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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 500-505

Coagulase-negative staphylococci causing blood stream infection at an Indian tertiary care hospital: Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterisation

1 Department of Medical Microbiology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Microbiology, All Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Pediatrics, All Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
4 Department of Neurosurgery, All Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
5 Department of Biostatistics, All Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
S Singh
Department of Medical Microbiology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.195374

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Introduction: Recent years have seen a rise of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from common contaminants to agents of nosocomial blood stream infections (BSI's). Molecular typing and establishing a correlation with antibiotic resistance is essential particularly in countries like India where genotyping studies for drug-resistant CoNS are sparse. Methods: A prospective study was done over 18 months, wherein 42,693 blood samples were received, and 59 patients with BSI due to CoNS were evaluated. The isolates recovered were identified by a biochemical test panel and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization – time of flight mass spectrometry followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby–Baur disc diffusion method and E-test strips. Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) element was characterised by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for all methicillin-resistant (MR) isolates. Results: The majority of CoNS isolated were constituted by Staphylococcus haemolyticus (47.5%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (33.9%), Staphylococcus hominis (11.86%), Staphylococcus cohnii (5.08%) and Staphylococcus warneri (1.69%). Among all isolates 57.6% were MR with statistically significant higher resistance versus methicillin sensitive-CoNS. This difference was significant for erythromycin (76% vs. 44%, P = 0.011), rifampicin (50% vs. 12%,P= 0.002) and amikacin (26.5% vs. 4%, P = 0.023), ciprofloxacin (64.7% vs. 20%, P = 0.001) and cotrimoxazole (55.9% vs. 20%, P = 0.006). SCCmec type I was predominant (61.8%, P = 0.028) and exhibited multidrug resistance (76.2%). Coexistence of SCCmec type I and III was seen in 8.82% MR isolates. Conclusion: CoNS exhibit high antimicrobial resistance thereby limiting treatment options. The presence of new variants of SCCmec type in hospital-acquired CoNS may predict the antibiotic resistance pattern. This is the first evaluation of the molecular epidemiology of CoNS causing BSI from India and can serve as a guide in the formulation of hospital infection control and treatment guidelines.


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2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

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