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 ~  Case Report and ...
 ~ Acknowledgment
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  Table of Contents  
CASE REPORT
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 290-292
 

Characterisation of mumps virus genotype C among patients with mumps in India


1 Department of Microbiology, Dr. ALM PG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Genetics, Dr. ALM PG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission17-Mar-2013
Date of Acceptance08-May-2013
Date of Web Publication25-Jul-2013

Correspondence Address:
M Thangam
Department of Microbiology, Dr. ALM PG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.115644

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 ~ Abstract 

Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine failure had been reported globally and here, we report that it occurs in India now. MMR vaccinated people have developed acute mumps accompanied by anti-mumps immunoglobulin M. Genotypic characterisation revealed that the circulating mumps strain was genotype C, which is distinct from the vaccine strain of genotype N (L-Zagreb). This is the first report in India to suggest that genotype C is responsible for the present mumps infection. Thus, the present MMR vaccine must be revamped and optimised for its efficacy to prevent any future mumps epidemics.


Keywords: Genotype C, measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, mumps virus


How to cite this article:
Jeevan M, Sambantham S, Thangam M. Characterisation of mumps virus genotype C among patients with mumps in India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2013;31:290-2

How to cite this URL:
Jeevan M, Sambantham S, Thangam M. Characterisation of mumps virus genotype C among patients with mumps in India. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2013 [cited 2020 May 25];31:290-2. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2013/31/3/290/115644



 ~ Introduction Top


Mumps is an acute, highly contagious, systemic, communicable viral infection found throughout the world, characterised by parotitis of one or both salivary glands, aseptic meningitis, transient deafness and encephalitis. Other clinical features include orchitis in post-pubertal males, oophoritis and respiratory symptoms. Mumps is a vaccine preventable childhood disease that tends to be mild; about 30% of infection is asymptomatic. Transmission occurs through inhalation of respiratory droplets or by direct person-to-person contact, reinfection may occur either after natural infection or vaccination. [1],[2] Although it is generally believed that mumps virus (MuV) is serologically monotypic, distinct genetic lineages of wild-type MuVs have been described and reported to be co-circulating globally. Recently World Health Organisation (WHO) had updated a proposal for standard nomenclature to describe genetic characteristics and emphasised the need for expanding virological surveillance of wild-type MuV, which was released in June 2012, having 12 genotypes A-N (namely A, B, C, D, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, N). Genotype assignment for MuV is based on sequence analysis of the entire 316 nucleotides of the small hydrophobic (SH) gene. [1]

In India, measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is manufactured in the Serum Institute as Tresivac and contains Edmonston-Zagreb Measles virus, Leningrad-Zagreb MuV and Plotkins RA 27/2 Rubella virus and 1 st dose is given in the 15 th month; the 2 nd dose in the 5 th year. [3] Much remains to be learnt about the global distribution of MuV as genotype information has been reported from only 38/194 countries, of which 34 have reports since 2005, there have been no reports on the prevalence of mumps infection or its genotype of MuVs in India and a majority of cases go unnoticed. [4],[5] It is with this notion we describe here the results of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), SH gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses on MuVs circulating in India especially at Chennai.


 ~ Case Report and Discussion Top


WHO guidelines were adopted for selection of mumps cases. [6] An informed consent, proforma and human ethical clearance from University of Madras for sample collection was obtained (Human Ethical No: IEC-NI/10/OCT/19/34). Samples (blood and throat swabs) from five suspected mumps cases were collected and systematic laboratory tests, which included immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody assays (Techno Genetics, Italy) were performed. Buccal swabs were soaked in viral transport medium (Himedia, Catalogue No: MS1760D), sterilised through a 0.2 μm syringe filter and the supernatant was used for virus infection onto Vero cells (NCCS, Pune, India) maintained in minimum essential medium (Sigma-Aldrich, Catalogue No.M4655). Viral genomic ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted by QIAamp viral RNA mini kit (Qiagen, Catalogue No:

52904) from throat swabs collected from the five suspected mumps cases of which four had been previously vaccinated with MMR. RNA was also extracted from cell culture supernatants of the same five specimens which had been inoculated in Vero cell line. RNA extracted from MMR vaccine (TRESIVAC, Serum Institute of India Ltd., Pune. Batch number: 013M1002A, manufactured in April 2011) was also subjected to the same procedure. Extracted total RNA was quantified using nanodrop 2000 (Thermo scientific Inc.); RT-PCR (Qiagen, Catalogue No: 205111) was done with the following primers SHLZ-F: 5'- CAAGTAGTGTCGATGATCTCATCAGG-3'/SHLZ-R: 5'- GTGAAGAGTTTCGAGGGCTCCATC-3', the polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using the MEGA 5 program. [1] All the five cases had acute mumps accompanied by anti-mumps IgM, but failed to develop IgG in MMR vaccine recipients (4/5), thus indicating vaccine failure. Virus isolation, RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic tree analysis of the SH gene sequence of all clinical isolates showed it to be MuV genotype C and sequences were submitted to GenBank [Table 1]. This is the first report in India to characterise MuV and suggest that genotype C is responsible for the present mumps infection in both vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. In addition, it was found that the circulating MuV belongs to genotype C, which is distinct from the vaccine strain of genotype N (L-Zagreb), and has only 8% homology [Figure 1]. Thus, the current MMR vaccine must be revamped and optimised for its efficacy to prevent any future mumps epidemics.
Figure 1: Phylogenetic tree of mumps virus (MuV) genotypes based on the 316 nucleotides of the entire small hydrophobic gene: DNA sequencing experiment showed that the virus isolates were MuV genotype C and was named as MuVi/Chennai. IND and our isolated virus sequences were matched with recent World Health Organisation reference strains. Neighbour-joining methods of MEGA 5 program were used. The parameter employed was Kimura 2-parameter model and the robustness of the internal branches was determined by 500 bootstrap replications. The horizontal length of the bar denotes percentage difference between sequences (see scale at bottom) and the bootstrap numbers (%) are given at each node

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Table 1: Details of the cases


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 ~ Acknowledgment Top


We sincerely thank Dr. S. Ananthan, Department of Genetics, University of Madras, Chennai - 600 113 for his help in sequencing and Dr. V. Srinivasan and Dr. S. Chitra from V. K. Nursing Home, Valasaravakkam, Chennai - 600 087 for providing mumps samples.

 
 ~ References Top

1.World Health Organization. Mumps virus nomenclature update. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2012;87:217-24.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Lamb RA, Parks GD. Paramyxoviridae: The viruses and their replication. Fields Virology. 5 th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2007. p. 1449-96.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Kulkarni PS, Phadke MA, Jadhav SS, Kapre SV. No definitive evidence for L-Zagreb mumps strain associated aseptic meningitis: A review with special reference to the da Cunha study. Vaccine 2005;23:5286-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.World Health Organization. Mumps reported cases. Available from: http://www.apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/en/globalsummary/timeseries/tsincidencemum.htm. [Last update on 2012 Jul 14].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.World Health Organization. Immunization profile, India. Available from: http://www.apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/en/globalsummary/countryprofileresult.cfm. [Last update on 2012 Jul 14].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Hindiyeh MY, Aboudy Y, Wohoush M, Shulman LM, Ram D, Levin T, et al. Characterization of large mumps outbreak among vaccinated Palestinian refugees. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47:560-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]

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