Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology IAMM  | About us |  Subscription |  e-Alerts  | Feedback |  Login   
  Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 Home | Ahead of Print | Current Issue | Archives | Search | Instructions  
Users Online: 43 Official Publication of Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists 
  Search
 
 ~ Next article
 ~ Previous article 
 ~ Table of Contents
  
 ~  Similar in PUBMED
 ~  Search Pubmed for
 ~  Search in Google Scholar for
 ~Related articles
 ~  Article in PDF (96 KB)
 ~  Citation Manager
 ~  Access Statistics
 ~  Reader Comments
 ~  Email Alert *
 ~  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
 ~  Abstract
 ~  Materials and Me...
 ~  Results
 ~  Discussion
 ~  References
 ~  Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed17786    
    Printed281    
    Emailed11    
    PDF Downloaded826    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 18    

Recommend this journal

 


 
BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Year : 2008  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 155-157
 

Antibiotic resistance of Gardnerella vaginalis in recurrent bacterial vaginosis


Department of Microbiology, Farwaniya Hospital, Post Box 18373, Kuwait 81004, Kuwait

Date of Submission19-Mar-2007
Date of Acceptance02-May-2007

Correspondence Address:
P Nagaraja
Department of Microbiology, Farwaniya Hospital, Post Box 18373, Kuwait 81004
Kuwait
Login to access the Email id


DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.40531

PMID: 18445953

Get Permissions

 ~ Abstract 

Fifty strains of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from 321 high vaginal swabs over a period of five months were tested for their antibiotic sensitivity. Sixty eight per cent of all isolates were resistant to metronidazole while 76% were sensitive to clindamycin. All the strains isolated from cases with recurrence of infection were resistant to metronidazole. Clindamycin therapy has a better clinical efficacy than metronidazole in cases of recurrent bacterial vaginosis.


Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, bacterial vaginosis, Gardnerella vaginalis


How to cite this article:
Nagaraja P. Antibiotic resistance of Gardnerella vaginalis in recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Indian J Med Microbiol 2008;26:155-7

How to cite this URL:
Nagaraja P. Antibiotic resistance of Gardnerella vaginalis in recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2008 [cited 2014 Sep 19];26:155-7. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2008/26/2/155/40531


Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is considered a common vaginal disorder in women of reproductive age. The normal vaginal microflora consists of lactobacilli, especially Lactobacillus crispatus , while the disturbed vaginal microflora is characterised by the overgrowth of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic bacteria like Mobiluncus spp., Mycoplasma hominis and Prevotella spp. The interest in BV has increased lately because of the evidence on adverse sequelae to this disorder, such as amniotic fluid infection, clinical chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), preterm delivery, low birth weight and postpartum endometritis. [1] The odds ratio for PROM has been reported to be 7.3 in women with BV. [2] Non-pregnant women with BV have been reported to get post-abortion pelvic inflammatory disease, [3] post-hysterectomy vaginal cuff cellulitis and plasma cell endometritis. [1] Several publications have also reported an altered vaginal microflora being linked to an increased susceptibility to the acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmitted infectious agents such as  Neisseria More Details gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis . [4] However, increase in rates of syphilis or Trichomonas vaginalis have not been reported with BV.

Treatment regimens for BV use metronidazole or clindamycin, either orally or as vaginal creams. The cure rate with oral therapy after a seven-day course has been 84-96% and 94% respectively for metronidazole and clindamycin. [5] The cure rates with vaginal gels have been reported to be 75% and 86% respectively. [6] Oral therapies with both agents have shown reduced pregnancy-associated morbidity while topical therapies have not. [7],[8] However, both modes of therapy are effective in non-pregnant women. [9] The conventional treatment of BV in our hospital has been the usage of oral metronidazole as per international recommendations. However, in view of an increased frequency of recurrent vaginal discharge in patients treated for bacterial vaginosis, we attempted to detect antibiotic resistance among strains of G. vaginalis as the probable cause. Recurrent infections might be due to the survival of metronidazole or clindamycin resistant bacteria in the vagina. However, it is reported that less than one percent of the cultivable vaginal anaerobic bacteria are resistant to metronidazole. [10]


