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  Table of Contents  
CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 35  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 316
 

Oncogenic human papillomavirus types in a high risk population


Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication5-Jul-2017

Correspondence Address:
Lalit Dar
Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_338

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How to cite this article:
Lall M, Kumar P, Choudhary A, Dar L. Oncogenic human papillomavirus types in a high risk population. Indian J Med Microbiol 2017;35:316

How to cite this URL:
Lall M, Kumar P, Choudhary A, Dar L. Oncogenic human papillomavirus types in a high risk population. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2017 [cited 2017 Sep 26];35:316. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2017/35/2/316/209584


Dear Editor,

We read with interest the article 'Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India' by Singh et al. in the July 2016 issue of the Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology.[1]

The authors could have included the HIV status of the study population since ethical clearance from the National AIDS Control Organisation, New Delhi, had been obtained. This would have been valuable to analyse in this high-risk population since HIV seropositivity is strongly associated with a higher human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and incidence, a reduced likelihood of HPV infection clearance and a higher proportion of infection with multiple HPV genotypes.[2],[3]

HPV prevalence has been reported from this institute from three different cross-sectional studies which were carried out:[4] a hospital-based cross-sectional study of 106 women with invasive cervical cancer; a hospital-based cross-sectional study of 524 women presenting with an unhealthy cervix and a community-based cross-sectional study of 465 women who underwent HPV testing. HPV testing was done using L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by reverse line blot hybridisation assay (Roche). Among the hospital-based invasive carcinoma cases, which represented patients from all regions of North India, HPV-16/18 singly or in combination were seen in 83% of cases.

In our hospital-based symptomatic patients, the overall HPV prevalence was 15.5%, while in the community-based study in healthy women it was 7%.[5] However, in their study, the authors report a substantially higher positivity of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) of 23.4% in healthy controls. This is the reason for the absence of a statistically significant difference in hrHPV between the female sex workers group and the control group, which has been missed in the discussion.

The use of liquid-based cytology for cervical screening increases sensitivity and facilitates unambiguous reporting by removing artefacts and giving a clear field for interpretation, which is well highlighted in their work, as well as ours. We agree with the authors that there is a need for implementation of an effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV, especially for high-risk populations.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
 ~ References Top

1.
Singh MP, Kaur M, Gupta N, Kumar A, Goyal K, Sharma A, et al. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2016;34:328-34.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.
Musa J, Achenbach C, Taiwo B, Berzins B, Silas O, Daru PH, et al. High-risk human papilloma virus and cervical abnormalities in HIV-infected women with normal cervical cytology. Infect Agent Cancer 2014;9:36.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.
Clifford GM, Gonçalves MA, Franceschi S; HPV and HIV Study Group. Human papillomavirus types among women infected with HIV: A meta-analysis. AIDS 2006;20:2337-44.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Patro AR, Dar L, Bhatla N, Gulati A, Kriplani A, Pati SK, et al. Abstract C59: Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in Northern India: Implications for vaccination. Cancer Res 2009;69 23 Suppl: C59.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Bhatla N, Dar L, Rajkumar Patro A, Kumar P, Pati SK, Kriplani A, et al. Human papillomavirus-type distribution in women with and without cervical neoplasia in North India. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2008;27:426-30.  Back to cited text no. 5
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