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 ~  Abstract
 ~ Introduction
 ~  Materials and Me...
 ~ Results
 ~ Discussion
 ~ Acknowledgement
 ~  References
 ~  Article Figures

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  Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 11-14
 

Design and development of compact monitoring system for disaster remote health centres


1 Department of Information Technology, Dr. NGP Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission19-Dec-2013
Date of Acceptance19-Mar-2014
Date of Web Publication6-Feb-2015

Correspondence Address:
S Santhi
Department of Information Technology, Dr. NGP Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.150871

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 ~ Abstract 

Purpose: To enhance speedy communication between the patient and the doctor through newly proposed routing protocol at the mobile node. Materials and Methods: The proposed model is applied for a telemedicine application during disaster recovery management. In this paper, Energy Efficient Link Stability Routing Protocol (EELSRP) has been developed by simulation and real time. This framework is designed for the immediate healing of affected persons in remote areas, especially at the time of the disaster where there is no hospital proximity. In case of disasters, there might be an outbreak of infectious diseases. In such cases, the patient's medical record is also transferred by the field operator from disaster place to the hospital to facilitate the identification of the disease-causing agent and to prescribe the necessary medication. The heterogeneous networking framework provides reliable, energy efficientand speedy communication between the patient and the doctor using the proposed routing protocol at the mobile node. Results: The performance of the simulation and real time versions of the Energy Efficient Link Stability Routing Protocol (EELSRP) protocol has been analyzed. Experimental results prove the efficiency of the real-time version of EESLRP protocol. Conclusion: The packet delivery ratio and throughput of the real time version of EELSRP protocol is increased by 3% and 10%, respectively, when compared to the simulated version of EELSRP. The end-to-end delay and energy consumption are reduced by 10% and 2% in the real time version of EELSRP.


Keywords: Energy Efficient Link Stability Routing Protocol , real time protocol, telemedicine, wireless sensor network


How to cite this article:
Santhi S, Sadasivam G S. Design and development of compact monitoring system for disaster remote health centres. Indian J Med Microbiol 2015;33, Suppl S1:11-4

How to cite this URL:
Santhi S, Sadasivam G S. Design and development of compact monitoring system for disaster remote health centres. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Dec 8];33, Suppl S1:11-4. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2015/33/5/11/150871



 ~ Introduction Top


Disaster recovery management entails timely interaction and co-ordination of public emergency services in order to save lives and property. During a disaster, most of the terrestrial communication links either do not work properly or get damaged. So a mobile and portable telemedicine system with satellite connectivity and customised telemedicine software is ideal for disaster relief.Telemedicine is the medical art, without direct physical physician-patient interaction that facilitates the provision of medical aid from a distance. It is an effective solution for providing specialty health care in the form of improved access and reduced cost to the patients in disaster place and the reduced professional isolation of the doctors.

This paper investigates the benefits of a broadband communication system in telemedicine, which enables the doctors to help the patient during disaster and emergency. It can be implemented in all ambulances to provide health care and a server is maintained at the health care centre for getting the necessary details of the patient sensed by the sensor device through smart phone (OS-Android). The medical record or the history of the patient is sent to the doctor on a real time basis who will in-turn study and provide diagnosis and treatment during the video conferencing with the patient's side.

The vitals of the patient can be viewed in the web portal at the doctors end. The proposed system uses the energy efficient routing protocol to improve the performance of disaster recovery framework. The mobile management used in this system facilitates the interface between the doctors in the health care centre and the nurses in the health care centre.This paper aims to facilitate the usage of technology reliably and efficiently to benefit the masses in case of emergency/disaster and hence makes use of the android technology (smart device). The client/server configuration is adopted widely in various nodes depending on the network size, which indicates the number of doctor terminals to patient end. The patient's history is maintained in the hospital server and can be retrieved in the future, which would be a reference for further treatments.