 ~ Materials and Methods Top


High vaginal swabs from a total of 321 patients received over a period of five months from June 2006 to November 2006 were chosen for the study. A total of 135 endocervical swabs received from the same group were also processed. Vaginal and endocervical swabs were collected from adults attending the gynaecology outpatient department and clinically diagnosed as bacterial vaginosis, as part of the routine clinical workup of outpatients. Swabs collected from inpatients with a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis were also included in the study. Separate swabs were collected for the high-vaginal (TRANSWAB, MW170, Medical Wire and Equipment Co. Ltd, Corsham, England) and the endocervical (Collection-Eze, CZ-300 Amies, MML Diagnostics Packaging, Troutdale, OR) specimens in accordance with standard procedures. Direct smear and wet mounts were made to observe for clue cells, pus cells, to grade the smears (Nugent's criteria) [11] and to observe for Trichomonas vaginalis . The high-vaginal swabs were cultured for gonococci on Thayer Martin Medium (GC Agar Base (CM0367) with 1% Haemoglobin powder (LP0053), Vitox Supplement (SR0090) and VCN Selective Supplement (SR0101E), Oxoid Limited, Basingstoke, England). In addition, the samples were cultured for G. vaginalis on GV Selective medium (CM331 with human blood, 0.02% Tween 80 and GV Selective supplement SR 119), for yeasts on Sabouraud dextrose agar (CM41) and for streptococci on 5% sheep blood agar (CM854) (Oxoid Limited, Basingstoke, England). The inoculated plates (except Sabouraud agar) were incubated for 48 hours at 37°C in 7% CO 2 . Endocervical specimens were processed using a hybridisation assay (Affirm VP III Microbial Identification Test, Becton Dickenson Microbiology Systems, MD) to detect G. vaginalis , Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis . Cultures were interpreted and organisms identified using standard methodologies. [11] Species identification and antibiograms for pathogens were performed using VITEK II (BD Microbiology Systems, MD). Strains of G. vaginalis were tested for antibiotic sensitivity to metronidazole and clindamycin by the E-test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) in an anaerobic environment using the prescribed methods. Comparative data analysis was carried out using MS Excel 2003.


 ~ Results Top


A total of 50 strains of G. vaginalis were isolated from the 321 specimens (15.6%). Candida spp. (including C. albicans ) was isolated from 60 of the 321 samples (18.7%). Nine of the 50 samples that yielded G. vaginalis also grew Candida spp., while nine samples grew S. agalactiae and two samples grew both Candida and S. agalactiae all in addition to G. vaginalis .

A total of 135 endocervical swabs (ECS) were processed by the Affirm VP III microbial identification kit. Of these, 40 (29.6%) samples were positive for G. vaginalis , seven (5.2%) positive for Candida spp., two (1.5%) for T. vaginalis while eight samples (5.9%) were positive for both G. vaginalis and Candida spp. Overall, 57.8% of the ECS were negative for all the three pathogens.

Among the 50 patient samples that grew G. vaginalis , ECS were received in 24 cases for Affirm VP III assay. Of these, 14 (58.3%) were positive for G. vaginalis , Candida in one, T. vaginalis in one, both Candida and G. vaginalis in three (12.3%) and negative in five (20.8%) specimens.

Thirty seven (74%) of the 50 G. vaginalis strains obtained were from outpatients while the remaining 13 strains were from inpatients. Among these 50 samples, clue cells were positive in 37 (74%) samples and Nugents criteria demonstrated "bacterial vaginosis" in 42 samples (score 7-10) (84%) and "intermediate" in eight samples (score 4-6).

A total of 17 patients (34%) among the 50 cases selected had previous history of similar complaints and therapy with metronidazole and the symptoms had recurred in 4-8 months (Mean of 6 months). Duplicate samples received from the same patient within a two week period were excluded from the study. The antibiotic sensitivity of the 50 strains of G. vaginalis done by E-test is shown in the [Table - 1].

