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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2006  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 39-44
 

Nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter species: Clinical findings, risk and prognostic factors


1 Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Nacharam, Hyderabad -500 076, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, ), Pondicherry - 605 006, India

Correspondence Address:
K Prashanth
Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Nacharam, Hyderabad -500 076
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.19893

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 ~ Abstract 

Purpose: Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species is of increasing concern in critically ill patients, and the risk factors for this infection are not well established. The present investigation was done to determine incidence of nosocomial Acinetobacter infections. Our study retrospectively attempts to find risk and prognostic factors for the nosocomial acquisition of Acinetobacter infection. Methods: The medical records of 43 patients with Acinetobacter infection during two-year period (Oct1998-Oct2000) were reviewed to find the factors involved in the nosocomial acquisition of Acinetobacter . Acinetobacter isolates that were obtained from these patients were phenotypically typed using carbon assimilation tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing results were noted from the microbiology records. Results: Acinetobacter baumannii accounted for 41.8% (n=18) of all the infections. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, only resistant antibiotype {(Ceftazidime- OR, 7.13 [95% CI, 1 to 46];p= 0.044); (Cefotaxime- OR, 6.09 [CI, 0.87 to 30];p = 0.045)} and mechanical ventilation (OR, 5.84 [CI, 0.83 to 31];p = 0.05) were found to be potential independent risk factors for mortality. Overall mortality rate was 33%. Conclusions: Most of A. baumannii isolates were multidrug resistant in our set up and infections due to them were associated with high mortality. Prevention of Multiple drug resistant (MDR) A. baumannii infections was achieved after discontinuation of cefotaxime in ICU. Infection with resistant clones and mechanical ventilation were found to be potential independent risk factors for mortality.


Keywords: Acinetobacter species, nosocomial infection, multiple drug resistance, risk and prognostic factors


How to cite this article:
Prashanth K, Badrinath S. Nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter species: Clinical findings, risk and prognostic factors. Indian J Med Microbiol 2006;24:39-44

How to cite this URL:
Prashanth K, Badrinath S. Nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter species: Clinical findings, risk and prognostic factors. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2006 [cited 2019 Nov 14];24:39-44. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2006/24/1/39/19893


Acinetobacter spp. is one of important nosocomial pathogens and has been known to cause different kinds of opportunistic infections.[1] Acinetobacter baumannii is now recognized to be the Acinetobacter genomic species of great clinical importance. The main sites of infection is the lower respiratory tract and urinary tract, and these distribution sites are very similar to that of other nosocomial gram-negative bacteria.[1] A. baumannii and DNA group13 have emerged as important organisms in ICU settings, in particular they may be related to the advanced invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures adopted in ICUs in the last decade.[1] A. baumannii is now recognized as a major pathogen involved in nosocomial infections causing epidemic outbreaks or endemic occurrence with a documented high mortality rates. [2],[3],[4],[5],[6] Recently a few A. baumannii outbreaks have also been reported from India.[2],[6]

It is very difficult to explain the role of Acinetobacter acquisition in the ICU, since Acinetobacter does not always act as an infecting pathogen as it is widely distributed and has tremendous colonizing capability.[1],[7],[8] In addition, risk factors for Acinetobacter acquisition may vary in different set ups with epidemic outbreaks of infection or endemic colonization.[9] Although various factors predisposing to Acinetobacter infections have been analyzed in different studies, there are only few authentic reports from India that have attempted to determine the risk and prognostic factors for Acinetobacter infection.[2],[6],[10] The present study, retrospectively attempts to find possible risk and prognostic factors for the nosocomial acquisition of Acinetobacter infection.


