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GUEST EDITORIAL
Year : 2006  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 83-84
 

Re-emergence of Chikungunya virus in India


Department of Neurovirology, National Institute of Mental health and Neurosciences, Bangalore - 560 029, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
V Ravi
Department of Neurovirology, National Institute of Mental health and Neurosciences, Bangalore - 560 029, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.25175

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How to cite this article:
Ravi V. Re-emergence of Chikungunya virus in India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2006;24:83-4

How to cite this URL:
Ravi V. Re-emergence of Chikungunya virus in India. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2006 [cited 2016 Dec 2];24:83-4. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2006/24/2/83/25175


Chikungunya virus is no stranger to the Indian sub-continent. Since its first isolation in Calcutta,[1] in 1963, there have been several reports of chikungunya virus infection in different parts of India.[2],[3],[4] The last outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in India in 1971. Subsequently, there has been no active or passive surveillance carried out in the country and therefore, it 'seemed' that the virus had 'disappeared' from the subcontinent.[5] However, recent reports of large scale outbreaks of fever caused by chikungunya virus infection in several parts of Southern India have confirmed the re-emrgence of this virus.[6],[7],[8] It has been estimated that over 1,80,000 cases have occurred in India since December 2005. Andhra Pradesh (AP) was the first state to report this disease in Deccmber 2005, and one of the worst affected (over 80,000 suspected cases). Several districts of Karnataka state such as Gulbarga, Tumkur, Bidar, Raichur, Bellary, Chitradurga, Davanagere, Kolar and Bijapur districts have also recorded large number of chikungunya virus related fever cases. Over, 2000 cases of chikungunya fever have also been reported from Malegaon town in Nasik district, Maharashtra state, India between February-March 2006. During the same period, 4904 cases of fever associated with myalgia and headache have been reported from Orissa state as well.[8] According to the National Institute of Virology, Pune, out of 362 samples collected from different places in AP such as Kadapa, Secunderabad, Chittoor, Anantapur, Nalgonda and Prakasam, Kurnool and Guntur districts, 139 were found positive for chikungunya, antibodies, six for dengue fever and 15 related to both the fevers. Apart from India, several small countries in the southern Indian Ocean such as the French Reunion Islands, Mauritius, Seychelles and other countries have also been reporting large scale outbreaks of chikungunya virus infection this year.

Chikungunya is a relatively rare form of viral fever caused by an alphavirus that is spread by bite of an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. The name is derived from the Makonde word meaning "that which bends up" in reference to the stooped posture developed as a result of the arthritic symptoms of the disease. The disease was first described in 1952, following an outbreak on the Makonde Plateau, along the border between Tanganyika and Mozambique. Symptoms of this infection include abrupt onset of fever, chills, headache, and severe joint pain with or without swelling (usually the smaller joints), low back pain, and rash. The symptoms are most often clinically indistinguishable form those observed in dengue fever. Indeed, simultaneous isolation of both dengue and chikungunya from the sera of the same patients has been reported earlier indicating the presence of dual infections.[9] Therefore it is very important to clinically distinguish dengue from chikungunya virus infection. Unlike dengue, hemorrhagic manifestations are relatively rare and as a rule shock is not observed in chikungunya virus infection. Most often chikungunya is a self limiting febrile illness. However, neurological complications such as meningoencephalitis have been reported in a small proportion of patients during the first Indian outbreak as well as the recent French Reunion islands outbreaks.[10],[11] Mother to child transmission of chikungunya virus was a new observation recorded during the recent French Reunion islands outbreak.[11]

The precise reasons for the re-emergence of chikungunya in the Indian subcontinent as well as the other small countries in the southern Indian Ocean are an enigma. Although, it is well recognized that re-emergence of viral infections are due to a variety of social, environmental, behavioural and biological changes, which of these contributed to the re-emergence of chikungunya virus would be interesting to unravel. Genetic analysis of chiungunya viruses have revealed that two distinct lineages were delineated,[12] one containing all isolates from western Africa and the second comprising all southern and East African strains, as well as isolates from Asia. Phylogenetic trees corroborated historical evidence that the virus originated in Africa and subsequently was introduced into Asia.[13] Such studies need to be conducted on virus isolates obtained during the current outbreak in order to understand if any mutation has occurred in the virus that has facilitated the large scale spread of this virus in the region. Alternatively, one could take the simplistic view that the lack of herd immunity within the country probably lead to its rapid spread across several states. A serosurvey conducted at Calcutta a decade ago did reveal that only 4.37% of the sera tested were positive for chikungunya antibodies with the highest seropositivity rates observed in the age group of 51-55 years and no chikungunya antibodies detected in the young and young adults. These findings probably suggest that there is indeed lack of herd immunity to chikungunya virus. Yet another challenge faced during this large outbreak in the country has been the lack of rapid diagnostic facilities. Although, the National Institute of Virology at Pune, has been of great help in determining the etiology of the outbreak relying on one institute in the country to render diagnostic help for case management would be foolhardy. It would be therefore desirable to ensure that several virology laboratories in the country are enrolled and networked to deliver rapid diagnosis in large outbreaks such as this as well other emerging viral infections like Chandipura and Avian influnenza.

