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  Table of Contents  
RESEARCH SNIPPETS
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 618-620
 

Snippet


Department of Microbiology, Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Submission01-Sep-2015
Date of Acceptance01-Sep-2015
Date of Web Publication16-Oct-2015

Correspondence Address:
P Desikan
Department of Microbiology, Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.167358

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How to cite this article:
Desikan P. Snippet. Indian J Med Microbiol 2015;33:618-20

How to cite this URL:
Desikan P. Snippet. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Dec 12];33:618-20. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2015/33/4/618/167358


Mayonnaise from The Langham Hotel (Melbourne, Victoria) kitchens was found to have the same strain of  Salmonella More Details that was found in 90 people who ate at the hotel on 11th and 12th July, 2015. (http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/25/melbourne-salmonella-outbreak-blamed-on-mayonnaise-at-langham-hotel). Foodborne pathogens are more likely to cause infection and to result in serious consequences in vulnerable people than in healthy adults. People with some increase in susceptibility may form nearly 20% of the population in the UK and the USA. Measures to prevent foodborne disease include procedures based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles, prerequisite programmes and especially for vulnerable people, the use of lower-risk foods in place of higher-risk products (Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Aug 21;12(8):10117-10132)

According to a statement of a health ministry official of Madagascar on 26th August, 2015, eight people died of pneumonic plague in 2 days Madagascar. (http://www.france24.com/en/20150826-pneumonic-plague-kills-eight-madagascar). The efficacy of a recombinant plague vaccine (rF1V) was evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (CMs) to establish the relationship among vaccine doses, antibody titres, and survival following an aerosol challenge with a lethal dose of  Yersinia More Details pestis strain Colorado 92. Vaccine doses and antibody responses were each significantly associated with the probability of CM survival. Vaccination also decreased signs of pneumonic plague in a dose-dependent manner. Delays in the onset of clinical signs of disease were associated with larger doses of rF1V. Immunization with ≥12 μg of rF1V resulted in 100% CM survival. Since both vaccine dose and anti-rF1V antibody titres correlate with survival, rF1V bridge ELISA titres can be used as a correlate of protection (Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015 Sep;22(9):1070-8. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00290-15. Epub 2015 Jul 29)

Hong Kong health officials recorded 2 cases of necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus in early August 2015. One had a history of fish sting to his left middle finger while visiting a wet market. The other had visited the wet market daily before onset of the illness, but he did not recall any previous injury (http://outbreaknewstoday.com/hong-kong-reports-two-necrotizing-fasciitis-cases-caused-by-vibrio-vulnificus-29260/). A study in Southeast China retrospectively analysed clinical data of patients with laboratory confirmed V. vulnificus infection. Clinical manifestations of cellulitis (47.6%), septic shock (42.9%) and multiple organ failure (28.6%) were statistically significant when comparing survivors and non-survivors. Patients were at a higher-risk of mortality under situations where they had a history of habitual heavy alcoholic drink consumption accompanied with cellulitis, shock and multiple organ failure (PLoS One. 2015 Aug 14;10(8):e0136019. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136019. eCollection 2015)

More than 270 persons in Canberra, Australia have been diagnosed with pertussis this year, with 3 cases reported at the Hawker Primary School in August 2015 (http://www.canberratimes.com.au/act-news/whooping-cough-cases-top-270-with-new-reports-at-hawker-primary-school-20150826-gj80jf.html). Several observational studies provide evidence that acellular pertussis vaccines (aP) are less protective against pertussis disease than highly effective whole-cell pertussis vaccines (wP). However, concerns have been raised that some of these findings may be confounded by age. An age-stratified and restricted analysis of a cohort of Australian children primed with either aP-only, wP-only or mixed pertussis vaccine schedules, concluded that the association of wP with increased protection from pertussis is not confounded by age, nor by aP booster-dose receipt (Vaccine. 2015 Aug 19. pii: S0264-410X(15)01143-3. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.08.021. [Epub ahead of print])

Queensland, Australia, is on the brink of an influenza epidemic with thousands of cases diagnosed in August 2015. The latest Queensland Health figures show there have been more than 12,000 confirmed cases this year up until 16th August, 2015 (http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-08-26/queensland-on-brink-of-flu-epidemic-amaq-says/6723534). A cross-sectional study examined the effectiveness of symptom and temperature screening for identifying influenza in international airline travellers arriving at Christchurch International Airport, New Zealand, using a health questionnaire, temperature testing, and respiratory sampling. It was found that the sensitivity of screening criteria ranged from 84% for "any symptom" to 3% for a fever of 37.8°C or greater. The positive predictive value was low for all criteria. It was concluded that border screening using self-reported symptoms and temperature testing has limitations for preventing pandemic influenza from entering a country. Using "any symptom" or cough would lead to many uninfected people being investigated, yet some infected people would remain undetected. If more specific criteria such as fever were used, most infected people would enter the country despite screening