 ~ Materials and Methods Top


The study was conducted in JIPMER hospital, Pondicherry, India. In this retrospective study, charts of 43 patients admitted to the hospital during two-year period (Oct'1998-Oct'2000) who developed Acinetobacter infection were analyzed. Nosocomially acquired Acinetobacter infection was defined as the isolation of the organism repeatedly from blood cultures or other specimens, 48 hours after a patient was admitted to the hospital. True cases of infection recorded from patient's record including the patient's history, clinical findings, microbiological results, and the number of positive cultures. Patients in whom Acinetobacter spp. was isolated repeatedly (more than twice) in absence of clinical disease suggesting colonization, were also included in the study. The Acinetobacter isolates obtained were mainly from patients admitted to 6-bedded respiratory intensive care unit (RICU). The major reasons for admission to the RICU were mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure, postoperative critical care and organ support following multiple trauma. Such admissions are usually for 4 to 6 days. Other cases of Acinetobacter infection were from paediatric and medical wards. Clinical specimens included were blood, CSF, endotracheal aspirate, pus and other body fluids. There were 152 cases of other gram negative infections recorded in the hospital during the same period. The following variables were analyzed: patient age, sex, and the presence of underlying diseases or conditions, mechanical ventilation, number of hospital days, surgery, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and infection due to multiresistant Acinetobacter spp.

Microbiological Investigation

The highest incidence of Acinetobacter spp. infection in the hospital was recorded in RICU. Fifty-five isolates were recovered from 18 patients of RICU. Forty-three isolates were from 25 patients admitted in paediatric ward and other medical wards. In cases, where multiple isolates were obtained from the same patient, a representative strain/strains were selected for further typing after initial screening by performing biochemical testing and comparing antibiograms for 10 first and second line antibiotics. Such screening helped in the short-listing of 49 isolates from overall 98 isolates obtained from 43 patients. Among 43 patients, six patients had two different strains grown. Of the 18 patients at RICU, five patients had two different strains. One patient from pediatric ward yielded two different strains. Thus, a total number of 49 isolates were characterized, which included 23 from RICU (18+5) and 26 from paediatric and other wards. All Acinetobacter isolates were characterized phenotypically up to biotype level using a panel of 25 carbon assimilation tests in the microbiology laboratory as described elsewhere.[11],[12],[13] The isolates belonging to A. calcoaceticus - A. baumannii complex ( Acb ) were further biotyped using additional five assimilation tests of 'C' sources i.e., phenylalanine levulinate, citraconate, 4- hydroxybenzoate and L-tartarate. Agar dilution method was employed to detect minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of important broad-spectrum antibiotics that are commonly used in the hospital[14] that included cefotaxime, ceftazidime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Twenty-two reference strains belonging to 18 different DNA groups (assigned by DNA-DNA hybridization methods) obtained from Gerner-Smidt (Serum-institut, Copenhagen, Denmark) and Bouvet (Institut Pasteur, Paris) were also included in the investigation as controls for phenotypic assimilation tests. Since there is an overlapping in numbering of DNA groups from two research groups, the DNA groups of Bouvet and Jeanjean were referred to as BJ and that of Tjernberg and Ursing were referred to as TU.[11]

Statistical analysis

We compared the differences in the risk factors among patients with Acinetobacter spp. infection and the patients with other gram negative bacterial infections, patients with Acinetobacter spp. infection and patients with colonization with Acinetobacter and investigated for significant prognostic factors in patients with Acinetobacter spp. infection. Contingency tables were calculated with Pearson's test or Fisher's exact test by comparing the proportions, when necessary. The odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) (95%) were calculated. Differences were significant if the p value associated with the test was < 0.05. A multivariate study was performed by using the backward stepwise logistic regression analysis for the factors influencing prognosis and nosocomial acquisition; a p value of 0.05 was the limit for entering or removing terms. For all the analysis, the SPSS software package was used.


 ~ Results Top


Description of Case-Patients and unit distribution

A total of 43 patients admitted to the hospital who developed Acinetobacter spp. infection or colonization were evaluated. The patients ranged in age from 6 months to 87 years (mean age ± SD, 32.7 ± 22.9 years; median age, 30 years). Among these 25 were male (58%) and 18 were female (42%). Acinetobacter spp. was isolated from various types of infections. Respiratory tract infections (n=21, 48.8%), blood stream infections (n=7, 16.27%), secondary meningitis (n=6, 14%), urinary tract infections (n=4, 9.3%), peritonitis (n=2, 4.65%), corneal infection (n=1), necrotizing fasciitis (n=1) and osteomyelitis (n=1) were the infections diagnosed. Two cases of community-acquired infections were diagnosed, one was pneumonia in 86-year male patient and the other was a corneal infection in 35-year female patient. A. baumannii was the main species responsible for most of the infections. However, non - A. baumannii species were also responsible for many infections. DNA group 13TU strains were responsible for respiratory infections in ICU. Five patients developed secondary meningitis due to A. lwoffii. Among these, one patient developed deep stromal keratitis. One case of peritonitis caused by a strain of DNA group 3 was observed.