 
  References Top

1.Shah KV, Gibbs CJ Jr, Banerjee G. Virological investigation of the epidemic of haemorrhagic fever in Calcutta: isolation of three strains of Chikungunya virus. Indian J Med Res 1964; 52 :676-83.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Jadhav M, Namboodripad M, Carman RH, Carey DE, Myers RM. Chikungunya disease in infants and children in Vellore: a report of clinical and haematological features of virologically proved cases. Indian J Med Res 1965; 53 :764-76.  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  
3.Dandawate CN, Thiruvengadam KV, Kalyanasundaram V, Rajagopal J, Rao TR. Serological survey in Madras city with special reference to chikungunya. Indian J Med Res 1965; 53 :707-14.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Thiruvengadam KV, Kalyanasundaram V, Rajgopal J. Clinical and pathological studies on chikungunya fever in Madras city. Indian J Med Res 1965; 53 :729-44.  Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]  
5.Pavri K. Disappearance of Chikungunya virus from India and South East Asia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1986;80:491.  Back to cited text no. 5  [PUBMED]  
6. Enserink M. "Massive outbreak draws fresh attention to little-known virus". Science 2006; 311 :1085.   Back to cited text no. 6    
7.CDC. Chikungunya Fever in India. Travelers' Health Outbreak Notice April 21, 2006.http://www.cdc.gov/travel  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Chikungunya and Dengue in the south west Indian Ocean. Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR). http://www.who.int/csr/don/2006.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Myers RM and Carey DE. Concurrent isolation from patient of two arboviruses, Chikungunya and dengue type 2. Science 1967;157:1307-8.   Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Chatterjee SN, Chakravarti SK, Mitra AC, Sarkar JK. Virological investigation of cases with neurological complications during the outbreak of haemorrhagic fever in Calcutta. J Indian Med Assoc 1965;45:314-6.  Back to cited text no. 10  [PUBMED]  
11.Quatresous I. The Investigation Group, E-alert 27 January: Chikungunya outbreak in Rιunion, a French 'overseas dιpartement'. Euro Surveill 2006;11: E060202. 1. Available from:http://www. eurosurveillance. org/ew/2006/060202.asp   Back to cited text no. 11    
12.Powers AM, Brault AC, Tesh RB, Weaver SC. Re-emergence of Chikungunya and O'nyong-nyong viruses: evidence for distinct geographical lineages and distant evolutionary relationships. J Gen Virol 2000;81:471-9.  Back to cited text no. 12  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
13.Neogi DK, Bhattacharya N, Mukherjee KK, Chakraborty MS, Banerjee P, Mitra K, et al . Serosurvey of chikungunya antibody in Calcutta metropolis. J Commun Dis 1995;27:19-22.  Back to cited text no. 13    



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[Pubmed]
62 Endocytosis of chikungunya virus into mammalian cells: Role of clathrin and early endosomal compartments
Bernard, E., Solignat, M., Gay, B., Chazal, N., Higgs, S., Devaux, C., Briant, L.