The MIC range for metronidazole was from 0.094 to >256, while the range for clindamycin was from 0.016 to >256.

Overall, 34 (68%) strains were resistant to metronidazole, while 38 (76%) strains were sensitive to clindamycin. Among the 17 strains of G. vaginalis isolated from patients diagnosed as having recurrent bacterial vaginosis, seven strains were sensitive and 10 strains resistant to metronidazole, while all these isolates were sensitive to clindamycin.


 ~ Discussion Top


The therapy of bacterial vaginosis (BV) has become a topic of debate with research pointing at the complexity of the issue and probable new pathogens associated with the clinical condition. The primary recommendation for treatment of BV has been metronidazole, (oral or intra-vaginal) given 500 mg twice daily for a week. However, with patients showing recurrence of symptoms within a short period of the completion of the therapy, the causative pathogen and/or its resistance to antibiotics is under focus. Antibiotic resistance is being increasingly reported around the world. Goldstein et al, in 1993 had demonstrated a 20% resistance of G. vaginalis to metronidazole and the same group reported 29% resistance to metronidazole in 2002. [12] We have observed an overall 68% resistance of G. vaginalis strains to metronidazole, a very high rate in the population studied. Recurrence rates of up to 30% within three months after treatment have been reported in literature. [13] This recurrence could be due to the survival of metronidazole or clindamycin resistant bacteria in the vagina. Beigi et al, [10] reported that less than one percent of the cultivable vaginal anaerobic bacteria are resistant to metronidazole. Among the strains we isolated from recurrent BV, 58.8% of the strains were resistant to metronidazole. Since we do not have similar data from the past, a comment cannot be made on the previous level of antibiotic resistance of G. vaginalis in the local population. Other pathogens like Candida and T. vaginalis were also documented in patients investigated with complaints of vaginitis. However, none of the 17 patients who came back with recurrence of symptoms showed either Candida or T. vaginalis . Majority of the patients attend the outpatient clinics and may get lost for follow-up. In our series, 74% of all the G. vaginalis isolates were from the gynaecology outpatients. Patients do return back if they experience a recurrence of symptoms and many a time they approach a different clinic for help. This leads to a loss on follow-up studies. The seven strains of G. vaginalis we isolated from patients with recurrent BV that were sensitive to metronidazole raise issues of other possible causes for the recurrence. A new novel pathogen, Atopobium vaginae is being implicated in BV and has been documented to be metronidazole resistant. [14] However, this elusive pathogen requires molecular methods for detection and the lack of such methods in routine diagnostics poses a hurdle in today's laboratory medicine practices.

The nucleic acid hybridization assay (Affirm VP III Microbial Identification Test, Becton Dickenson Microbiology Systems, MD) is not only rapid but more sensitive and specific than the routine culture technique. Good correlation between this rapid method and the clinical picture has been demonstrated in the past. [11] We were able to diagnose more number of cases of bacterial vaginosis by this method than the cultural techniques. Valuable time can be saved by rapid diagnosis of the incriminating pathogen and instituting prompt therapy. This is also valuable in cases having mixed infections caused by yeasts or parasites, wherein combination therapy is advocated. Clindamycin is now being recommended at 300 mg twice daily for a week in all the cases, instead of metronidazole. Clindamycin, though useful in helping with the remission of BV, is known to affect lactobacilli and thereby the reduction of hydrogen peroxide production, an important factor in preservation of the normal vaginal microflora. [15] However, metronidazole is known not to affect the lactobacilli because of their innate resistance and the rapid recolonisation rate by the H 2 O 2 producing bacilli after a course of the drug. One of the problems with the treatment of BV is that even with sensitive organisms and specific antibacterial agents, the cure rate and reduced recurrence rate for BV is far from optimal. A planned prospective study over an extended period of time would help us evaluate the course of action and to study further the complex issue of recurrent BV and the prevalence of A. vaginae in the local populace. This would also be useful to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in cases of bacterial vaginosis in this part of the world.