Among respiratory tract infected patients, 19 patients were bacteraemic. Three patients developed blood stream infection (BSI) secondary to wound infection. A total of 29 patients (69%) developed BSI. The most common source for Acinetobacter BSI was the respiratory tract (65%). Seven cases from the above did not have clear cut clinical findings for supporting infection (4 - respiratory infection, 2 - UTI and 1 - meningitis) and they were regarded as colonization. Thirty-one had undergone surgery (72%); 19 patients were intubated and ventilated in RICU (44%). The mean duration of hospital stay was 19.06 ± 20.76 [median, 14 days (range, 2 to 124 days)]. Fourteen patients died during their stay at the hospital (33% mortality rate). The mortality rate was 50% in RICU admissions due to Acinetobacter spp. infections. Majority of the cases were from patients admitted to RICU. Unit wise distribution of cases was RICU (18 patients; 42%), medicine (16; 37%), paediatrics (10; 23%), surgery (9; 21%), orthopaedics and ophthalmology (1; 2.3%). Due to complications, 11 patients primarily admitted in medical and pediatric wards, were later shifted to RICU. These patients were counted twice for calculation of percentage distribution in units.

Microbiological Investigations

Carbon assimilation testing

In the final study population that comprised of 49 isolates of Acinetobacter spp., A. baumannii constituted majority of isolates (35) based on assimilation test identification. One isolate belonged to DNA group 3, and 3 isolates belonged to either DNA group13TU or to A. baumannii biotype 9. Another isolate, which was haemolytic, belonged to DNA group 13BJ (14TU). There were five isolates of A. lwoffii. Other species encountered were, A. johnsonii (1), A. haemolyticus (2) and A. junii (1). Biotyping of Acb -complex strains showed biotype 10 as the most common type in the hospital constituting 10 strains followed by biotype 6 and biotype 9, which comprised of 7 and 6 strains respectively. Biotyping results have been published previously in detail.[15]

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing

Six different antibiotic susceptibility profiles were observed among the 43 Acinetobacter isolates when tested for five broad spectrum antibiotics. These antibiotypes were designated using Roman numerals I-VI . Antibiotype I was resistant to all the five broad antimicrobials such as cefotaxime, ceftazidime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Antibiotype II showed resistance to only cefotaxime and susceptible to others. Isolates of antibiotype III were resistant to ceftazidime, amikacin, cefotaxime and susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Antibiotype IV group of isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, amikacin, cefotaxime and resistant to both the quinolones. Group V isolates were susceptible to all the antibiotics. Isolates of antibiotype VI were resistant to amikacin and ciprofloxacin only. Antibiotypes I, III, IV were the common resistant antibiotypes. Six A. baumannii biotype 6 strains showed the antibiotype I pattern and one belonged to antibiotype IV. All the strains of A. baumannii biotype 10 were of antibiotype I. Those isolates classified either as A. baumannii biotype 9 or as DNA group 13TU, exhibited antibiotypes I and III.

Clinical Investigation

Risk and prognostic factors for infection and mortality

Univariate analysis of the cases to assess the prognostic factors for Acinetobacter infection and their association with mortality, revealed some important findings. All factors significantly associated with a worse prognosis are shown in [Table - 1].

No statistical significance was found in relation to sex, age, hospital stay, and prior surgery or with prior use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy was associated with death in 23% of the patients. Mechanical ventilation was associated with higher mortality ( p =0.0146). The resistant antibiotype was significantly associated with mortality ( P =0.007). The following variables were considered to be biologically plausible risk factors and were evaluated in a step-wise logistic regression model: having mechanical ventilation, admission to ICU, with complications, prior treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, inappropriate antibiotic therapy and infection with resistant antibiotype (resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins). By multivariate analysis, resistant antibiotype {(Ceftazidime- odds ratio (OR), 7.13 [95% CI, 1 to 46]; P =0.044); (cefotaxime- OR, 6.09 [CI, 0.87 to 30]; P =0.045)} and mechanical ventilation [OR, 5.84 (CI, 0.83 to 31); P =0.05)] were independent risk factors for the mortality.

