Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology IAMM  | About us |  Subscription |  e-Alerts  | Feedback |  Login   
  Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 Home | Ahead of Print | Current Issue | Archives | Search | Instructions  
Users Online: 553 Official Publication of Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists 
  Search
 
 ~ Next article
 ~ Previous article 
 ~ Table of Contents
  
 ~  Similar in PUBMED
 ~  Search Pubmed for
 ~  Search in Google Scholar for
 ~  Article in PDF (35 KB)
 ~  Citation Manager
 ~  Access Statistics
 ~  Reader Comments
 ~  Email Alert *
 ~  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
 ~  References
 ~  Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3651    
    Printed84    
    Emailed2    
    PDF Downloaded243    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal

 


 
CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2006  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 302
 

A preliminary study on the prevalence of leptospira serovars among suspected cases of leptospirosis at Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh


Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati - 517 507, Andhra Pradesh, India

Date of Submission18-Apr-2006
Date of Acceptance09-Jun-2006

Correspondence Address:
K K Sharma
Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati - 517 507, Andhra Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.29397

Rights and Permissions



How to cite this article:
Sharma K K, Gururajkumar A, Mohan A, Sivakumar V, Kalawat U. A preliminary study on the prevalence of leptospira serovars among suspected cases of leptospirosis at Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Indian J Med Microbiol 2006;24:302

How to cite this URL:
Sharma K K, Gururajkumar A, Mohan A, Sivakumar V, Kalawat U. A preliminary study on the prevalence of leptospira serovars among suspected cases of leptospirosis at Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2006 [cited 2019 Aug 22];24:302. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2006/24/4/302/29397


Dear Editor,

Leptospirosis, transmitted by animals to human, is an emerging infectious disease. Although rats are the common reservoir of the leptospires, cattle are the most common reservoir of Leptospira hardjo , worldwide. Humans acquire the disease through accidental, occupational or recreational contact with contaminated water or through contact with urine, fluids or tissue of infected animals. It has protean manifestations, but fever, headache, prostration, myalgia and conjunctival suffusion are seen in most cases. The classical signs of haemorrhage, jaundice, meningitis and renal failure are rare.[1],[2],[3] While some studies from southern states of India have shown that autumnalis, australis, grippotyphosa and icterohaemorrhagiae are common circulating serovars in these zones; to the best of our knowledge, no true incidence of human leptospirosis in Andhra Pradesh has been reported. This could be due to lack of awareness on the part of treating physicians or lack of diagnostic facilities. Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, is non-endemic area for leptospirosis and there is no authentic reporting from this area from the literature available to us.

We report here the results of a hospital based prospective study from February 2001 to September 2003. Four hundred and seventy-nine blood samples were analyzed from suspected cases of leptospirosis by dark field microscopy (DFM), Leptospira IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Four hundred and thirty-one (90%) serum samples were found to be positive by both DFM and Leptospira IgM ELISA. Twenty serum samples were found to be negative with MAT. Four hundred and fifty-nine samples showed agglutination reaction and MAT titer varied from less than 1:50 to 1: 6400. MAT titer 1:50 or more than 50 was found in 109 samples. Predominant serovar was L. hardjo (39%) followed by L. copenhagni (11%) and L. cynopteri (11%). The percentage distribution of different serovars of leptospires is shown in the table.

In this study we considered the sera having MAT titer 1: 50 or more than 50 with the signs and symptoms of leptospirosis as positive. A MAT titer of 1:50 or > 50 to any of serovars was considered as evidence of leptospiral infection and individuals were defined as seropositive cases.[4] Most common isolate was L. hardjo in the area where there were numerous dairy farms. Seasonal variation was observed and the highest incidence of leptospirosis was during the rainy seasons.

We noticed a wide variation between Leptospira IgM ELISA and MAT. MAT positivity was observed in about 22 % cases out of 479 ELISA positive cases. These discrepancies among IgM ELISA and MAT may be due to prolonged transportation time, which may have leads to contamination of serum samples as well as deterioration of immunoglobulins.

 
 ~ References Top

1.Collee JG, Duguid JP, Fraser AG, Marimion BP. In : Mackei, McCartney. Practical Medical Micribiology . 14th ed. Churchill Livingstone: London; 1996. p. 559-71.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Murhekar MV, Sugunan AP, Vijayachari P, Sharma S, Sehgal SC. Risk factor in the transmission of leptospiral infection. Indian J Med Res 1998; 107 :218-23.   Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  
3.Ratnam S, Everard CO, Alex JC, Suresh B, Thangaraju P. Prevalence of leptospiral agglutinin among conservancy workers in Madras city, India. J Trop Med Hyg 1993; 96: 41-5.   Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]  
4.Muthusethapathi MA, Shivakumar S, Suguna R, Jaykumar M, Vijaykumar R, Everard CO, et al . Leptospirosis in Madras: A clinical and serological study. J Assoc Physicians India 1995; 43 :456-8.  Back to cited text no. 4    


    Tables

[Table - 1]

This article has been cited by
1 Detection of Leptospires serogroups, which are common causes of human acute leptospirosis in Guilan, Northern Iran
Honarmand, H.R., Eshraghi, S.S.
Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2011; 40(1): 107-114
[Pubmed]
2 Leptospirosis in children: A review for family physicians
Tullu, M., Karande, S.
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009; 63(8): 368-378
[Pubmed]
3 Early diagnosis of leptospirosis by conventional methods: One-year prospective study
Sharma, K., Kalawat, U.
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology. 2008; 51(2): 209-211
[Pubmed]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article

    

2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04