The objective of this paper is to develop an automated system which can be placed in remote health care centres and a server is maintained at the main health care centre for getting the vitals of the patient sensed by the sensor device placed on the human body through a smart device (OS-Android) and can be viewed in the web portal. The system can be used to handle the infectious disease outbreaks that occur in the area by analysing the vital signs and reports of victims in relief areas. Based on the test reports and sensor data, the spread of disease on a patient can be identified by the specialist in hospitals. These specialists can then suggest a suitable drug dose to the relief operations in the disaster area. The validation of real time and simulation protocols carried out and results are measured and compared.


 ~ Materials and Methods Top


Our proposed model [Figure 1] is applied to help with implementation of a telemedicine framework for disaster recovery management. This heterogeneous framework has a mobile, portable telemedicine system and customised telemedicine software, it is ideal for disaster relief. This framework has been developed to sense and acquire heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature readings. This data along with a patient report, including blood test can be digitised and transferred to the doctor at the hospital anytime via wireless network. The field operative energy-efficient heterogeneous disaster recovery management framework is designed for the immediate healing of injured persons in remote areas, especially at the time of the disaster where there is no hospital nearby. It helps mankind and avoids many deaths due to first-aid given at the accident zone. It enhances speedy communication between the patient and the doctor through internet. This heterogeneous testbed is used in the telemedicine application.
Figure 1: Typical architecture of telemedicine

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The drawbacks of the existing system are that these systems are not easily extensible, maintainable or scalable. At times of overload, information cannot be extracted quickly from the server. This might annoy the victims and field operators who require immediate and reliable communication with doctors.The services provided by the existing system cannot be dynamically scaled up.

Hence the new framework with link stability, the energy efficient routing protocol has been deployed on Android phone to speed up the information flow from patient to doctor and.


 ~ Results Top


This paper deals implementation of the Energy Efficient Link Stability Routing Protocol (EELSRP) in real time and compared with EELSRP (SIM). [9] A real-time implementation consists of 10 mobile nodes at patient end and 4 wired nodes at doctor end of the telemedicine framework have been taken. This heterogeneous wired cum wireless framework using Bluetooth and Android OS on the smart phoneto transfer the information from the sensor device to mobile. The EELSRP protocol applied in wireless domain and Multi Dijkstra Transversal in wired side. This protocol is better than other energy efficient protocol and it has been proved in the previous work. [9]

The performance of real-time network has been analyzed and validated. The simulation of EELSRP (SIM) has been compared with the real time network protocol. To measure the effect of EELSRP (RT) on performance, we perform four experiments. The first experiment measures end-to-end delay by varying nodes from 1 to 10. This test is conducted by Network Simulator (NS-2.34) [10] to measure the effect of the proposed protocol. The second to fourth experiments measure throughput, packet delivery ratio, power consumption in packet transmission through the proposed routing protocol EELSRP (RT), and compares those results with real node. This real node implementation carried out by the mobile node at patient end and wired network at doctor end of the telemedicine framework.

One interesting observation is that the delay for both protocols increases from sources 2 to 10 nodes [Figure 2]. This is due to a high level of network congestion and multiple access interferences at certain regions of the ad hoc network. Two protocols use the load balancing mechanism, i.e. for choosing routes in such a way that the data traffic can be more evenly distributed in the network. This phenomenon is less visible with higher mobility, where traffic automatically gets more evenly distributed due to source movements. Analyzing the average end to end delay, real time routing protocol works better than the simulation protocol.
Figure 2: End-to-End Delay vs No. of Nodes

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For the 10 node experiments, 2 to 10 sources are used. The delay is increased from 2 to 10 sources continuously. In [Figure 2] note that EELSRP (SIM) used more delay in 2 sources, however the simulation routing protocol performance gets much worse than real time protocol with larger number of sources.

