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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 78-83

Current scenario of Opportunistic and co-infections in HIV-infected individuals at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India


1 Department of Infectious Diseases Biology , National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Microbiology , Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College and King Edward Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College and King Edward Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
J M Pramanik
Department of Infectious Diseases Biology , National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.148386

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Purpose: An update on opportunistic infections/co-infections (OIs/CIs) is essential to understand the success of highly active antiretroviral therapy offered by the government agencies in reducing AIDS-related OIs/CIs. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of OIs/CIs in HIV-positive individuals at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. Its' association with CD4 counts, anti-retroviral treatment and on HIV transmission was also determined. Materials and Methods: An observational study was designed to evaluate different OIs/CIs in individuals, who tested positive for HIV infection at the ICTC/Shakti Clinic of Seth G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai. Data analysis was done with the use of SPSS software (version 19.0, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). P value was considered significant if it is < 0.05. Results: Heterosexual contact was the major route of transmission among the enrolled 185 individuals. Ninety (48.06%) HIV-infected individuals were with OIs/CIs. Tuberculosis (TB) was the most common OI (68.8%). Other CIs noted were Herpes zoster, syphilis, hepatitis C and B, malaria, typhoid and dengue. The median CD4 count in HIV-positive individuals with TB was 337 ± 248 cells/μl, and 67.7% of individuals with OIs/CIs had low CD4 counts (<400 cells/μl). Individuals in 31-40 years of age group had significantly (P = 0.01) more OIs/CIs. More (53.7%) spouse/children of HIV-positive individuals without OIs/CIs were HIV-1 positive. Low proportions of individuals with or without OIs/CIs were on ART. Conclusion: Nearly half of HIV-infected individuals were with OIs/CIs. Initiation of free ART programme since 2004 possibly associated with the type and rate of OIs/CIs. Tuberculosis and multiple OIs/CIs were associated with low CD4 counts. Infection was high in 31-40 years age group. Most of the spouses of individuals without OIs/CIs were HIV positive, indirectly indicates lack of condom use or lack of awareness of condom use.






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