Because of the continuous occurrence and recurrence of Acinetobacter infections or colonizations among patients in high-risk wards and ICUs, factors associated with infection were assessed. All the risk factors that were associated with infection due to Acinetobacter spp are shown in [Table - 2]. Only the resistant strains isolated from the patients were significantly associated with occurrence of infection ( P= 0.0367). All patients who expired had severe infection with resistant Acinetobacter spp. ( P =0.048). The following variables were considered to be biologically plausible risk factors for infection and were evaluated in a step-wise multivariate logistic regression model: prior use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, outcome and infection with resistant antibiotype. Only the resistant antibiotype [Cefotaxime-OR, 9.4 (95% CI, 1.3 to 109); P =0.047] was an independent risk factor for occurrence of infection.


 ~ Discussion Top


Acinetobacter species has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen that is often multidrug resistant and associated with life-threatening infections.[1] A. baumannii , a clinically important species has a tendency toward cross-transmission, particularly in ICUs, where numerous outbreaks are encountered.[1],[2],[16] Respiratory infections due to Acinetobacter in mechanically ventilated patients in ICU were also high at JIPMER hospital (44.7%), during 1996-1997 (Dutta TK, unpublished data). One recent study revealed that Acinetobacter spp. was responsible for 35% of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), making it the most conspicuous and dominant pathogen amongst all other bacteria encountered in that study.[17] However, only few case-control studies have identified and systematically reported the various risk factors associated with Acinetobacter infection or colonization.[5],[7]

Potential risk factors for Acinetobacter infection in many studies were prior surgery or prior use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.[5] The present study contradicted those findings with no such correlations found in our cases. Inappropriate therapy was associated with death in 23% of our patients as against a figure of 48% reported in one of the studies.[5] Antibiotype I resistant strains and mechanical ventilation were independent risk factors associated with high mortality in our investigation. Our study also revealed that the multidrug resistant (MDR) strains were significantly associated with infection ( P= 0.0367) and mortality was high in patients who had severe infection with MDR strains. Particularly, strains of antibiotype I were highly associated with mortality ( P = 0.0146). Almost all the expired patients were essentially infected with MDR antibiotypes I, III and IV. High mortality rates associated with MDR strains have also been noted in other hospitals of India. [2] The most likely explanation for this phenomenon can be the extensive and indiscriminate use of antibiotics in ICUs. A progressive decrease in the effectiveness of 3rd generation cephalosporins against Acinetobacter has been coupled with the increased use of these antibiotics.[1],[8] We re-emphasize that broad-spectrum antibiotics should be used intravenously with caution. Ceftazidime and/or cefotaxime use should be discontinued in units where resistant strains for these two antibiotics are being reported increasingly. With revelation of ceftazidime and cefotaxime resistant strains from our study, the hospital ICU was advised to use other antibiotic combinations like an effective beta-lactam or carbapenem (piperacillin, ticarcillin, or imipenem) along with amikacin.

The incidence of respiratory tract infections was 48.8% in this study. Only endemic MDR antibiotype ( P = 0.047) and mechanical ventilation ( P = 0.05) were independent predisposing factors for the respiratory infection. Similar observations were documented earlier.[18] However, other studies[1] also implicated many other risk factors like prior antibiotic use, ICU stay, I.V. catheters, which were found to be insignificant in our study. Mortality rates of 30 to 75% have been reported for pneumonia due to Acinetobacter spp. with highest rates encountered in VAP patients.[19] We documented 50% mortality rate in VAP patients, which is of major concern. The most common source for Acinetobacter BSI is the respiratory tract. One important study[5] implicated respiratory infection as the most common source for BSI.[5]

A. baumannii BSIs are most common among immunocomprimised patients at our hospital, wherein majority of bacteraemia patients (31) had undergone surgery (72%); 19 patients were intubated and ventilated (44%). Other investigators have noted that A. baumannii BSIs been more frequent in cancer patients and in patients with severe underlying malignancies.[20]