 
 ~ References Top

1.Majeroni BA. Bacterial vaginosis: An update. Am Fam Phys 1998;57:1285-92.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.McGregor JA, French JI, Seo K. Premature rupture of membranes and bacterial vaginosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;169:463-6.  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  
3.Eschenbach DA. Bacterial vaginosis and anaerobes in obstetric-gynecologic infection. Clin Infect Dis 1993;16:S282-7.  Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]  
4.Joesoef MR, Wiknjosastro G, Norojono W, Sumampouw H, Linnan M, Hansell MJ, et al . Coinfection with chlamydia and gonorrhoea among pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis. Int J STD AIDS 1996;7:61-4.  Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
5.Greaves WL, Chungafung J, Morris B, Haile A, Townsend JL. Clindamycin versus metronidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:799-802.  Back to cited text no. 5  [PUBMED]  
6.Ferris DG, Litaker MS, Woodward L, Mathis D, Hendrich J. Treatment of bacterial vaginosis: A comparison of oral metronidazole, metronidazole vaginal gel and clindamycin vaginal cream. J Fam Pract 1995;41: 443-9.  Back to cited text no. 6  [PUBMED]  
7.McGregor JA, French JI, Parker R, Draper D, Patterson E, Jones W, et al . Prevention of premature birth by screening and treatment for common genital tract infections: Results of a prospective controlled evaluation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173:157-67.  Back to cited text no. 7  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
8.Joesoef MR, Hillier SL, Wiknjosastro G, Sumampouw H, Linnan M, Norojono W, et al . Intravaginal clindamycin treatment for bacterial vaginosis: Effects on preterm delivery and low birth weight. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173:1527-31.  Back to cited text no. 8  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
9.McGregor JA, French JI, Jones W, Milligan K, McKinney PJ, Patterson E, et al . Bacterial vaginosis is associated with prematurity and vaginal fluid mucinase and sialidase: Results of a controlled trial of topical clindamycin cream. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;170:1048-60.  Back to cited text no. 9  [PUBMED]  
10.Beigi RH, Austin MN, Meyn LA, Krohn MA, Hillier SL. Antimicrobial resistance associated with the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191:1124-9.  Back to cited text no. 10  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
11.Genital Tract Infections. In . Forbes BA, Sahm DF and Weissfeld AS, editors. Bailey and Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology. 10 th ed. Mosby, Inc: St. Louis; 1998. p. 363-79.  Back to cited text no. 11    
12.Goldstein EJ, Citron DM, Merriam CV, Warren YA, Tyrrell KL, Fernandez HT. In vitro activities of Garenoxacin (BMS 284756) against 108 clinical isolates of Gardnerella vaginalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002;46:3995-6.  Back to cited text no. 12  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
13.Hay P. Recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2000;2:506-12.  Back to cited text no. 13  [PUBMED]  
14.Backer ED, Verhelst R, Verstraelen H, Claeys G, Verschraegen G, Temmerman M, et al . Antibiotic susceptibility of atopobium vaginae. BMC Infect Dis 2006;6:51.  Back to cited text no. 14    
15.Antonio MA, Hawes SE, Hillier SL. The identification of vaginal Lactobacillus species and the demographic and microbiologic characteristics of women colonized by these species. J Infect Dis 1999;180:1950-6.  Back to cited text no. 15  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]



 
 
    Tables

  [Table - 1]