PLoS ONE. 2010; 5(7): art-e11479
[Pubmed]
63 Evaluation of chikungunya diagnostic assays: Differences in sensitivity of serology assays in two independent outbreaks
Yap, G., Pok, K.-Y., Lai, Y.-L., Hapuarachchi, H.-C., Chow, A., Leo, Y.-S., Tan, L.-K., Ng, L.-C.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2010; 4(7): art -e753
[Pubmed]
64 Comparitive evaluation of different systems of medicines and the present scenario of chikungunya in Kerala
Dilip, C., Saraswathi, R., Krishnan, P.N., Azeem, A.K., Raseena, Azeez, A., Ramya, jose, J.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2010; 3(6): 443-447
[Pubmed]
65 Biochemical evidence of efficacy of potash alum for the control of dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus)
Shabad Preet, A. Sneha
Parasitology Research. 2010;
[VIEW] | [DOI]
66 An outbreak of chikungunya in southern Thailand from 2008 to 2009 caused by African strains with A226V mutation
Pornpimol Rianthavorn, Kesmanee Prianantathavorn, Norra Wuttirattanakowit, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Yong Poovorawan
International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2010; 14: e161
[VIEW] | [DOI]
67 Chikungunya virus isolated in Lakshadweep islands in the Indian Ocean: Evidence of the Central/East African genotype
Paramasivan, R., Samuel, P.P., Thenmozhi, V., Rajendran, R., Soosaimanickam, V.J.L., Dhanajeyan, K.J., Krishnamoorthi, R., (...), Tyagi, B.K.
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009; 62(1): 67-69
[Pubmed]
68 The biology of chikungunya: A brief review of what we still do not know
N. Pardigon
Pathologie Biologie. 2009; 57(2): 127
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
69 Assessing the risk of importing dengue and chikungunya viruses to the European Union
Seyler, T., Grandesso, F., Strat, Y.L., Tarantola, A., Depoortere, E.
Epidemics. 2009; 1(3): 175-184
[Pubmed]
70 Simultaneous detection and quantitation of Chikungunya, Dengue and West Nile viruses by multiplex RT-PCR assays and Dengue virus typing using High Resolution Melting
Naze, F., Le Roux, K., Schuffenecker, I., Zeller, H., Staikowsky, F., Grivard, P., Michault, A., Laurent, P.
Journal of Virological Methods. 2009; 162(1-2): 1-7
[Pubmed]
71 Clinical profile of chikungunya fever in patients in a tertiary care centre in Maharashtra, India
Suryawanshi, S.D., Dube, A.H., Khadse, R.K., Jalgaonkar, S.V., Sathe, P.S., Zawar, S.D., Holay, M.P.
Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2009; 129(4): 438-441
[Pubmed]
72 Atypical Chikungunya virus infections: Clinical manifestations, mortality and risk factors for severe disease during the 2005-2006 outbreak on Runion
Economopoulou, A., Dominguez, M., Helynck, B., Sissoko, D., Wichmann, O., Quenel, P., Germonneau, P., Quatresous, I.
Epidemiology and Infection. 2009; 137(4): 534-541
[Pubmed]
73 Evaluation of real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification for detection of Chikungunya virus in clinical samples
Telles, J.-N., Le Roux, K., Grivard, P., Vernet, G., Michault, A.
Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2009; 58(9): 1168-1172
[Pubmed]
74 Prophylaxis and therapy for chikungunya virus infection
Couderc, T., Khandoudi, N., Grandadam, M., Visse, C., Gangneux, N., Bagot, S., Prost, J.-F., Lecuit, M.
Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009; 200(4): 516-523
[Pubmed]
75 Genetic predisposition to chikungunya a blood group study in chikungunya affected families
Sudarsanareddy, L., Sarojamma, V., Ramakrishna, V.
