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CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 99-101
 

Prevalence of Salmonella in pigs and broilers in the Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India


Department of Veterinary Medicine, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India

Date of Submission03-Jun-2013
Date of Acceptance03-Jun-2013
Date of Web Publication4-Jan-2014

Correspondence Address:
T Kumar
Department of Veterinary Medicine, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.124356

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How to cite this article:
Kumar T, Rajora V R, Arora N. Prevalence of Salmonella in pigs and broilers in the Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2014;32:99-101

How to cite this URL:
Kumar T, Rajora V R, Arora N. Prevalence of Salmonella in pigs and broilers in the Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Dec 15];32:99-101. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2014/32/1/99/124356


Dear Editor,

Salmonellosis has been recognized in all countries, but appears to be most prevalent in areas, where intensive animal husbandry practices are common, especially of poultry or pigs. Poultry and pigs may show no clinical illness but are important in relation to the spread of infection between flocks and herds and as cause of human food poisoning.

The present study aimed to know the prevalence of Salmonella in poultry and pigs in the Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India and to compare the two different systems of pig rearing namely extensive or free-range (scavengers) and intensive production system existing in the region. A total of 343 faecal samples from poultry and pigs and 100 tissue samples from broilers were examined during the period from January 2011 to July 2012. Two different pig rearing system were compared in order to know the Salmonella prevalence. Under intensive production system university pig farm was selected and for scavengers, area in and around Pantnagar was selected.

Total prevalence of Salmonella in pigs was 8.6% including 0% prevalence of Salmonella under intensive production system whereas under free-range system it was 15.6%. The results of present study corroborate with the findings of Van der Wolf. [1] The prevalence of Salmonella infection was highest in finishing pigs (17.6%), followed-by weaned pigs (15.3%), fattening pigs (14.2%) and sows (14.2%). In the present study, most commonly affected age group was finishing pigs indicating that young pigs always have potential to become Salmonella carriers or may act as reservoirs posing a great concern to public health. Prevalence of Salmonella typhimurium was highest (62.5%) in pigs followed-by Salmonella Bredney (25%) and Salmonella Infantis (12.5%). Two new emerging zoonotic Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Bredney and Salmonella Infantis showed their appearance during present investigation which is the first published report of isolation of these two Salmonella serotypes from pigs from this region [Figure 1]. Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella Bradeney isolated from the pigs reared under free-range system in the present study is the cause of concern for the region and needful measures to be adopted to control these zoonotic pathogens to be transmitted from pigs to humans.
Figure 1: Relative occurrence of different serotypes of Salmonella from pigs

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Total prevalence of Salmonella in poultry was found to be 12.28% including prevalence from clocal faecal samples 8.4% (21/250) and from tissue samples 22% (22/100). Maximum prevalence of Salmonella (17.5%) was found in 1-9 days of age group, followed-by >28 days of age group (15.2%), 10-18 days of age group (8%) and 19-27 days of age group (7.5%). The findings of present study resemble with the findings of Kumar et al. [2] In the present study maximum 20 isolates (46.5%) were of S. typhimurium followed-by Salmonella Enteritidis 16 (37.2%) and Salmonella Gallinarum 7 (16.2%) [Figure 2]. During the present study two important zoonotic serotypes namely S. typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis showed their dominance, whereas host specific serotype Salmonella Gallinarum showed low prevalence and Salmonella Pullorum could not be isolated.
Figure 2: Relative occurrence of different serotypes of Salmonella from poultry

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Relatively high percentage of Salmonella was detected in two food animals namely poultry and pigs in Tarai region of Uttarakhand. The percentage of Salmonella positive samples ranged from 8.6% in pigs to 12.2% in broilers [Table 1]. Overall prevalence of Salmonella was found to be 11.5% (51/443).
Table 1: Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in poultry and pigs in and around Pantnagar (Uttarakhand)

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Poultry and pigs may show no clinical illness but are important in relation to the spread of infection between flocks and herds and as cause of human food poisoning. [3]. The study concluded that high percentage of Salmonella was detected in two food animals namely poultry and pigs in Tarai region of Uttarakhand. Pigs reared under free-range system are more susceptible to Salmonella infection. In pigs and poultry dominant serotype is S. typhimurium which is having zoonotic importance. Report of isolation of Salmonella Bredney and Salmonella Infantis from pigs is the first report from this region posing a great threat to pig industry as well to mankind. The results from this study indicate that pig and poultry environments are reservoirs for Salmonella, the serotypes frequently reported in the literature to be most prevalent may differ from region to region but efforts should be made to control this pathogen in these animals.

 
 ~ References Top

1.Van der Wolf PJ. Salmonella in the Pork Production Chain: feasibility of Salmonella Free Pig Production. Thesis. The Netherlands: University of Utrecht; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Kumar T, Mahajan NK, Rakha NK. Epidemiology of fowl typhoid in Haryana, India. Worlds Poult Sci J 2010;66:503-10.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Wray C, Wray A, editors. Salmonella in Domestic Animals. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CAB International; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 3
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
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