|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 190-191
Carriage of quinolone resistance in faecal coliforms among healthy individuals: A study from northeast India
M Ajij, D Paul, A Bhattacharjee
Department of Microbiology, Assam University, Silchar, Assam, India
|Date of Submission||29-Oct-2013|
|Date of Acceptance||24-Mar-2014|
|Date of Web Publication||5-Jan-2015|
Department of Microbiology, Assam University, Silchar, Assam
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Ajij M, Paul D, Bhattacharjee A. Carriage of quinolone resistance in faecal coliforms among healthy individuals: A study from northeast India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2015;33:190-1
|How to cite this URL:|
Ajij M, Paul D, Bhattacharjee A. Carriage of quinolone resistance in faecal coliforms among healthy individuals: A study from northeast India. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Jul 22];33:190-1. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2015/33/1/190/148441
Quinolones are potent broad-spectrum bactericidal agents along with their enhanced systemic activity against many gram-negative aerobes are extensively used in clinical medicine.  Faecal sample is considered as one of the most important reservoir of microorganisms and majority of microflora are coliforms that include the genus Escherichia More Details, Enterobacter, Klebsiella spp. and Citrobacter spp. These faecal flora also act as reservoir for carriage of drug resistant determinants and their spread in environment. Hence, this study was designed to determine the quinolone resistance microbial load in the faecal sample of healthy individuals and to determine the genes responsible for this resistance. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and the diameter of zone inhibition was compared with Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines.  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiment was done for detecting the genes responsible for quinolone resistance such as qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, and qepA.
Out of 82 isolates a total number of 44 (53.6%) organisms were found to be resistant to quinolone antibiotics. Among the 44 resistant isolates, the most predominant organism was found to be Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. The PCR analysis showed that among the 44 resistant isolates, 7 isolates harbouring qnrS, 5 isolates harbouring qnrA whereas only 1 isolate was found to be harbouring qnrB gene. [Table 1]. According to a previous report  the healthy members of a community represent the largest reservoir for bacteria resistant to antimicrobial agents. In this study, we found that a considerable number of isolates were resistant to quinolones. This resistance could be due to self-medication and sub-optimal dosage administration, which led to adaptation in the normal coliform. We also found that qnrS gene is more prevalent than qnrA gene in clinical Enterobacteriaceae, which was similar to the previous study. ,
Therefore, it can be concluded that the irrational use of antimicrobial agents at inadequately high doses, for inappropriate duration of therapy aggravate the development of resistance. This current study advocates the need for widespread and well-designed programme to monitor the emergence of bacterial resistance not just to quinolones but also to all the antimicrobial agents.
| ~ Acknowledgment|| |
We would like to acknowledge the help of Head, Department of Microbiology, Assam University for providing infrastructure.
| ~ References|| |
Ruiz J. Mechanism of resistance to quinolones: Target alterations, decreased accumulation and DNA gyrase protection. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003;51:1109-17.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-First Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S21 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA, 2011.
Lester SC, del Pilar Pla M, Wang F, Perez Schael I, Jiang H, O'Brien TF. The carriage of Escherichia coli
resistant to antimicrobial agents by healthy children in Boston, in Caracas, Venezuela, and in Quin Pu, China. N Engl J Med 1990;323:285-9.
Poirel L, Leviandier C, Nordmann P. Emergence of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance qnrS determinant in enterobacterial isolates in Europe. 16 th
European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; Nice, France; April 1, 2006. Abstract O51.
Cano ME, Rodriguez-Martinez JM, Aguero J, Pascual A, Garcia-Lobo JM, Velasco C, et al
. Detection of qnrS in clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae in Spain, 16 th
European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; Nice, France; April 1, 2006. Abstract O52.