Virology Journal. 2009; 6(Art 77)
[Pubmed]
76 A study on chikungunya outbreak during 2007 in Kerala, South India
Kannan, M., Rajendran, R., Sunish, I.P., Balasubramaniam, R., Arunachalam, N., Paramasivan, R., Tewari, S.C., (...), Tyagi, B.K.
Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2009; 129(3): 311-315
[Pubmed]
77 Co-infections with chikungunya virus and dengue virus in Delhi, India
Chahar, H.S., Bharaj, P., Dar, L., Guleria, R., Kabra, S.K., Broor, S.
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009; 15(7): 1077-1080
[Pubmed]
78 A case of bilateral presumed chikungunya neuroretinitis
Mahesh, G., Giridhar, A., Shedbele, A., Kumar, R., Saikumar, S.J.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2009; 57(2): 148-150
[Pubmed]
79 Vero cell platform in vaccine production: Moving towards cell culture-based viral vaccines
Barrett, P.N., Mundt, W., Kistner, O., Howard, M.K.
Expert Review of Vaccines. 2009; 8(5): 607-618
[Pubmed]
80 Burden of Chikungunya in India: Estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALY) lost in 2006 epidemic
Krishnamoorthy, K., Harichandrakumar, K.T., Kumari, A.K., Das, L.K.
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases. 2009; 46(1): 26-35
[Pubmed]
81 Cutaneous manifestations in patients suspected of chikungunya disease
Prashant, S., Kumar, A., Mohammed Basheeruddin, D., Chowdhary, T., Madhu, B.
Indian Journal of Dermatology. 2009; 54(2): 128-131
[Pubmed]
82 Chikungunya virus: The neurology
Murthy, J.M.K.
Neurology India. 2009; 57(2): 113-115
[Pubmed]
83 Neurological complications of Chikungunya virus infection
Chandak, N.H., Kashyap, R.S., Kabra, D., Karandikar, P., Saha, S.S., Morey, S.H., Purohit, H.J., (...), Daginawala, H.F.
Neurology India. 2009; 57(2): 177-180
[Pubmed]
84 The biology of chikungunya: A brief review of what we still do not know
Pardigon, N.
Pathologie Biologie. 2009; 57(2): 127-132
[Pubmed]
85 Molecular characterization of chikungunya virus from Andhra Pradesh, India
Kar, P.K., Nagpal, B.N., Dua, V.K., Ghosh, S.K., Raghavendra, K., Bhatt, R.M., Anvikar, A., Das, A.
Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2009; 129(3): 335-337
[Pubmed]
86 Overview of emerging arboviruses
Ann M Powers
Future Virology. 2009; 4(4): 391
[VIEW] | [DOI]
87 Co-infections with Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus in Delhi, India
Harendra S. Chahar,Preeti Bharaj,Lalit Dar,Randeep Guleria,Sushil K. Kabra,Shobha Broor
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009; 15(7): 1077
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
88 Vero cell platform in vaccine production: moving towards cell culture-based viral vaccines
P Noel Barrett,Wolfgang Mundt,Otfried Kistner,M Keith Howard
Expert Review of Vaccines. 2009; 8(5): 607
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
89 Atypical Chikungunya virus infections: clinical manifestations, mortality and risk factors for severe disease during the 20052006 outbreak on Runion
A. ECONOMOPOULOU,M. DOMINGUEZ,B. HELYNCK,D. SISSOKO,O. WICHMANN,P. QUENEL,P. GERMONNEAU,I. QUATRESOUS
Epidemiology and Infection. 2009; 137(04): 534
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
90 Simultaneous detection and quantitation of Chikungunya, Dengue and West Nile viruses by multiplex RT-PCR assays and Dengue virus typing using High Resolution Melting
F. Naze,K. Le Roux,I. Schuffenecker,H. Zeller,F. Staikowsky,P. Grivard,A. Michault,P. Laurent
Journal of Virological Methods. 2009; 162(1-2): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
91 Evaluation of real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification for detection of Chikungunya virus in clinical samples
