|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 608-609
High rate of infection with hepatitis C virus genotype 4 in Chad, Central Africa
M Ali-Mahamat1, R Njouom2
1 Service of Internal Medecine and Gastroenterology, Hopital General de Ndjamena, Ndjamena, Chad, Africa
2 Virology Service, Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Yaounde, Cameroon, Africa
|Date of Submission||30-Oct-2014|
|Date of Acceptance||01-Jan-2015|
|Date of Web Publication||16-Oct-2015|
Virology Service, Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Yaounde, Cameroon
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Ali-Mahamat M, Njouom R. High rate of infection with hepatitis C virus genotype 4 in Chad, Central Africa. Indian J Med Microbiol 2015;33:608-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Ali-Mahamat M, Njouom R. High rate of infection with hepatitis C virus genotype 4 in Chad, Central Africa. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Jul 7];33:608-9. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2015/33/4/608/167343
No study is available on hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes circulating in Chad. In order to fill this gap, we report here the laboratory results of 26 patients with hepatitis C referred for follow up to the General Hospital of Ndjamena, Chad.
The baseline demographics, virologic and liver histology data from these 26 patients are summarized in [Table 1]. All the patients were natives of Chad and 88.5% were men. The mean age of the studied population was 45.7 ± 10.8 years with 61.5% having more than 45 years. The baseline HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) level was above 800,000 IU/ml in 65.4% of cases. Most of the patients (76.9%) were at a severe liver fibrosis stage with 34.6% having cirrhosis. Most of the patients (84.6%) were infected with HCV genotype 4 (HCV-4), 7.7% with HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1) and 7.7% with HCV genotype 2 (HCV-2).
|Table 1: Demographic and virological characteristics of Hepatitis C-positive patients, Chad|
Click here to view
We report here the first HCV molecular study performed in Chad so far. This study shows, as reported in most central Africa countries ,,, that elderly persons were the most infected confirming that the spread of HCV in central Africa is due to a cohort effect, with previous, possibly iatrogenic exposure during massive and generalized therapy and/or vaccination. This result contrasts the epidemiology of HCV in industrialised countries where young people are the most infected population due to intravenous drug use. This study also report the circulation of three HCV genotypes (1, 2 and 4), with a predominance of genotype 4 in accordance with the circulating genotypes in most central Africa countries including Cameroon, Central African Republic  and Gabon. The histological stage assessment reflects studies with African and Middle Eastern populations suggesting a frequent association of HCV-4 with cirrhosis and a rapid fibrosis progression rate. Like central Africa countries, Chad has a high prevalence of HCV genotype 4 infections. Further population-based studies are required to confirm these results found in a hospital-based study.
| ~ Acknowledgments|| |
We thank all the nurses of the General Hospital of Ndjamena for their collaboration and support.
| ~ References|| |
Njouom R, Caron M, Besson G, Ndong-Atome G, Makuwa M, Pouillot R, et al
. Phylogeography, risk factors and genetic history of hepatitis C virus in Gabon, central Africa. PLoS One 2012;7:e42002.
Njouom R, Frost E, Deslandes S, Mamadou-Yaya F, Labbé A, Pouillot R, et al.
Predominance of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection and rapid transmission between 1935 and 1965 in the Central African Republic. J Gen Virol 2009;90:2452-6.
Njouom R, Nerrienet E, Dubois M, Lachenal G, Rousset D, Vessière A, et al.
The hepatitis C virus epidemic in Cameroon: Genetic evidence for rapid transmission between 1920 and 1960. Infect Genet Evol 2007;7:361-7.
Negro F. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Europe. Dig Liver Dis 2014;46:S158-64.
Wali MH, Heydtmann M, Harrison RF, Gunson BK, Mutimer DJ. Outcome of liver transplantation for patients infected by hepatitis C, including those infected by genotype 4. Liver Transpl 2003;9:796-804.