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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 290-295

Detection of Amp C genes encoding for beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae


1 Department of Microbiology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, India
2 Department of Molecular Biology, Central Leprosy Teaching and Research Institute, Chengalpattu, India
3 Pasteur Institute of India, Coonoor, Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
U Sekar
Department of Microbiology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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Purpose : Amp C beta-lactamase are Ambler class C enzymes that confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and are not inhibited by beta-lactamase inhibitors. Their detection is crucial, since the phenotypic tests are not standardised leading to ambiguity in interpretation of results. This study was done to detect the types of Amp C prevalent in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods : Seventy-seven consecutive cefoxitin resistant clinical isolates of E. coli (n = 25) and K. pneumoniae (n = 52) were included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility testing to various classes of antibiotics was performed by disc diffusion using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to cefoxitin, imipenem and meropenem were determined by broth microdilution method. Isolates were screened for production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL). Multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of Amp C genes after phenotypic testing (Hodge test and inhibitor based test). Results : Cefoxitin Hodge test was positive in 40 isolates which included 20 E. coli and 20 K. pneumoniae. There was zone enhancement with boronic acid in 55 isolates, of which 36 were K. pneumoniae and 19 were E. coli. Multiplex PCR detected Amp C in 11/25 E. coli and 12/52 K. pneumoniae isolates. The Amp C genes detected were CIT (Amp C origin - Citrobacter freundii), DHA (Dhahran Hospital, Saudi Arabia), ACC (Ambler class C), EBC (Amp C origin - Enterobacter cloacae) groups. ESBL was co-produced in 54 isolates. Conclusions : Amp C was detected in 29.87% of the study isolates. Majority of them co-produced ESBL. The most common Amp C was the CIT family. Screen tests for cefoxitin resistance may be falsely positive due to production of carbapenamases.






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