[Figure 3] compares the performance of EELSRP (SIM) and real time routing protocol in terms of throughput. Throughput of a real time model compared to EELSRP (SIM) and proved that performance of real-time model is better than simulation results.[Figure 4] shows the packet delivery ratio from the source to each node that runs with EELSRP (SIM) protocol and real time model. Considering scalability with respect to the network size, the real time outperforms the simulation protocol.
Figure 3: Throughput vs No. of Nodes

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Figure 4: Packet Delivery Ratio vs No. of Nodes

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The average energy consumption is the ratio of global consumed energy to the number of data packets received. The results in [Figure 5] demonstrate that the energy consumption of real time model is minimised.
Figure 5: Energy Consumed vs No. of Nodes

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 ~ Discussion Top


Wireless sensor network is a combination of hundreds and thousands of small sensing devices or sensors, also known as Wireless Integrated Network sensors. [1],[2]

Different routing techniques can be used in wireless sensor network. [3] Avramov [4] proposes a workflow model for a disaster response system which consists of mainly four steps; named data acquisition, data analysis, decision support and command and control. In Fujiwara [5] presents a framework for data collection using sensor networks in disaster situations.

Ahmad et al., [6] proposed a model for the disaster survivor detection based on extremely critical disaster situations. The disaster for local, state and national disaster preparations and effective medical services are given in. [7] It also provides the policy, remote medical delivery models and programs. [8] Ghosh et al., reviews emergency telecommunications and explores the role of information and communication technologies for disaster mitigation and humanitarian relief.

Our work differs from all of these works as we propose a detailed framework which incorporates various emerging heterogeneous networks and database systems to work together for disaster prevention, mitigation and damage control. Also, it is possible to implement the framework for a specific type of disaster.

The objective of this paper is to build a low power, low cost, reliable, non-intrusive, and non-invasive monitoring system that would accurately measure the vital signs. A reliable and continuous vital sign monitoring and reports system targeted towards patients in a remote place has been successfully built to give suggestion to field operatives in case of emergency situation including an outbreak of infectious disease. The resulting monitoring system is cost effective, energy efficient, ease to use and accurate.

The bill of material for a single sensor unit, monitoring equipment and heterogeneous testbed is Rs. 40,000. The same cost is required to implement the system in other hospitals also.


 ~ Acknowledgement Top


We extend our sincere gratitude to Kovai Medical Center and Hospital for supporting the study and collecting data.

 
 ~ References Top

1.
Saffo P. Sensors: The next wave of innovation. Commun ACM 1997;40:92-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Akyildiz IF, Su W, Sankarasubramaniam Y, Cayirci E. Wireless sensor networks: A survey. Comp Netw 2002;38:393-422.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
AI-Karaki JN, Kamal AE. Routing techniques in wireless sensor networks: A survey. IEEE Wirel Comm 2004:11:6-28.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Avramov S. Integrating COTS technologies into a scalable mobile emergency command. J Inf Secur 2003;10:87-96.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Fujiwara T, Makie H, Watanabe T. A framework for data collection system with sensor networks in disaster circumstances. Intl Workshop Wirel Ad-Hoc Netw 2004:94-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Ahmad N, Riaz N, Hussain M. Ad hoc wireless sensor network architecture for disaster survivor detection. Int J Adv Sci Tech 2011:34.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Vo AH, Brooks GB, Bourdeau M, Farr R, Raimer BG.University of Texas Medical Branch telemedicine disaster response and recovery: Lessons learned from hurricane Ike. Telemed J E Health 2010;16:627-33.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Ghosh A, Hui YK, Chiang M. Model-Based architecture analysis for wireless healthcare.proceeding in the conf on MobileHealth′11. Paris, France, 2011:1:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Santhi S, Sudha SG. Power aware stability-based routing protocol for hybrid ad hoc networks. Int J Mobile Netw Design and Innovation (Inderscience) 2012;47-58.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
The network simulator-ns2 website. Available from: http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns [Last accessed on 2011 Nov].  Back to cited text no. 10
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]



 

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