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CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2004  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 136-137
 

Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among hepatic disorders and injecting drug users in manipur - A preliminary report


Department of Microbiology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal - 795 004, Manipur, India

Correspondence Address:
Department of Microbiology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal - 795 004, Manipur, India



How to cite this article:
Devi K S, Singh N B, Mara J, Singh T B, Singh Y M. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among hepatic disorders and injecting drug users in manipur - A preliminary report. Indian J Med Microbiol 2004;22:136-7


How to cite this URL:
Devi K S, Singh N B, Mara J, Singh T B, Singh Y M. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among hepatic disorders and injecting drug users in manipur - A preliminary report. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2004 [cited 2019 Aug 20];22:136-7. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2004/22/2/136/8093


Dear Editor,
Viral hepatitis, which causes acute infection and chronic sequelae, is an important world health problem. Hepatitis C virus (HCV), since its identification in the year 1989, has been shown to be a major cause of parenterally transmitted Non A Non B (NANB) hepatitis. It has been estimated that at least 200 million people are affected world wide and the infection leads to progressive disease.[1] Different studies have shown that hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV are endemic in India and have an a etiological role in acute hepatitis, 50-70% of which lead to chronic liver disease.[2],[3] The present study was undertaken to find the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV among hepatic disorders and injecting drug users (IDUs) in Manipur, the north eastern state of India. Manipur is geographically very close to the notorious golden triangle between Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, known for poppy cultivation.
The study included 100 cases with hepatic disorders comprising of 30 acute viral hepatitis, 36 alcoholic hepatitis and 34 cirrhosis of liver, admitted in RIMS hospital during the period between January 2000 and August 2001 and 250 IDUs from a deaddiction centre, Shalom, Churachanpur, Manipur. Diagnosis of the individual liver disease was made by detailed history, clinical examination and relevant biochemical tests. Fine needle aspiration, cytology and CT scan were done as and when indicated. Serum samples from all the patients were tested for HBsAg by immunochromatography using virucheck (Orchid Biomedical Systems) and detection of anti HCV antibody was done by third generation ELISA test using LGHCD3.0 (LG Chemicals Ltd.). For each test, manufacturer's instructions were strictly followed.
The patients of hepatic disorders under study comprised of 87 males and 13 females and among the 250 IDUs only 6 were females. Among the hepatic disorders, HCV sero positivity was found maximum in the age group 33-42 (46.6%) whereas HBsAg was found highest in the age groups 22-32 years (42.3%). Nine out of 30 (30%) of viral hepatitis, 10 out of 36 (27.7%) alcoholic hepatitis and 11 out of 34 (32.35%) cirrhosis of liver were positive for anti HCV antibody. Co-infection of HBV and HCV was found in 5% of hepatic disorders (1 viral hepatitis, 3 alcoholic hepatitis and 1 cirrhosis of liver). HBsAg was positive in 20% of viral hepatitis, 22.2% of alcoholic hepatitis and 35.29% of cirrhosis of liver. Out of the 100 cases of hepatic disorder, 34 had history of risk factors like blood transfusion (12), IDU (5), IDU with blood transfusion (2) and multiple sexual contacts (10) and others (5).
Among the IDUs, HBsAg was positive in 27 cases (10.8%) and anti HCV antibody was positive in 226 cases (90.4%) and 12 cases (4.8%) were positive for both HBV and HCV. Maximum number of positive cases belonged to age group 23-32 years.
The prevalence of HCV and HBV infections is not uniform throughout India.[2],[3] Our findings were comparable with some studies[3],[4] while it is higher than other studies.[5] The increased prevalence of HCV in alcoholic patients with severe liver disease with impaired liver function suggests that HCV is involved in liver damage in chronic alcoholic patients. The HCV prevalence among the IDUs in the study was quite high (90.4%) and the IDUs were in the sexually active age group of 23-32 years. Sexual partners of these IDUs are at a risk of infection. HBsAg was positive in 10.8% of IDUs and this might indicate persistent infection or carrier state. By using other HBV markers like anti HBc antibody, anti HBs antibody, more HBV infection could have been detected. In our study, co-infection of HBV and HCV was 5% and 4.8% among the hepatic disorders and IDUs respectively. Co-infection leads to more aggressive liver disease with the two viruses interacting in poorly defined ways to increase the rate of hepatic fibrosis. This preliminary study shows that HBV and HCV infections are common in Manipur. There is high prevalence of HCV among IDUs who are in sexually active age group. Need for implementation of control measures is emphasised. 

 ~ References Top

1.Preston H, Wright TL. Interferon therapy for Hepatitis C. Lancet 1996;384:973-974.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Dharmadhikari CA, Kulkarani RD, Kulkarani V, Udgaonkar, Pawar SG. Incidence of hepatitis B surface antigen in liver diseases and voluntary blood donors. J Indian Med Assoc 1990;88(3):73-75.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Abraham P, John J. Hepatitis C - a review with particular reference to the Indian Scenario. Indian J Med Microbiol 1995;14:5-14.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Pares A, Barrera JM, Caballeria J, Ereilla G, Bruguera M, Caballeria L. Hepatitis C virus antibody in chronic alcoholic patients association with severity of liver injury. Hepatology 1990;12:1295-1299.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Chatterjee C, Mitra K, Hazra SC, Banerjee D, Guha SK, Neogi DK. Prevalence of HCV infection among patients of chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis of liver Indian J Med Microbiol 2001;19(1):46-47.  Back to cited text no. 5    
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2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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