Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology IAMM  | About us |  Subscription |  e-Alerts  | Feedback |  Login   
  Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 Home | Ahead of Print | Current Issue | Archives | Search | Instructions  
Users Online: 4628 Official Publication of Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists 
  Search
 
 ~ Next article
 ~ Previous article 
 ~ Table of Contents
  
 ~  Similar in PUBMED
 ~  Search Pubmed for
 ~  Search in Google Scholar for
 ~  Article in PDF (44 KB)
 ~  Citation Manager
 ~  Access Statistics
 ~  Reader Comments
 ~  Email Alert *
 ~  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
 ~  References
 ~  Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed4130    
    Printed89    
    Emailed2    
    PDF Downloaded590    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 19    

Recommend this journal

 


 
CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2007  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 78-79
 

A sudden rise in occurrence of Salmonella paratyphi a infection in Rourkela, Orissa


Department of Microbiology, Ispat General Hospital, Rourkela - 769 005, Orissa, India

Date of Submission19-Aug-2005
Date of Acceptance17-Oct-2006

Correspondence Address:
Usha Dash
Department of Microbiology, Ispat General Hospital, Rourkela - 769 005, Orissa
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.31077

Rights and Permissions



How to cite this article:
Bhattacharya S S, Dash U. A sudden rise in occurrence of Salmonella paratyphi a infection in Rourkela, Orissa. Indian J Med Microbiol 2007;25:78-9

How to cite this URL:
Bhattacharya S S, Dash U. A sudden rise in occurrence of Salmonella paratyphi a infection in Rourkela, Orissa. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2007 [cited 2019 Dec 6];25:78-9. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2007/25/1/78/31077


Dear Editor,

Enteric fever, though classically caused by  Salmonella More Details enterica, Serotype typhi , isolation of Salmonella enterica Serotype paratyphi A has also been reported.[1] Since 1996, an increasing trend in isolation of S. paratyphi A causing enteric fever has been noticed in north India.[2],[3] Between 2001 to 2003, an unusually high rate in isolation of S. paratyphi A was reported from Nagpur (46.15%)[4] and Sevagram (53.33%).[5] In 2002 and 2003, we isolated few strains of S. paratyphi A causing enteric fever. But in 2004, between March and August, a sudden and unusual rise in isolation of S. paratyphi A occurred among the patients suspected to have typhoid and treated in Ispat General Hospital, Rourkela. Blood culture was carried out for 795 patients suspected to have enteric fever during March to August, 2004. Phage typing and biotyping was done at the National Salmonella Phage Typing Centre, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi. A total of 85 Salmonella isolates were obtained from 795 patients giving 10.81% positivity of which 47 (55.29%) were S. paratyphi A and 38 were S. typhi . All 47 isolates of S. paratyphi A were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, cephotaxime and ceftriaxone. Chloramphenicol sensitivity was 91.48% [Table - 1]. Only three isolates were found multi drug resistant. Phage typing was done for 24 isolates of which 21 belonged to phage type 6 and rest were type 4. Of 21 strains of phage type 6, 14 strains belonged to biotype II.

In the year 2002 and 2003, we isolated 3 and 4 strains of S. paratyphi A respectively. A sudden and dramatic rise in the number of S. paratyphi A isolates was noted in 2004 over a period of six months (March to August). In our study, ampicillin sensitivity was 89.36%, whereas it was 57.1% in Pune[1] and 66.67% in Nagpur.[4] Sensitivity to chloramphenicol was 72.22% in Nagpur study compared to our sensitivity report of 91.48%. Hundred percent sensitivity shown to ciprofloxacin was similar to the reports from Nagpur and Sevagram.[4],[5] Cefotaxime sensitivity was 100% in our study as also in Nagpur. Cetriaxone showed 100% sensitivity and both gentamicin and amikacin exhibited very high susceptibility against S. paratyphi A isolates. We observed that unlike other places, majority of phage types of S. paratyphi A belonged to type 6 and the rest were type 4. Till date, ciprofloxacin is the drug of choice for enteric fever in India. A recent study from New Delhi reported that 32% isolates of S. paratyphi A showed decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. As the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin is slowly increasing, third generation cephalosporins like cephotaxime and ceftriaxone may be tried in ciprofloxacin resistant cases. Moreover, ampicillin and chloramphenicol, because of their high susceptibility against S. paratyphi A, may be considered as first line of antibiotics to restrict the use of ciprofloxacin and thereby help prevent the emergence of drug resistance. As susceptibility pattern varies in different places of India, continuous monitoring in this regard seems to be the need of the hour.

