Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology IAMM  | About us |  Subscription |  e-Alerts  | Feedback |  Login   
  Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 Home | Ahead of Print | Current Issue | Archives | Search | Instructions  
Users Online: 1167 Official Publication of Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists 
 ~   Next article
 ~   Previous article
 ~   Table of Contents

 ~   Similar in PUBMED
 ~  Search Pubmed for
 ~  Search in Google Scholar for
 ~Related articles
 ~   Citation Manager
 ~   Access Statistics
 ~   Reader Comments
 ~   Email Alert *
 ~   Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded499    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 7    

Recommend this journal


Year : 2009  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 231-236

Drug resistant mutations detected by genotypic drug resistance testing in patients failing therapy in clade C HIV-1 infected individuals from India

1 Department of Clinical Virology, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632 004, India
2 Department of Child Health, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632 004, India
3 Department of Dermatology, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632 004, India
4 Department of Internal Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632 004, India
5 Centre of Virology, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Correspondence Address:
O C Abraham
Department of Internal Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632 004
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.53205

Rights and Permissions

Purpose: There has been an increase in the number of individuals administered antiretroviral therapy (ART) in India but treatment outcome is hampered by increasing development of drug resistance. Previous reports from India have shown M184V as the commonest mutation in treated individuals. However, there is no evidence for any protease mutations in these reports. This study was done to observe the common/unique mutational patterns observed in reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (Pr) genes of clade C HIV-1 strains from individuals showing treatment failure in India. Materials and Methods: The assay was done by sequencing the Pr and RT genes of the HIV-1 strains from 18 individuals failing ART. Analysis was carried out using Stanford HIV drug resistance database (SHDB). The sequences were also submitted to the calibrated population resistance tool of SHDB and Rega HIV-1 sub typing tool. Phylogenetic analysis and quality control were performed with Mega 4. Results: Among the 20 strains, 19 showed resistance to both nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), one strain to NNRTIs and five strains showed protease inhibitors (PI) resistance and 3-class resistance. The most common mutation conferring NRTI resistance was M184V (90%) while K103N (45%) was the most common mutation conferring NNRTI resistance. The M46I mutation was seen in 20% of the Pr sequences. Conclusion: Resistance testing to check the prevalence of drug resistance mutations that arise following failure of the first line regimen to establish guidelines for second line regimens in India is a must. Studies are needed to confirm if mutation patterns that arise among clade C following failure of ART are the same as for clade B strains.


Print this article     Email this article

2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04