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CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 468-470
 

Prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli serotypes in raw sewage of North-Western Punjab, India


1 Department of Biotechnology, Undergraduate Programme of Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India
2 School of Biotechnology and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India
3 Department of Health, Civil Hospital, Sangrur, Punjab, India

Date of Submission17-Sep-2013
Date of Acceptance20-Jan-2014
Date of Web Publication4-Oct-2014

Correspondence Address:
H Kumar
Department of Biotechnology, Undergraduate Programme of Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.142246

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How to cite this article:
Kumar H, Kaur N, Palaha R. Prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli serotypes in raw sewage of North-Western Punjab, India . Indian J Med Microbiol 2014;32:468-70

How to cite this URL:
Kumar H, Kaur N, Palaha R. Prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli serotypes in raw sewage of North-Western Punjab, India . Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Nov 22];32:468-70. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2014/32/4/468/142246


Sir,

Anti-microbial resistance in  Escherichia More Details coli is major issue, considering the most common Gram-negative pathogen, causing urinary tract infections, as well as community-and hospital-acquired bacteraemia disease in humans. An ability to transfer antibiotic resistance determinants not only to other strains of E. coli, but also to other pathogenic bacteria [1] remains the basic principle to conduct the study issuing raw sewage indicators of Jalandhar city (north-western Punjab), India.

A 100 ml raw sewage sample was collected from the Pholriwal village (city waste water treatment plant), outskirts of the Jalandhar city from June 2012 to October 2012, every month, by grab sampling method [2] in a sterile glass bottles. The sewage was serially diluted and spread in 0.1 ml volume on 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucuronide (MUG) agar plate [2] and incubated at 37° for 24 h. Total 25 fluorescent colonies from the MUG agar plates, as shown in [Figure 1], were randomly selected after biochemical screening, which included Indole test, Methyl Red test, Voges-Proskauer test, citrate utilisation and Triple sugar Iron agar test. The selected E. coli cultures were serotyped at National  Salmonella More Details and Escherichia center, Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh, India. Out of 25 E. coli strains, 13 strains were 'O' serotypes, 7 were untyped, and 3 were rough strains. These were tested against 12 different antibiotics, namely amoxyclav (30 μg), tetracycline (30 μg), amikacin (30 μg), gentamycin (10 μg), neomycin (30 μg), kanamycin (30 μg), streptomycin (10 μg), chloramphenicol (30 μg), nalidixic acid (30 μg), norfloxacin (10 μg), co-trimoxizole (25 μg) and erythromycin (15 μg) by disc diffusion method. [3] The results were interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines while erythromycin and neomycin interpretation followed the commercial chart provided by the Hi-Media and MAR index of each individual culture was also taken into account. [4],[5] All the isolates were resistant to at least three of antibiotics, as shown in [Table 1], and the following resistant patterns of all the isolates against 12 antibiotics were found in percentage: Amc 30 (92) > Te 30 (88) > E 15 (76) > Nx 10 (64) = Na 30 (64) > Cot 25 (60) > Ak 30 (44) > K 30 (36) > G 10 (32) > N 30 (28) > S 10 (20) > C 30 (8). It was clear from the study that amoxyclav and tetracycline had peak activities in raw sewage due to irrational consumption. Therefore, regular monitoring would be useful for managing raw sewage outfall in localities to protect public health.
Figure 1: (a) E. coli, (b) -ve control (without inoculation), (c) -ve control (E. aerogenes) growth on MUG plate using UV trans-illuminator

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Table 1: MAR Index and resistant pattern of E. coli serotypes isolated from the raw sewage

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 ~ Acknowledgement Top


We are thankful to the National Salmonella and Escherichia center, Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh, India for the serotyping.

 
 ~ References Top

1.Osterblad M, Hadanen A, Manninen R, Leistevuo T, Peltonen R, Meurman O, et al. A between-species comparison of antimicrobial resistance in enterobacteia in fecal flora. J Antimicrob Chemother 2000;44:1479-84.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Central Pollution Control Board. Guide Manual: Water and wastewater analysis. Available from: http://www.cpcb.nic.in/upload/NewItems/NewItem_171_guidemanualw%26wwanalysis.pdf [Last accessed on 2012 Oct 22].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Bauer AW, Kirby WM, Sherris JC, Turck M. Antibiotics susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am J Clin Pathol 1966;45:493-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
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4.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-First Informational Supplement. Wayne: CLSI document M100-S21; Vol. 31: 2011.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Krumperman PH. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexing of Escherichia coli to identify high-risk sources of fecal contamination of foods. Appl Environ Microbiol 1983;46:165-70.  Back to cited text no. 5
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