 
 ~ References Top

1.Sanghvi SK, Nane MP, Nipadhkar KB. Multidrug resistance in Salmonella serotypes. Indian J Med Microbiol 1999; 17: 88-90.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Sood S, Kapil A, Dash N, Das BK, Goel V, Seth P. Paratyphoid fever in India: An emerging problem. Emerg Infect Dis 1999; 5 :483-4.  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
3.Chandel DS, Chaudhary R, Dhawan B, Pandey A, Dey AB. Drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi A in India. Emerg Infect Dis 2000; 6 :420-1.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Tankiwale SS, Agarwal G, Jalgaonkar SV. An unusually high occurrence of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A in patients with enteric fever. Indian J Med Res 2003; 117 :10-2.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Mendiratta DK, Deotale V, Thamke D, Narang R, Narang P. Enteric fever due to S. paratyphi A-an emerging Problem. Indian J Med Microbiol 2004; 22 :196.  Back to cited text no. 5    


    Tables

[Table - 1]

This article has been cited by
1 Prevalence of food borne pathogens in market samples of chicken meat in Bangalore, India
Badhe, S.R. and Fairoze, N. and Sudarshan, S.
Indian Journal of Animal Research. 2013; 47(3): 262-264
[Pubmed]
2 Increasing antimicrobial resistance and narrowing therapeutics in typhoidal Salmonellae
Kaur, J.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2013; 7(3): 576-579
[Pubmed]
3 Prevalence of food borne pathogens in market samples of chicken meat in Bangalore
Wilfred Ruban, S. and Nithin Prabhu, K. and Naveen Kumar, G.S.
International Food Research Journal. 2012; 19(4): 1763-1765
[Pubmed]
4 Vaccines for typhoid fever and other salmonelloses
Martin, L.B.
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 2012; 25(5): 489-499
[Pubmed]
5 Vaccines for typhoid fever and other salmonelloses
Laura B. Martin
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 2012; 25(5): 489
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Occurrence & antibiogram of Salmonella Typhi & S. Paratyphi A isolated from Rourkela, Orissa
Bhattacharya, S.S., Das, U., Choudhury, B.K.
Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2011; 133(4): 431-433
[Pubmed]
7 Burden of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in a densely populated urban community, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Aliya Naheed,Pavani K. Ram,W. Abdullah Brooks,M. Anowar Hossain,Michele B. Parsons,Kaisar Ali Talukder,Eric Mintz,Stephen Luby,Robert F. Breiman
International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2010; 14: e93
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 An outbreak of Salmonella Paratyphi A in a boarding school: a community-acquired enteric fever and carriage investigation
H. H. YANG,J. GONG,J. ZHANG,M. L. WANG,J. YANG,G. Z. WU,W. L. QUAN,H. M. GONG,S. C. SZU
Epidemiology and Infection. 2010; 138(12): 1765
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Paratyphoid fever- Emerging problem in South India
Bekur, R., Vandana, K.E., Shivashankara, K.N., Valsalan, R., Sathyanarayanan, V.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2010; 3(10): 815-817
[Pubmed]
10 Preparation and standardization of paratyphi a specific transfer factor
Zhou, J.-W., Luo, J.-M., Sun, W.-B., Ma, R., Tian, D.
Journal of Xićan Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences). 2010; 31(5): 637-639
[Pubmed]
11 Burden of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in a densely populated urban community, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Naheed, A., Ram, P.K., Brooks, W.A., Hossain, M.A., Parsons, M.B., Talukder, K.A., Mintz, E., (...), Breiman, R.F.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2010; 14(sup 3): e93-e99
[Pubmed]
12 Paratyphoid fever- Emerging problem in South India
Bekur, R. and Vandana, K.E. and Shivashankara, K.N. and Valsalan, R. and Sathyanarayanan, V.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2010; 3(10): 815-817
[Pubmed]
13 Preparation and standardization of paratyphi a specific transfer factor
Zhou, J.-W. and Luo, J.-M. and Sun, W.-B. and Ma, R. and Tian, D.
Journal of Xićan Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences). 2010; 31(5): 637-639
[Pubmed]
14 An outbreak of Salmonella Paratyphi A in a boarding school: A community-acquired enteric fever and carriage investigation
Yang, H.H. and Gong, J. and Zhang, J. and Wang, M.L. and Yang, J. and Wu, G.Z. and Quan, W.L. and Gong, H.M. and Szu, S.C.
Epidemiology and Infection. 2010; 138(12): 1765-1774
[Pubmed]
15 Paratyphoid fever– Emerging problem in South India
Ragini Bekur,K.E. Vandana,K.N. Shivashankara,Rohit Valsalan,Vishwanath Sathyanarayanan
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2010; 3(10): 815
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 An increase in enteric fever cases due to Salmonella Paratyphi A in & around Chandigarh
Gupta, V., Kaur, J., Chander, J.
Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2009; 129(1): 95-98
[Pubmed]
17 Distribution trends of Salmonella serovars in India (2001-2005)
Kumar, Y., Sharma, A., Sehgal, R., Kumar, S.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2009; 103(4): 390-394
[Pubmed]
18 Distribution trends of Salmonella serovars in India (2001–2005)
Yashwant Kumar, Anshu Sharma, Rakesh Sehgal, Sunil Kumar
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2009; 103(4): 390
[VIEW] | [DOI]
19 Nonmalarial acute undifferentiated fever in a rural hospital in central India: Diagnostic uncertainty and overtreatment with antimalarial agents
Joshi, R., Colford Jr., J.M., Reingold, A.L., Kalantri, S.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2008; 78(3): 393-399
[Pubmed]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article

    

© 2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04