J.-N. Telles,K. Le Roux,P. Grivard,G. Vernet,A. Michault
Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2009; 58(9): 1168
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
92 Assessing the risk of importing dengue and chikungunya viruses to the European Union
Thomas Seyler,Francesco Grandesso,Yann Le Strat,Arnaud Tarantola,Evelyn Depoortere
Epidemics. 2009; 1(3): 175
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
93 Clinical Features and Molecular Diagnosis of Chikungunya Fever from South India
Vemu Lakshmi,Mamidi Neeraja,M.V.S. Subbalaxmi,M.M. Parida,P.K. Dash,S.R. Santhosh,P.V.L. Rao
Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2008; 46(9): 1436
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
94 Mucocutaneous features of Chikungunya fever: a study from an outbreak in West Bengal, India : Mucocutaneous features of chikungunya fever
Debabrata Bandyopadhyay, Sudip Kumar Ghosh
International Journal of Dermatology. 2008; 47(11): 1148
[VIEW] | [DOI]
95 Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever: observations made during a recent outbreak in south India
Arun C. Inamadar,Aparna Palit,V. V. Sampagavi,S. Raghunath,N. S. Deshmukh
International Journal of Dermatology. 2008; 47(2): 154
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
96 Tracking epidemic Chikungunya virus into the Indian Ocean from East Africa
M. Kariuki Njenga,L. Nderitu,J. P. Ledermann,A. Ndirangu,C. H. Logue,C. H. L. Kelly,R. Sang,K. Sergon,R. Breiman,A. M. Powers
Journal of General Virology. 2008; 89(11): 2754
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
97 Serious acute chikungunya virus infection requiring intensive care during the reunion island outbreak in 20052006*
Jrme Lemant,Vronique Boisson,Arnaud Winer,Laure Thibault,Hlne Andr,Franois Tixier,Marie Lemercier,Emmanuel Antok,Marie Pierre Cresta,Philippe Grivard,Mathieu Besnard,Olivier Rollot,Franois Favier,Michel Huerre,Jos L. Campinos,Alain Michault
Critical Care Medicine. 2008; 36(9): 2536
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
98 Rapid detection and characterization of Chikungunya virus by RT-PCR in febrile patients from Kerala, India
Joseph, A.Y., Sankar Babu, V., Dev, S.S., Gopalakrishnapai, J., Harish, M., Rajesh, M.D., Anisha, S., Mohankumar, C.
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2008; 46(8): 573-578
[Pubmed]
99 Dengue outbreaks in the french west-indies in a context of arbovirosis emergence and reemergence | [Les pidmies de dengue aux antilles - Guyane dans un contexte dmergence et de rmergence des arboviroses.]
Aubry, P.
Bulletin de lAcademie Nationale de Medecine. 2008; 192(4): 781-793
[Pubmed]
100 Expression and biochemical characterization of nsP2 cysteine protease of Chikungunya virus
Boris A.M. Pastorino, Christophe N. Peyrefitte, Lionel Almeras, Marc Grandadam, Dominique Rolland, Hugues J. Tolou, Mal Bessaud
Virus Research. 2008; 131(2): 293
[VIEW] | [DOI]
101 Tracking epidemic Chikungunya virus into the Indian Ocean from East Africa
Njenga, M.K., Nderitu, L., Ledermann, J.P., Ndirangu, A., Logue, C.H., Kelly, C.H.L., Sang, R., (...), Powers, A.M.
Journal of General Virology. 2008; 89(11): 2754-2760
[Pubmed]
102 Mucocutaneous features of Chikungunya fever: A study from an outbreak in West Bengal, India
Bandyopadhyay, D., Ghosh, S.K.
International Journal of Dermatology 47 (11), pp. 1148-1152. 2008; 47(11): 1148-1152
[Pubmed]
103 Serious acute chikungunya virus infection requiring intensive care during the reunion island outbreak in 2005-2006
Lemant, J., Boisson, V., Winer, A., Thibault, L., Andr, H., Tixier, F., Lemercier, M., (...), Michault, A.
