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CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 200
 

Nasal carriage of multidrug-resistant MSSA and MRSA in children of municipality schools


Department of Microbiology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Date of Submission07-Mar-2013
Date of Acceptance11-Nov-2013
Date of Web Publication2-Apr-2014

Correspondence Address:
M Bharathi
Department of Microbiology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.129840

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How to cite this article:
Bharathi M, Lakshmi N, Kalyani C S, Padmaja I J. Nasal carriage of multidrug-resistant MSSA and MRSA in children of municipality schools. Indian J Med Microbiol 2014;32:200

How to cite this URL:
Bharathi M, Lakshmi N, Kalyani C S, Padmaja I J. Nasal carriage of multidrug-resistant MSSA and MRSA in children of municipality schools. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Oct 16];32:200. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2014/32/2/200/129840


Dear Editor,

Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus has been demonstrated to be a significant risk factor for nosocomial and community acquired infections in a variety of populations. Anterior nares have been shown to be the main reservoir of S.aureus in adults and children. [1] Among S.aureus strains methicilin resistant strains are well recognized as a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide [2] . Nasal carriage rate of S.aureus, MSSA and CA-MRSA and their antimicrobial resistance pattern were studied in 230 children of 5-10 yr age group, studying in municipality schools during July - September 2012. MRSA strains were identified based on cefoxitin disk diffusion testing. Out of 230 children, 78 were boys (33.91%) and 152 were girls (66.09%). All children belonged to low economic status. Nasal carriage of, S.aureus was found in 51 children (22.17%), MSSA in 34 (14.78%) and MRSA in 17 (7.39%). Nasal carriage of S.aureus was less in girls (19.07%) compared to boys (28.2%). But carriage of MRSA was more or less same (7.23% Vs 7.69%).

We observed increasing nasal carriage rate of S.aureus with age, from 11.11% (5yrs) to 28.3% (10yrs). But nasal carriage of MRSA was highest (11.11%) at 5 yrs age, least at 8yrs (6.12%). MRSA showed resistance to gentamicin (41.17%), doxycycline (58.82%) and co-trimoxazole (88.23%). 64.7% of the MRSA were resistant to rifampicin and 52.94% were resistant to ciprofloxacin. CA-MRSA infections are an emerging problems in India and many parts of world. [2] Frequent administration of systemic antibiotics predisposes to nasal carriage of MRSA. [3] Nasal carriage rate of S.aureus and MRSA in the present study was 22.17% and 7.39% respectively. Where as it was 44% & 13% in children of 5-9yrs (Creech), 18% & 1% (5-7yrs- Oguzkaya), 48.43% & 29.82% (13-16 yrs- Rajendra Goud) and 18.3% & 10.8% (3-14yrs-Maureen Okwu). [4],[1],[5],[3]

TMP-SMX and doxycycline are commonly recommended antibiotics for CA-MRSA SSTIs. But 88.23% resistance to co-trimoxazole and 58.82% to doxycycline in the present study presents a serious concern to physicians.

Judicious use of antibiotics, strengthening school health program and imparting health education regarding personal hygiene are the simple but effective measures to contain MRSA strains Indian school children.

 
 ~ References Top

1.Oguzkaya-Artan M, Baykan Z, Artan C. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy preschool children. Jpn J Infect Dis 2008;61:70-2.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Mandelia C, Shenoy S. Community associated-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in skin and soft tissue infections. J Clin Diagn Res 2010;4:2673-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Okwu M, Bamgbala S, Aborisade W. Prevalence of nasal carriage of community- associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) among Healthy Primary School children in Okada, Nigeria. J Nat Sci Res 2012;2:61-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Creech CB 2nd, Kernodle DS, Alsentzer A, Wilson C, Edwards KM. Increasing rates of nasal carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in healthy children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005;24:617-21.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Goud RN, Agarval D, Nadagoudar PH, Gaddad SM. Antibitioc sensitivity pattern of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in High schools, Bangalore City, Karnataka, South India. Int Med J Stud Res 2011;1:27-35.  Back to cited text no. 5
    




 

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