Though A. baumannii was the main species responsible for most of the infections, non- A. baumannii species were also frequently encountered. DNA group 13TU strains were responsible for respiratory infections in ICU in the present study. DNA group 13 has been implicated in many infections earlier.[21] Five patients developed secondary meningitis due to A. lwoffii. Out of these, one patient developed deep keratitis caused by the same organism. A. lwoffii, as an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed patients have been reported earlier.[22] Only one strain of DNA group 3 causing peritonitis was observed. The occurrence of DNA group 3 seems to be less frequent in this geographical region as compared to other regions wherein it is an important pathogen.[21] One particular study from Sweden[21] found DNA group 3 as a predominant species among all the clinical isolates recovered.

In the present study, one 4-year-old male patient developed secondary meningitis due to A. johnsonii , another rare opportunistic species, wherein CSF from the patient grew this organism twice. This infection was suspected to be iatrogenic during lumbar puncture. Iatrogenic meningitis is well documented complication of diagnostic and therapeutic lumber puncture in India.[23] A. haemolyticus was isolated from an 86-year old male patient suffering from recurrent bronchiectasis. Only one strain belonging to DNA group 14 was encountered. DNA group14 strains are not found in clinical materials frequently.[1],[21] Corneal perforation due to A. junii diagnosed in this hospital was reported during the study period.[24] This observation is very important, as this infection was community acquired rather than hospital. Only few reports on A. junii outbreaks have been documented.[1],[8]

Carbon assimilation test for biotyping appears to be the best method and it is readily available in all microbiology laboratories in India. Phenotypic identification of Acinetobacter to the species or DNA group level is very difficult. Bouvet et al used it taxonomically for typing by using large panel of 28 tests that is tedious and time consuming.[12] The reliability of this typing scheme was evaluated by another study using a numerical approach.[11] We had difficulty only in the identification of isolates that belonged to DNA groups 2 and 13 and 8/9 and 15. However, biotyping of Acb -complex (DNA groups 1, 2, 3, 13) was helpful in differentiating the biotypes within the complex. Identification of Acinetobacter species based upon growth at 44°C, 41°C and 37°C in BHI along with acid production from glucose could be very useful. In addition, biotyping of Acb -complex by only 5 assimilation tests seems to be best alternative method for the laboratories with fewer resources.

In conclusion, MDR A. baumannii was the species responsible for majority of the Acinetobacter infections at our hospital. MDR A. baumannii infections were also the cause of severe clinical disease that were associated with a high mortality rates. Resistant A. baumannii clones and mechanical ventilation were found to be potential independent risk factors for mortality in our set up. The use of ceftazidime and cefotaxime was associated with an increased risk of nosocomial pneumonia with resistant strains of A. baumannii . Prevention of recurrent MDR A. baumannii infections was achieved after discontinuation of cefotaxime in our RICU[25].