Critical Care Medicine. 2008; 36(9): 2536-2541
[Pubmed]
104 Clinical features and molecular diagnosis of Chikungunya fever from South India
Lakshmi, V., Neeraja, M., Subbalaxmi, M.V.S., Parida, M.M., Dash, P.K., Santhosh, S.R., Rao, P.V.L.
Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2008; 46(9): 1436-1442
[Pubmed]
105 Rapid and real-time assays for detection and quantification of Chikungunya virus
Parida, M.M., Santhosh, S.R., Dash, P.K., Lakshmana Rao, P.V.
Future Virology. 2008; 3(2): 179-192
[Pubmed]
106 A mouse model for Chikungunya: Young age and inefficient type-I interferon signaling are risk factors for severe disease
Couderc, T., Chrtien, F., Schilte, C., Disson, O., Brigitte, M., Guivel-Benhassine, F., Touret, Y., (...), Lecuit, M.
PLoS Pathogens. 2008; 4(2)
[Pubmed]
107 Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever: Observations made during a recent outbreak in south India
Inamadar, A.C., Palit, A., Sampagavi, V.V., Raghunath, S., Deshmukh, N.S.
International Journal of Dermatology. 2008; 47(2): 154-159
[Pubmed]
108 Chikungunya fever: A re-emerging viral infection
Chhabra, M., Mittal, V., Bhattacharya, D., Rana, U.V.S., Lal, S.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2008; 26(1): 5-12
[Pubmed]
109 Rapid and real-time assays for detection and quantification of <i>Chikungunya virus</i>
MM Parida, SR Santhosh, PK Dash, PV Lakshmana Rao
Future Virology. 2008; 3(2): 179
[VIEW] | [DOI]
110 Ocular Involvement Associated With an Epidemic Outbreak of Chikungunya Virus Infection
Lalitha, P., Rathinam, S., Banushree, K., Maheshkumar, S., Vijayakumar, R., Sathe, P.
American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2007; 144(4): 552-556
[Pubmed]
111 Chikungunya viral infections: An emerging problem
Seneviratne, S.L., Gurugama, P., Perera, J.
Journal of Travel Medicine. 2007; 14(5): 320-325
[Pubmed]
112 Chikungunya fever in a Spanish traveller [4] | [Infección por virus de Chikungunya en una viajera española]
Prous, C.A., López-Perezagua, M.D.M., Zaragozí, F.J.A., Martínez-Peinado, C.
Medicina Clinica. 2007; 129(3): 118-119
[Pubmed]
113 Chikungunya epidemic: Global and Indian scenario
Das, S., Kolhe, R.P., Mane, B.G., Singh, J.P.N., Singh, A.P.
Journal of Communicable Diseases. 2007; 39(1): 37-43
[Pubmed]
114 Molecular characterization of chikungunya virus from Andhra Pradesh, India & phylogenetic relationship with Central African isolates
Kumar, C.V.M.N., Johnson, A.M.A., Gopal, D.V.R.S.
Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2007; 126(6): 534-540
[Pubmed]
115 Chikungunya virus infection - A resurgent scourge
Abraham, A.M., Sridharan, G.
Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2007; 126(6): 502-504
[Pubmed]
116 A single mutation in Chikungunya virus affects vector specificity and epidemic potential
Tsetsarkin, K.A., Vanlandingham, D.L., McGee, C.E., Higgs, S.
PLoS Pathogens. 2007; 3(12): 1895-1906
[Pubmed]
117 Neurological complications in chikungunya fever
Rampal, Sharda, M., Meena, H.
Journal of Association of Physicians of India. 2007; 55(Nov): 765-769
[Pubmed]
118 Global threats from emerging viral diseases | [Les virus bougent: Prils plantaires]
Chastel, C.
Bulletin de lAcademie Nationale de Medecine. 2007; 191(8): 1563-1577
[Pubmed]
119 Optic neuritis associated with chikungunya virus infection in South India
Mittal, A., Mittal, S., Bharati, J., Ramakrishnan, R., Saravanan, S., Sathe, P.S.
