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CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 608-609
 

High rate of infection with hepatitis C virus genotype 4 in Chad, Central Africa


1 Service of Internal Medecine and Gastroenterology, Hopital General de Ndjamena, Ndjamena, Chad, Africa
2 Virology Service, Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Yaounde, Cameroon, Africa

Date of Submission30-Oct-2014
Date of Acceptance01-Jan-2015
Date of Web Publication16-Oct-2015

Correspondence Address:
R Njouom
Virology Service, Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Yaounde, Cameroon
Africa
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.167343

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How to cite this article:
Ali-Mahamat M, Njouom R. High rate of infection with hepatitis C virus genotype 4 in Chad, Central Africa. Indian J Med Microbiol 2015;33:608-9

How to cite this URL:
Ali-Mahamat M, Njouom R. High rate of infection with hepatitis C virus genotype 4 in Chad, Central Africa. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Dec 7];33:608-9. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2015/33/4/608/167343


Dear Editor,

No study is available on hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes circulating in Chad. In order to fill this gap, we report here the laboratory results of 26 patients with hepatitis C referred for follow up to the General Hospital of Ndjamena, Chad.

The baseline demographics, virologic and liver histology data from these 26 patients are summarized in [Table 1]. All the patients were natives of Chad and 88.5% were men. The mean age of the studied population was 45.7 ± 10.8 years with 61.5% having more than 45 years. The baseline HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) level was above 800,000 IU/ml in 65.4% of cases. Most of the patients (76.9%) were at a severe liver fibrosis stage with 34.6% having cirrhosis. Most of the patients (84.6%) were infected with HCV genotype 4 (HCV-4), 7.7% with HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1) and 7.7% with HCV genotype 2 (HCV-2).
Table 1: Demographic and virological characteristics of Hepatitis C-positive patients, Chad

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We report here the first HCV molecular study performed in Chad so far. This study shows, as reported in most central Africa countries [1],[2],[3], that elderly persons were the most infected confirming that the spread of HCV in central Africa is due to a cohort effect, with previous, possibly iatrogenic exposure during massive and generalized therapy and/or vaccination. This result contrasts the epidemiology of HCV in industrialised countries where young people are the most infected population due to intravenous drug use.[4] This study also report the circulation of three HCV genotypes (1, 2 and 4), with a predominance of genotype 4 in accordance with the circulating genotypes in most central Africa countries including Cameroon,[3] Central African Republic [2] and Gabon.[1] The histological stage assessment reflects studies with African and Middle Eastern populations suggesting a frequent association of HCV-4 with cirrhosis and a rapid fibrosis progression rate.[5] Like central Africa countries, Chad has a high prevalence of HCV genotype 4 infections. Further population-based studies are required to confirm these results found in a hospital-based study.


 ~ Acknowledgments Top


We thank all the nurses of the General Hospital of Ndjamena for their collaboration and support.

 
 ~ References Top

1.
Njouom R, Caron M, Besson G, Ndong-Atome G, Makuwa M, Pouillot R, et al. Phylogeography, risk factors and genetic history of hepatitis C virus in Gabon, central Africa. PLoS One 2012;7:e42002.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Njouom R, Frost E, Deslandes S, Mamadou-Yaya F, Labbé A, Pouillot R, et al. Predominance of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection and rapid transmission between 1935 and 1965 in the Central African Republic. J Gen Virol 2009;90:2452-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Njouom R, Nerrienet E, Dubois M, Lachenal G, Rousset D, Vessière A, et al. The hepatitis C virus epidemic in Cameroon: Genetic evidence for rapid transmission between 1920 and 1960. Infect Genet Evol 2007;7:361-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Negro F. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Europe. Dig Liver Dis 2014;46:S158-64.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Wali MH, Heydtmann M, Harrison RF, Gunson BK, Mutimer DJ. Outcome of liver transplantation for patients infected by hepatitis C, including those infected by genotype 4. Liver Transpl 2003;9:796-804.  Back to cited text no. 5
    



 
 
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