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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 149-152

Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi from North India (2001-2012)


Department of Medical Microbiology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
L Singhal
Department of Medical Microbiology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.129799

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Purpose: Enteric fever is endemic in India with Salmonella Typhi being the major causative agent. Antibiotic therapy constitutes the mainstay of management. The present study was undertaken to find the susceptibility profile of Salmonella enterica var Typhi (S. Typhi) blood isolates in a tertiary care hospital between January 2001 and December 2012. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of laboratory records was carried out. Conventional blood culture method was used until 2009; from January 2010 onwards BACTEC 9240 system has been in use. Salmonella were confirmed by serotyping using group and type specific antisera. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed using the disk diffusion method. In addition 116 isolates were subjected to minimum inhibitory concentration testing for chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin and nalidixic acid (NA) using agar dilution and for ceftriaxone and azithromycin using E-strips (Biomerieux). Result: A total of 1016 typhoidal salmonellae were obtained. The predominant serotype obtained was S. Typhi (852, 83.8%) followed by Salmonella enterica var Paratyphi A (164, 16.2%). We observed a re-emergence of susceptibility to first line antibiotics and a notable decline in multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. We also found all recent isolates resistant to NA and susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and 84.5% of isolates having decreasing ciprofloxacin susceptibility using revised criteria as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2012 guidelines. Conclusion: There has been re-emergence of susceptibility to first line antibiotics and a notable decline in MDR strains of S. Typhi. We have a very high resistance to NA and decreasing susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Third generation cephalosporins and azithromycin seem to be effective therapeutic options. Judicious use of these antibiotics is mandatory to prevent emergence of resistant strains.






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2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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