Archives of Ophthalmology. 2007; 125(10): 1381-1386
[Pubmed]
120 East Central South African Genotype as the Causative Agent in Reemergence of Chikungunya Outbreak in India
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2007; 7(4): 519
[VIEW] | [DOI]
121 Infeccin por virus de Chikungunya en una viajera espaola
Concepcin Amador Prous, Mara del Mar Lpez-Perezagua, Francisco Javier Arjona Zaragoz, Carmen Martnez-Peinado
Medicina Clnica. 2007; 129(3): 118
[VIEW] | [DOI]
122 Ocular Involvement Associated With an Epidemic Outbreak of Chikungunya Virus Infection
Prajna Lalitha,Sivakumar Rathinam,Krishnadas Banushree,Shanmugam Maheshkumar,Rajendran Vijayakumar,Padmakar Sathe
American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2007; 144(4): 552
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
123 Chikungunya Viral Infections: An Emerging Problem
Suranjith L. Seneviratne,Padmalal Gurugama,Jennifer Perera
Journal of Travel Medicine. 2007; 14(5): 320
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
124 Chikungunya epidemics due to Central African genotype in Andhra Pradesh
Naresh Kumar, C.V.M., Sai Gopal, D.V.R.
Current Science. 2007; 92(9): 1196-1197
[Pubmed]
125 Rapid and real-time detection of Chikungunya virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay
Parida, M.M., Santhosh, S.R., Dash, P.K., Tripathi, N.K., Lakshmi, V., Mamidi, N., Shrivastva, A., (...), Morita, K.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2007; 45(2): 351-357
[Pubmed]
126 Chikungunya, an epidemic arbovirosis
Gilles Pialoux, Bernard-Alex Gazre, Stphane Jaurguiberry, Michel Strobel
The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2007; 7(5): 319
[VIEW] | [DOI]
127 Changing patterns of chikunya virus: Re-emergence of a zoonotic arbovirus
Powers, A.M., Logue, C.H.
Journal of General Virology. 2007; 88(9): 2363-2377
[Pubmed]
128 Hypokalemic paralysis following chikungunya fever
Rampal, Sharda, M., Meena, H.
Journal of Association of Physicians of India. 2007; 55(Aug): 598-598
[Pubmed]
129 Development of a sensitive real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay with an internal control to detect and quantify chikungunya virus
Laurent, P., Le Roux, K., Grivard, P., Bertil, G., Naze, F., Picard, M., Staikowsky, F., (...), Michault, A.
Clinical Chemistry. 2007; 53(8): 1408-1414
[Pubmed]
130 Infectious clones of Chikungunya virus (la réunion isolate) for vector compentence studies
Tssetsarkin, K., Higgs, S., McGee, C.E., De Lamballerie, X., Charrel, R.N., Vanlandingham, D.L.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2006; 6(4): 325-337
[Pubmed]
131 Emergence of chikungunya virus in Indian subcontinent after 32 years: A review
Lahariya, C., Pradhan, S.K.
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases. 2006; 43(4): 151-160
[Pubmed]
132 Chikungunya outbreak - Remember the arthropathy
Volpe, A., Caramaschi, P., Angheben, A., Marchetta, A., Monteiro, G., Bambara, L.M., Bisoffi, Z.
Rheumatology. 2006; 45(11): 1449-1450
[Pubmed]
133 Chikungunya fever: Clinical manifestations & management
Mohan, A.
Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2006; 124(471): 474
[Pubmed]
134 Infectious Clones of Chikungunya Virus (La Runion Isolate) for Vector Competence Studies
Konstantin Tsetsarkin, Stephen Higgs, Charles E. McGee, Xavier De Lamballerie, Remi N. Charrel, Dana L. Vanlandingham
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2006; 6(4): 325
[VIEW] | [DOI]
135 Chikungunya fever diagnosed among international travelers - United States, 2005-2006
Warner, E., Garcia-Diaz, J., Balsamo, G., Shranatan, S., Bergmann, A., Blauwet, L., Sohail, M., (...), Lehman, J.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2006; 55(38): 1040-1042
[Pubmed]



 

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2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04