|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 394-395
Spontaneous septic arthritis due to Burkholderia cepacia in a 3-month-old pre-term infant
S Nivedhana1, P Sulochana1, R Shobana2
1 Department of Microbiology, CHILDS Trust Medical Research Foundation, Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Neonatology, CHILDS Trust Medical Research Foundation, Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Submission||29-Jun-2015|
|Date of Acceptance||09-Jan-2016|
|Date of Web Publication||12-Aug-2016|
Department of Microbiology, CHILDS Trust Medical Research Foundation, Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Nivedhana S, Sulochana P, Shobana R. Spontaneous septic arthritis due to Burkholderia cepacia in a 3-month-old pre-term infant. Indian J Med Microbiol 2016;34:394-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Nivedhana S, Sulochana P, Shobana R. Spontaneous septic arthritis due to Burkholderia cepacia in a 3-month-old pre-term infant. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Jun 19];34:394-5. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2016/34/3/394/188374
Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) causes infections that are proving difficult to treat because of both high intrinsic (aminoglycosides and colistin) and acquired resistance (β lactams) and also occasionally to co-trimoxazole (the drug of choice). ,, We are describing a rare case of spontaneous septic arthritis by BCC in a pre-term infant.
A 3-month-old pre-term intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR), female infant (2.02 kg) was admitted to the neonatology intensive care unit for the paucity of movements in both legs for 3 days and failure to thrive. This was not associated with fever or trauma. There was no history of decreased intake of feeds/lethargy/irritability. On examination, she was alert with restricted movements of both limbs. The heart rate was 110/min and respiratory rate was 36/min, SPO 2 97% at room temperature.
Investigations revealed elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) - 27.9 mg/L, white blood cell count - 14,500 cells/mm 3 (lymphocytes - 70%), red blood cell count - 4.8 millions/mm 3 and hemoglobin - 11.5 g%. Ultrasonography (USG) hip showed a bilateral collection of minimal intracapsular fluid with internal echos. USG of abdomen and brain were normal. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures showed no growth.
Aspirate loaded onto BacT/ALERT PF Plus bottle yielded growth of B. cepacia [Figure 1], which was sensitive to ceftazidime (MIC 2), levofloxacin (MIC 1), minocycline (MIC ≤1), meropenem (MIC 1) and cotrimoxazole (MIC ≤20) (VITEK-2). The infant was placed on contact isolation and treated with intravenous (IV) meropenem (80 mg) thrice daily and syrup co-trimoxazole (0.8 ml) thrice daily for 4 weeks.
Subsequent aspirate showed no growth, CRP was negative (1.4). At discharge, both hip joint movements had improved with good cry and tone and the infant was taking adlib bottle feeds. Syrup co-trimoxazole was continued and tablet levofloxacin 500 mg ¼ was added for two more weeks.
This infant was symptomatic on admission, and the arthritis was most likely due to hematological seeding of the joint. The blood culture showed no growth which could have resulted from a smaller amount of inoculated blood.  The infant was delivered by caesarean owing to fetal distress at 32 weeks of gestation (weight - 1.4 kg). She had been on an incubator for 20 days requiring oxygen, IV lines and had received nasogastric feeds initially for 5 days. There were no prior injections or surgeries on the infected hip joints. Concrete source identification was not possible in our case, but we speculate that the infection was contracted during previous hospitalisation superimposed on the setting of pre-maturity and IUGR.
We conclude that the drugs for treating BCC infections are already limited and could prove fatal if misidentified or reported as Pseudomonas species since its susceptibility is in complete contrast to that of Pseudomonas. 
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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