At least 495 people in the USA have had infections from food contaminated with Cyclospora_. Cilantro imported from Mexico has been identified as the source of illness clusters in Texas and Wisconsin (https://foodpoisoningbulletin.com/2015/cyclospora-outbreak-and-symptoms-go-on-and-on/). Results of a comprehensive molecular survey of Cyclospora in environmental, food and human faecal samples in Europe suggest that irrigation water, soil and vegetables might be contaminated by Cyclospora cayetanensis. This might represent a source of infection to humans in the study area and calls for monitoring by health authorities (Int J Food Microbiol. 2015 Oct 15;211:95-100. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2015.07.002. Epub 2015 Jul 04)

Florida was in the news about 2 months ago as the 9th case of leprosy was confirmed in the state. Now, leprosy has been diagnosed in a person from Michigan, who is described as a frequent visitor to the Sunshine State. It is believed that the association with Florida is due to the presence of nine banded armadillos in Florida, Louisiana and Texas where nearly 20% of them carry Mycobacterium leprae (http://outbreaknewstoday.com/leprosy-case-diagnosed-in-michigan-man-was-frequent-visitor-to-florida-38777/). Active case detection for leprosy can be surprisingly simple. In order to detect new cases of leprosy in the Amazonian region, a self-image form (SIF) was used (Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2015 Aug;48(4):488-90. doi: 10.1590/0037-8682-0015-2015). The SIF was used to screen two groups: Case (neighbours of index cases of leprosy) and control (individuals residing next to houses without leprosy) group. A specialist investigated suspected leprosy cases for disease confirmation. New cases of leprosy were diagnosed in the case group (n = 7, 8.6%), but not the control group. It was concluded that this new surveillance strategy is inexpensive, efficient, and feasible within a primary health strategy

A gymnasium and an outdoor swimming pool at the police training school in Aberdeen, Hong Konghave been closed due to an outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) that has affected 21 recruits in <2 weeks. The Police College, next to Ocean Park, has undergone a massive clean-up and tightened hygiene measures since the 14th August, 2015 outbreak while the Centre for Health Protection investigates the source of the virus (http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/1853270/hong-kong-police-college-shuts-gym-pool-after-21-recruits). A study investigated the clinical and molecular characteristics of enteroviruses in patients with HFMD in Wenzhou, China. 14 types of enterovirus belonging to two viral species were identified. Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was the most common species detected (77.8%), followed by EV-A71 (8.2%) and CV-A10 (8.1%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed multiple independent introductions of these viruses into Wenzhou. In addition, the enterovirus observed in Wenzhou had a recombinant history, with two or three recombination breakpoints. Although the illness associated with CV-A6 was milder than that of EV-A71, CV-A6 infection caused more widespread rash, larger blisters, and subsequent skin peeling and/or nail shedding. (J ClinVirol. 2015 Sep;70:29-38. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2015.06.093. Epub 2015 Jul 02.)

The Department of Public Health, Iowa, USA, has received confirmation of a case of Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) infection in August this year. (http://www.idph.state.ia.us/IdphNews/Reader.aspx?id=C72C866A-0FD0-4641-8A70-1830F0157B83) JCV is a mosquito-borne orthobunyavirus in the California serogroup that can cause an acute febrile illness, meningitis, or meningoencephalitis. During 2000–2013, a study group in the USA identified 31 cases of JCV disease in residents of 13 states. The median age was 48 years (range, 10–69) and 21 (68%) were male. 11 (35%) case patients had meningoencephalitis, 6 (19%) meningitis, 7 (23%) fever without neurologic involvement, and 7 (23%) had an unknown clinical syndrome. 15 (48%) were hospitalised and there were no deaths (Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Aug 5;93(2):384-9. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0196. Epub 2015 Jun 01)

Should an on-going experiment in Jalna, Maharashtra, have the same success as it has achieved in Brazil, India might be rid, to an extent at least, from disease-causing mosquito species. And we will have mosquitoes themselves to thank – genetically-modified male mosquitoes, that is. (http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-others/fighting-mosquito-with-mosquito-a-gm-size-bite-against-dengue/#sthash.sLaJftZb.dpuf). The technology involves the alteration of the genetic composition of male mosquitoes by introducing a strain called OX513A that renders them sterile. When these male mosquitoes mate with female wild mosquitoes, the gene is passed on to the offspring, which do not survive beyond the larval stage. Wow!




 

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