This article has been cited by
1 Molecular analysis of the relationship between specific vaginal bacteria and bacterial vaginosis metronidazole therapy failure
B. Wang,B. B. Xiao,C. G. Shang,K. Wang,R. S. Na,X. X. Nu,Q. Liao
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. 2014;
[Pubmed]
2 Treatment of bacterial vaginosis: what we have and what we miss
Gilbert GG Donders,Jana Zodzika,Dace Rezeberga
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. 2014; 15(5): 645
[Pubmed]
3 Antimicrobial spectrum of anti-Gardnerella vaginalis bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus fermentum HV6b against bacterial vaginosis associated organisms
Kaur, B. and Balgir, P. and Mittu, B. and Chuahan, A. and Kumar, B. and Garg, N.
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development. 2013; 3(1): 1-12
[Pubmed]
4 Purification and physicochemical characterization of anti-gardnerella vaginalis bacteriocin hv6b produced by Lactobacillus fermentum Isolate from human vaginal ecosystem
Kaur, B. and Balgir, P. and Mittu, B. and Chauhan, A. and Kumar, B.
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2013; 3(1): 91-100
[Pubmed]
5 Antimicrobial and spermicidal activity of native and recombinant pediocin CP2: A comparative evaluation
Kumar, B. and Balgir, P.P. and Kaur, B. and Mittu, B. and Garg, N.
Archives of Clinical Microbiology. 2012; 3(3)
[Pubmed]
6 Bacterial vaginosis, Atopobium vaginae and nifuratel
Polatti, F.
Current Clinical Pharmacology. 2012; 7(1): 36-40
[Pubmed]
7 A comparison of dequalinium chloride vaginal tablets (fluomizin®) and clindamycin vaginal cream in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety fluomizin study group
Weissenbacher, E.R. and Donders, G. and Unzeitig, V. and Martinez De Tejada, B. and Gerber, S. and Halaška, M. and Špaček, J.
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. 2012; 73(1): 8-15
[Pubmed]
8 A Comparison of Dequalinium Chloride Vaginal Tablets (Fluomizin®) and Clindamycin Vaginal Cream in the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis: A Single-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety
Ernst Rainer Weissenbacher, Gilbert Donders, Vit Unzeitig, Begońa Martinez de Tejada, Stefan Gerber, Michael Halaška, Jiří Špaček
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. 2012; 73(1): 8
[VIEW]
9 Zinc Lactate and Sapindin Act Synergistically with Lactocin 160 Against Gardnerella vaginalis
Yevgeniy Turovskiy, Michael L. Chikindas
Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins. 2011;
[VIEW]
10 Microbial infections in females of childbearing age and therapeutic interventions
Khan, F.Z.
Rawal Medical Journal. 2011; 36(3): 178-181
[Pubmed]
11 Zinc Lactate and Sapindin Act Synergistically with Lactocin 160 Against Gardnerella vaginalis
Turovskiy, Y. and Chikindas, M.L.
Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins. 2011; 3(2): 144-149
[Pubmed]
12 In vitro activity of nifuratel on vaginal bacteria: Could it be a good candidate for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis?
Togni, G. and Battini, V. and Bulgheroni, A. and Mailland, F. and Caserini, M. and Mendling, W.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2011; 55(5): 2490-2492
[Pubmed]
13 Efficacy of vaginal probiotic capsules for recurrent bacterial vaginosis: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study
Ya, W. and Reifer, C. and Miller, L.E.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2010; 203(2): 120.e1-120.e6
[Pubmed]
14 Diagnosis and management of bacterial vaginosis and other types of abnormal vaginal bacterial flora: A review
Donders, G.
Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. 2010; 65(7): 462-473
[Pubmed]
15 Efficacy of vaginal probiotic capsules for recurrent bacterial vaginosis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study
Wang Ya,Cheryl Reifer,Larry E. Miller
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2010; 203(2): 120.e1
[Pubmed]
16 Diagnosis and Management of Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Types of Abnormal Vaginal Bacterial Flora: A Review :
Gilbert Donders
Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey. 2010; 65(7): 462
[VIEW]
17 Efficacy of vaginal probiotic capsules for recurrent bacterial vaginosis: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study
Ya, W., Reifer, C., Miller, L.E.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2010; 203(2): 120 e1-120 e6
[Pubmed]
18 Antibiotic consideration in bacterial vaginosis
Jack D. Sobel
Current Infectious Disease Reports. 2009; 11(6): 471-475
[Pubmed]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article

    

© 2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Medknow

Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04