 
 ~ References Top

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2.Mittal N, Nair D, Gupta N, Rawat D, Kabra S, Kumar S, et al . Outbreak of Acinetobacter spp septicemia in a neonatal ICU. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2003;34:365-6.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Seifert H, Strate A, Pulverer G. Nosocomial bacteremia due to Acinetobacter baumannii: clinical features, epidemiology, and predictors of mortality. Medicine 1995;74:340-9.  Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
4.Cisneros JM, Reyes MJ, Pacho´n J, Becerril B, Caballero FJ, Garcia-Garmendia JL, et al . 1996. Bacteremia due to Acinetobacter baumannii: epidemiology, clinical findings and prognostic features. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:1026-32.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Go´mez J, Simmarro E, Banos V, Requena L, Ruiz J, Gracia F, et al . Six-year prospective study of risk and prognostic factors in patients with nosocomial sepsis caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1999;18:358-61.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Kapil A, Gulati S, Goel V, Kumar L, Krishnan R, Kochupillai V. Outbreak of nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia in a high risk ward. Med Oncol 1998;15:270-4.   Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Lortholary O, Fagon JY, Hoy AB, Slama MA, Pierre J, Giral P, et al. Nosocomial acquisition of multiresistant A. baumannii: risk factors and prognosis. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:790-6.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Forster DH, Daschner FD. Acinetobacter species as nosocomial pathogens. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1998;17:73-7.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Rello J. Acinetobacter baumannii infections in the ICU: customization is the key. Chest 1999;115:1226-9.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Suri A, Mahapatra AK, Kapil A. Acinetobacter infection in neurosurgical intensive care patients. Natl Med J India 2000;13:296-300.  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Gerner-Smidt P. Acinetobacter : Epidemiological and taxonomic aspects. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand 1994;47:1-41.  Back to cited text no. 11    
12.Bouvet PJM, Grimont PAD. Identification and biotyping of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter . Ann Institut Pasteur Microbiol 1987;138:569-78.  Back to cited text no. 12    
13.Prashanth K, Badrinath S. Simplified phenotypic tests for identification of Acinetobacter spp. and their antimicrobial susceptibility status. J Med Microbiol 2000;49:773-8.  Back to cited text no. 13    
14.National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards:Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically. Approved Standard M7-A4. NCCLS, Wayne, PA: 2000.  Back to cited text no. 14    
15.Prashanth K, Badrinath S. In vitro susceptibility pattern of clinically significant Acinetobacter species to commonly used cephalosporins, quinolones, and aminoglysocides . Indian J Medical Microbiol 2004;22:97-103.  Back to cited text no. 15    
16.D'Agata EM, Thayer V, Schaffner W. An outbreak of Acinetobacter baumannii :the importance of cross-transmission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:588-91.  Back to cited text no. 16    
17.Sofianou DC, Constandinidis TC, Yannacou M, Anastasiou H, Sofianos E. Analysis of risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in a multidisciplinary Intensive care unit. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2000;19:460-3.  Back to cited text no. 17    
18.Peacock JE, Sorrell L, Sottile FD, Price LE, Rutula WA. Nosocomial respiratory tract colonization and infection with aminoglycoside-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus :epidemiologic characteristics and clinical significance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;9:302-8.  Back to cited text no. 18    
19.Fagon JY, Chastre J, Domart Y, Trouillet JL, Gilbert C. Mortality due to ventilator associated pneumonia or colonization with Pseudomonas or Acinetobacter spp:assessment by quantitative culture of samples obtained by a protected specimen brush. Clin Infect Dis 1996;23:538-42.  Back to cited text no. 19    
20.Tilley PA, Roberts, FJ. Bacteremia with Acinetobacter species:risk factors and prognosis in different clinical settings. Clin Infect Dis 1994;18:896-900.  Back to cited text no. 20    
21.Tjernberg I, Ursing J. Clinical strains of Acinetobacter classified by DNA-DNA hybridization. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand 1989;97:595-605.  Back to cited text no. 21    
22.Ku SC, Hsueh PR, Yang PC, Luh KT. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter lwoffii . Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2000;19:501-5.  Back to cited text no. 22    
23.Pandian JD, Sarada C, Radhakrishnan VV, Kishore A. Iatrogenic meningitis after lumbar puncture-a preventable health hazard. J Hosp Infect 2004;56:119-24.  Back to cited text no. 23    
24.Prashanth K, Madhavaranga MP, Rao VA, Kanungo R. Corneal perforation due to Acinetobacter junii :a case report. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2000;37:215-7.  Back to cited text no. 24    
25.Gulati S, Kapil A, Goel V, Das B, Dwivedi SN, Mahapatra AK. Biotyping of Acinetobacter species isolated from clinical samples. Indian J Med Res 1999;110:160-3.  Back to cited text no. 25    


    Tables

[Table - 1], [Table - 2]

