|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 466-468
Department of Microbiology, Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, Raisen Bypass Road, Karond, Bhopal - 462 038, Madhya Pradesh, India
|Date of Submission||02-Jun-2015|
|Date of Acceptance||05-Jun-2015|
|Date of Web Publication||12-Jun-2015|
Department of Microbiology, Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, Raisen Bypass Road, Karond, Bhopal - 462 038, Madhya Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Desikan P. Snippet. Indian J Med Microbiol 2015;33:466-8
Pakistani media reported the fifth death due to infection with Naegleria fowleri in the past month this year. In 2014, 14 people died due to infection with the parasite in the country (http://outbreaknewstoday.com/5th-naegleria -fowleri-death-reported-in-pakistan-56590/).
Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of the fatal disease primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Detection of N. fowleri using conventional culture and biochemical-based assays is time-consuming and laborious while molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction, require laboratory skills and expensive equipment. A group developed and evaluated a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the virulence-related gene for N. fowleri. Time to results was found to be about 90 min and amplification products were easily detected visually using hydroxynaphthol blue. The LAMP was highly specific after testing against related microorganisms and able to detect one trophozoite, as determined with spiked water and cerebrospinal fluid samples (PLoS One. 2015 Mar 30;10(3):e0120997. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone. 0120997. eCollection 2015).
Three persons died and eight others were admitted to hospital following a cholera outbreak in Nyanza-Lac in Makamba province, some 150 km south of the Burundian capital Bujumbura, in May, 2015. It was felt that Burundian citizens who had fled to Tanzania from Kabonga in Nyanza-Lac came back with cholera. Other Burundian asylum seekers were thought to have died of cholera in a transit site in Tanzania. Tanzania is believed to have received more than 70,000 Burundian asylum seekers (http://www.spyghana.com/cholera-kills-3-in-burundi-makamba-province/).
A study developed a cross-priming amplification (CPA) method for the detection of all serotypes of Vibrio cholerae. The specificity of the CPA method was tested using a panel of 60 different bacterial strains. All of the V. cholerae strains showed positive results and 41 other types of bacteria gave negative results. The limit of detection of the CPA method was 79.28 fg of genomic DNA, 4.2 × 102 CFU/ml for bacteria in pure culture and 5.6 CFU per 25 g of sample with pre-enrichment. This method showed a higher sensitivity than the LAMP method did and was more convenient to perform, indicate that this method could be used for rapid preliminary screening of V. cholerae (Mol Cell Probes. 2015 May 8. pii: S0890-8508(15) 00040-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mcp. 2015.05.001 [Epub ahead of print]).
Proofreading occurs in various forms. In Escherichia More Details coli, the proofreading subunit of the replisome, the εexonuclease, is essential for high-fidelity DNA replication; 2 however, the corresponding subunit is completely dispensable in M. tuberculosis. Rather, the mycobacterial replicative polymerase DnaE1 itself encodes an editing function that proofreads DNA replication, mediated by an intrinsic 3'-5' exonuclease activity within its PHP domain. Inactivation of the DnaE1 PHP domain increases the mutation rate by more than 3000-fold. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of DNA replication proofreading in the bacterial kingdom suggests that E. coli is a phylogenetic outlier and that PHP domain-mediated proofreading is widely conserved and indeed may be the ancestral prokaryotic proofreader (Nature Genetics 47, 677-681 (2015) doi: 10.1038/ng. 3269).
In Borneo, in the first quarter of 2015, 67.6% of the 527 cases of malaria were zoonotic infections, derived from monkeys. Last year, 66% of the malaria cases reported in Borneo were zoonotic, with the highest number of patients recorded in Sabah, Sarawak and Kelantan (http://www.theborneopost.com/2015/05/26/66-per-cent -of- malaria-cases-in-2014-derive-from-monkeys/).
Human malaria parasite species were originally acquired from other primate hosts and subsequently became endemic, then spread throughout large parts of the world. A major zoonosis is now occurring with Plasmodium knowlesi from macaques in Southeast Asia, with a recent acceleration in numbers of reported cases, particularly in Malaysia. To investigate the parasite population genetics, a group developed sensitive and species-specific microsatellite genotyping protocols and applied these to the analysis of samples from 10 sites covering a range of >1600 km within which most cases have occurred. Genotypic analyses of 599 P. knowlesi infections (552 in humans and 47 in wild macaques) at 10 highly polymorphic loci provide radical new insights on the emergence. Parasites from sympatric long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and pig-tailed macaques (M. nemestrina) were very highly differentiated (FST = 0.22 and K-means clustering confirmed two host-associated subpopulations). Approximately two-thirds of human P. knowlesi infections were of the long-tailed macaque type (Cluster 1) and one-third were of the pig-tailed-macaque type (Cluster 2), with relative proportions varying across the different sites. Amongst the samples from humans, there was a significant indication of genetic isolation by geographical distance overall and within Cluster 1 alone. Across the different sites, the level of multilocus linkage disequilibrium correlated with the degree of local admixture of the two different clusters. The widespread occurrence of both types of P. knowlesi in humans would enhance the potential for parasite adaptation in this zoonotic system (PLoSPathog. 2015 May 28;11 (5):e1004888. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat. 1004888. eCollection 2015).
A traveller who recently returned to USA from West Africa died in a New Jersey hospital of Lassa Fever, as stated by the CDC on the 25 th of May, 2015. The unidentified traveller landed at John F. Kennedy International Airport [New York, NY] on 17 th May, 2015, from Liberia via Morocco. http://www.nj.com/healthfit/index.ssf/2015/05/patient_in_nj_dies_of_lassa_fever_says_cdc.html.
Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic in several West African countries and is the aetiological agent of Lassa fever. Despite the high annual incidence and significant morbidity and mortality rates, currently there are no approved vaccines to prevent infection or disease in humans. Genetically, LASV demonstrates a high degree of diversity that correlates with geographic distribution. The genetic heterogeneity observed between geographically distinct viruses raises concerns over the potential efficacy of a "universal" LASV vaccine. However, a study demonstrated that a single, prophylactic immunisation with a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the glycoproteins of LASV strain Josiah from Sierra Leone protected 13 guinea pigs from infection/disease following challenge with LASV isolates originating from Liberia, Mali and Nigeria. Furthermore, the VSV-based LASV vaccine yielded complete protection against a lethal challenge with the Liberian LASV isolate in the gold-standard macaque model of Lassa fever.
PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2015 Apr 17;9(4):e0003736. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd. 0003736. eCollection 2015.
The Rhode Island Department of Health (HEALTH) recently released data showing an increase in rates of HIV and several other STDs and expressed concerns regarding complacency about the spread of STDs in the community.
http://outbreaknewstoday.com/syphilis- gonorrhea-and-hiv-up-in-rhode-island-social-media- linked-to-increase-25623/.
A cross-sectional study on STDs was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan and included patients over a 5 years period from January 2010 till December 2014. Of 512 patients, only 47 were females and 465 were males. Gonorrhoea was the most common disease with 231 cases. Genital warts were diagnosed in 60 cases. Non-gonococcal urethritis was seen in 57 patients. Genital Molluscum contagiosum was seen in 45 patients. Syphilis was diagnosed in 41 patients. Thirty-one cases of herpes genitalis, 25 cases of Chancroid, 13 cases of Lymphogranuloma venereum, were also seen. Five patients were found positive for HIV. J Ayub Med CollAbbottabad. 2014 Oct-Dec; 26(4):582-3.
Sierra Leone's National Ebola Response Centre (NERC) spoke out as the WHO revealed the West African nation and its neighbour Guinea had seen Ebola cases quadruple in a week. NERC stated that quarantine escapees may be responsible for a part of the surge in the number of infections in the country. http://www.news24.com/Africa/News/Sierra-Leone-berates-Ebola-quarantine-escapees-as-cases-surge-20150521.
The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak triggered concerns about healthcare worker (HCW) readiness. 245 HCWs at a children's hospital in USA were surveyed. Knowledge scores were lower for nurses than physicians (50/61%, P = 0.001). Despite HCW's lacking EVD knowledge, their perceived lack of institutional preparedness and their own lack of training, most HCWs wanted to believe that they would be safe and were willing to provide care. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015 May 26 [Epub ahead of print].
The Ministry of Health, Brazil, stated in May, 2015, that 16 laboratory confirmed cases with Zika Virus infection had been identified in the country: Eight cases in Bahia and 8 in Rio Grande do Norte.(http://www.cve.saude.sp.gov.br/htm/zoo/pdf/ZIKA15_SP_INFORMACAO.pdf) Zika fever is a disease caused by Zika virus (ZIKAV), an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus (Flaviviridae family); phylogenetically related to the viruses: Dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV), St Louis encephalitis (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV). Using high-throughput sequencing, a study group obtained and characterised three complete genomes of ZIKV isolated between 1976 and 1980 in the Central African Republic. The three viruses were isolated from two species of mosquito, Aedes africanus and Ae. opok. Two sequences from Ae. africanus had 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity and 100% amino acid identity, whereas the complete genome obtained from Ae. opok had 98.3% nucleotide identity and 99.4% amino acid identity with the other two genomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the polyprotein showed that the three ZIKV strains clustered together but diverged from all other ZIKV strains. This molecular data suggests that a different subtype of West African ZIKV strains circulated in Aedes species in Central Africa between 1976 and 1980 (Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014 Dec; 14(12):862-5. doi: 10.1089/vbz. 2014.1607).
An owner of a cattle pen in Sindh, Pakistan, died of Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) on Saturday, 6 th of May, 2015, becoming the first person in Sindh in 2015 to die of the deadly tickborne virus (http://www.dawn.com/news/1182368/cattle-pen-owner-dies-of-congo-fever).
In order to map global disease risk, a geographic database of human Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus occurrence from 1953 to 2013 was produced by surveying peer-reviewed literature and case reports, as well as informal online sources. This is probably the most comprehensive database of confirmed CCHF occurrence in humans to date, containing 1721 geo-positioned occurrences in total (Sci Data. 2015 Apr 14;2:150016. doi: 10.1038/sdata. 2015.16. eCollection 2015).
Forty persons were suspected to have contracted anthrax in villages in West Bengal's Bankura district in May, 2015, following which teams of dermatologists were rushed there, according to health officials (http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-40-persons-suspected-of-contracting-anthrax-in- west-bengal-district-2088932).
study investigated serum ADA activity in patients with cutaneous anthrax. It was found that serum ADA activity was signiﬁcantly higher in patients with cutaneous anthrax than in the controls (P < 0.001). A positive correlation was observed between ADA activity and lymphocyte counts (r = 0.589, P = 0.021) in the patient group (Med SciMonit. 2014 Jul 6;20:1151-4. doi: 10.12659/MSM.890472).