetic analysis. Ten of the 20 samples were identified to be HRVs (70% HRV A and 30% HRV C) and nine were enteroviruses. HRV A clustered near three distinct HRV types (A12, A78 and A82). Four of the HRV strains (represented as SEQ 137 rhino, SEQ 282 rhino, SEQ 120 rhino and SEQ 82 rhino) had high sequence similarity. HRV C showed seasonality and was associated with disease severity. Conclusion: The genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of the HRVs in the current study shows its circulatory pattern, association with risk factors and evolutionary dynamics.
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Interaction of human immunodeficiency virus-1 and human immunodeficiency virus-2 capsid amino acid variants with human tripartite motif 5α protein SPRY domain and its association with pathogenesis p. 574
Veena Vadhini Ramalingam, Suganya Subramanian, G John Fletcher, Priscilla Rupali, George Varghese, Susanne Pulimood, Lakshmanan Jeyaseelan, Balaji Nandagopal, Gopalan Sridharan, Rajesh Kannangai
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_109  PMID:32436883
Purpose: The sequence variation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) capsid region may influence and alter the susceptibility to human tripartite motif 5α protein (huTRIM5α). Materials and Methods: Molecular docking was carried out with huTRIM5α SPRY domain by the use of ClusPro and Hex docking program for HIV-1 and HIV-2 capsid sequences. Results: The sequence analysis on HIV-1 and HIV-2 capsid gag gene identified 35 (19.7%) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HIV-1 and 8 (4.5%) SNPs in HIV-2. The variations observed in the HIV-2 capsid region were significantly lower than HIV-1 (P < 0.001). The molecular docking analysis showed that HIV-1 wild type used V1 loop, while HIV-2 used V3 loop of huTRIM5α for interaction. HIV-1 with A116T SNP and HIV-2 with V81A SNP use V3 and V1 loop of huTRIM5α for interaction respectively. The reduced huTRIM5α inhibition may lead to a faster progression of disease among HIV-1-infected individuals. However, in case of HIV-2, increased inhibition by huTRIM5α slows down the disease progression. Conclusion: Polymorphisms in the capsid protein with both HIV-1- and HIV-2-monoinfected individuals showed the difference in the docking energy from the wild type. This is the first study which documents the difference in the usage of loop between the two HIV types for interaction with huTRIM5α. Variations in the capsid protein result in alteration in the binding to the restriction factor huTRIM5α.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATION Top

Assessment of two immunoassays for detection of IgM antibodies to scrub typhus using a serum panel p. 584
Divyaa Elangovan, Susmitha Perumalla, Winsley Rose, Valsan Philip Verghese, Joy Mammen, MS Gowri, John Antony Jude Prakash
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_130  PMID:32436884
Laboratory tests are necessary for diagnosis of scrub typhus (ST) especially in the absence of the distinctive eschar. Performance of an ELISA and ICT (immunochromatography) to detect IgM antibodies to scrub typhus was assessed using a panel of 346 sera chosen from healthy individuals, those with scrub typhus and scrub-typhus like illness. A sensitivity of 98.7% for ST IgM ICT and 97.4% for ST IgM ELISA was observed while specificity was 96.3% for ICT and 95.9% for ELISA. As excellent concordance (98.8%) was noted between the two assays, IgM ICT can be used for rapid diagnosis of scrub typhus. Abbreviations: ST IgM ELISA: Scrub typhus IgM ELISA; ST IgM ICT: Scrub Typhus IgM Immunochromatography, Rapid diagnostic test: RDT.
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CASE REPORTS Top

A rare association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of kidney and urinary tract with immunoglobulin A nephropathy p. 587
Immanuel Pradeep, Sneha Haridas Anupama, Priyanka Koshy, Abraham Kurien, Anusha Rohit, Milly Mathew, Rajeevalochana Parthasarathy, Georgi Abraham
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_19_482  PMID:32436885
Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB)-related secondary immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is reported in a 72-year-old male patient. The patient was diagnosed to have MTB infection of the kidney and genitourinary tract which was diagnosed by the demonstration of the organism by GeneXpert Ultra and culture. Concurrent kidney biopsy showed IgA nephropathy. The patient responded to urethral double-J stenting and four-drug antituberculous therapy with improvement of kidney function and resolution of MTB. IgA nephropathy can present as primary glomerulonephritis or secondary to MTB infection.
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A rare aetiology of spinal epidural abscess p. 590
Lata Sheoran, Neeraj Goel, Shankar Acharya, Nitin Adsul, Chand Wattal
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_19_493  PMID:32436886
Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare entity, but it is associated with high mortality. Here, we describe a rare case of pneumococcal SEA in an immunocompetent adult who presented with fever, lower back pain and paresis. Central nervous system examination revealed a decreased power in bilateral lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine showed loculated pus collection in the epidural space at the level of L4–L5 vertebrae. Pus obtained following L4–L5 decompression along with blood cultures grew S. pneumoniae. The patient was treated with clindamycin and cefoperazone-sulbactam for 6 weeks, and no relapse was noted on 11 months follow-up.
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CORRESPONDENCES Top

Emerging atypical non-lactose-fermenting phenotypic variants of klebsiella pneumoniae and escherichia coli in admitted patients of a trauma centre p. 593
Vijeta Bajpai, Purva Mathur
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_61  PMID:32436887
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Under diagnosis of the lymphogranuloma venereum serovars in the Indian population p. 595
Deepak Juyal, Jyoti Rawre, Benu Dhawan
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_19_475  PMID:32436888
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Clinico-microbiological profile of invasive pneumococcal disease amongst hospitalised children in South India p. 598
Sundaram Balasubramanian, Praachi Singh, K Dhanalakshmi, Sulochana Putlibai, Rosemol Varghese
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_135  PMID:32436889
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Will the recently reinstated clsi 2020 breakpoints of norfloxacin for urinary isolates work for India? – Tertiary care experience and evidence p. 600
Rani Diana Sahni, Balaji Veeraraghavan, MS Dhiviya Prabaa, Jobin John Jacob
DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_142  PMID:32436890
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2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04