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12 Molecular epidemiology of aminoglycosides resistance in acinetobacter spp. with emergence of multidrug-resistant strains
Moniri, R. and Farahani, R.K. and Shajari, G. and Shirazi, M.H.N. and Ghasemi, A.
Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2010; 39(2): 63-68
[Pubmed]
13 Clinical microbiology: Should microbiology be a clinical or a laboratory speciality
Bhattacharya, S.
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology. 2010; 53(2): 217-221
[Pubmed]
14 Phenotypic and genotypic assays for detecting the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamases in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from a South Indian tertiary care hospital
Karthika, R.U. and Rao, R.S. and Sahoo, S. and Shashikala, P. and Kanungo, R. and Jayachandran, S. and Prashanth, K.
Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2009; 58(4): 430-435
[Pubmed]
15 Nosocomial multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in the neonatal intensive care unit in Gaza City, Palestine
Abdel Moati Kh. Al Jarousha,Abdel Hakeem N. El Jadba,Ahmed S. Al Afifi,Iyad A. El Qouqa
International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009; 13(5): 623
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Nosocomial multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in the neonatal intensive care unit in Gaza City, Palestine
Al Jarousha, A.M.Kh., Jadba, A.H.N.E., Afifi, A.S.A., Qouqa, I.A.E.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009; 13(5): 623-628
[Pubmed]
17 Phenotypic and genotypic assays for detecting the prevalence of metallo- -lactamases in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from a South Indian tertiary care hospital
R. Uma Karthika,R. Srinivasa Rao,S. Sahoo,P. Shashikala,R. Kanungo,S. Jayachandran,K. Prashanth
Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2009; 58(4): 430
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Epidemiologic characterization of nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii infections in a Turkish university hospital by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
Emel Sesli Cetin,Riza Durmaz,Tulay Tetik,Baris Otlu,Selcuk Kaya,Ahmet Çaliskan
American Journal of Infection Control. 2009; 37(1): 56
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Comparison of risk factors for recovery of Acinetobacter baumannii during outbreaks at two Kentucky hospitals, 2006
Beavers, S.F., Blossom, D.B., Wiemken, T.L., Kawaoka, K.Y., Wong, A., Goss, L., McCormick, M.I., Srinivasan, A.
Public Health Reports. 2009; 124(6): 868-874
[Pubmed]
20 Epidemiologic characterization of nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii infections in a Turkish university hospital by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
Cetin, E.S., Durmaz, R., Tetik, T., Otlu, B., Kaya, S., Çalişkan, A.
American Journal of Infection Control. 2009; 37(1): 56-64
[Pubmed]
21 A study on nosocomial pathogens in ICU with special reference to multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii harbouring multiple plasmids
Patwardhan, R.B., Dhakephalkar, P.K., Niphadkar, K.B., Chopade, B.A.
Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2008; 128(2): 178-187
[Pubmed]
22 Epidemiology, etiology, and diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in Asian countries
Chawla, R.
American Journal of Infection Control. 2008; 36(4 Suppl): S93-S100
[Pubmed]
23 Epidemiology and risk factors for colonization and infection by Acinetobacter baumannii in an ICU in Tunisia, where this pathogen is endemic
Nozha Brahmi, Olfa Beji, Nour Abidi, Nadia Kouraichi, Youssef Blel, Hatem El Ghord, Hafedh Thabet, Mouldi Amamou
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy. 2007; 13(6): 400
[VIEW] | [DOI]
24 Trends in antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates from hospitalised patients in Greece and treatment implications
M. E. Falagas,E. G. Mourtzoukou,M. Polemis,A. C. Vatopoulos
Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2007; 13(8): 816
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Trends in antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates from hospitalised patients in Greece and treatment implications
Falagas, M.E., Mourtzoukou, E.G., Polemis, M., Vatopoulos, A.C.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2007; 13(8): 816-819
[Pubmed]
26 One year trends in the gram-negative bacterial antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a medical intensive care unit in South India
Kaul, S., Brahmadathan, K., Jagannati, M., Sudarsanam, T., Pitchamuthu, K., Abraham, O., John, G.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2007; 25(3): 230-235
[Pubmed]
27 Emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii in a tertiary-care hospital in Poland
Wroblewska, M.M., Towner, K.J., Marchel, H., Luczak, M.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2007; 13(5): 490-496
[Pubmed]
28 Emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii in a tertiary-care hospital in Poland
M. M. Wroblewska,K. J. Towner,H. Marchel,M. Luczak
Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2007; 13(5): 490
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Clinical and demographic features of infection caused by Acinetobacter species
Joshi, S., Litake, G., Satpute, M., Telang, N., Ghole, V., Niphadkar, K.
Indian J Med Sci. 2006; 60(9): 351-360
[Pubmed]



 

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© 2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04