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CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2002  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 225
 

Prevalence of HIV infection in HBsAg positive cases


Department of Microbiology, LTMMC, Sion, Mumbai-22, India

Correspondence Address:
Department of Microbiology, LTMMC, Sion, Mumbai-22, India



How to cite this article:
Mathur M, Turbadkar D, Rele M. Prevalence of HIV infection in HBsAg positive cases. Indian J Med Microbiol 2002;20:225


How to cite this URL:
Mathur M, Turbadkar D, Rele M. Prevalence of HIV infection in HBsAg positive cases. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2002 [cited 2019 Oct 18];20:225. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2002/20/4/225/6964


Dear Editor,
Infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has assumed a pandemic proportion. HIV infection has caused approximately 20 million deaths, and an estimated 36 million persons are infected. In India, the estimated HIV infection rate among HIV person aged 15-49 years is 0.7%.[1] As reported by NACO, the estimate of HIV infected adult in India as in mid 1999 would be 3.098 million applying a variable of 20% the estimate ranges from 2.4 to 3.7 million. As on March, 2000, 11,251 AIDS cases were reported to NACO.[2]
HIV and HBsAg virus share common transmission routes and common infection risk groups. The routes of transmission of HIV infection is through unsafe sexual practice, through sharing of infected syringes and needles among IV drug users and transfusion of contaminated blood and blood products. A number of studies have documented coinfection with HBV and HIV.[3],[4] In this communication we report the coinfection with HBV and HIV infection in patients with liver diseases.
A total of 9450 serum samples were collected over a period of one and half years (April, 2000 to September, 2001) from patients suspected of liver disease in general public hospital. All the serum samples were screened for HBsAg by ELISA test (Hepanostika kits) and the plate was read in ELISA reader at 450nm and the cut off value was calculated as per the instruction manual. Any value above cut off value was taken as HBsAg positive. All HBsAg positive serum samples were further tested for detection of HIV antibodies by ELISA and rapid test as per NACO guidelines.
Of all samples 557 serum samples were HBsAg positive (5.89%). Out of 557 HBsAg positive serum samples 34 (6.1%) were positive for HIV antibody.
In our study a detail history including blood transfusion, IV drug use, dialysis and history of exposure was recorded. Of 34 patients who were positive for both HBsAg and HIV antibodies, 17 gave history of exposure and two were IV drug user.
Devi et al have shown HBsAg positivity in liver disease as 17.3%.[5] Our study showed 5.89% of the liver disease cases positive for HBsAg. Since, there is similarity in the modes of infection between HBV and HIV infection there is every possibility that HBV infected person may acquire HIV infection.
Though in Manipur the positivity for HIV infection among patients with high risk behavior and IV drug user were 13.49% and 46.29% respectively,[5] our study showed that in positivity for both HIV and HBsAg infection 50.0% were high risk group and 5.8% were IV drug users. We recommend that all HBsAg positive patients should be screened for HIV. 

 ~ References Top

1.The Global HIV and AIDS epidemic 2001. MMWR June 01, 2001;50(21):434-439.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Internet www.naco.nic.in; vsnaco; Indian scene; trend httm, 2001.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.McCarron B, Thyagarajan SP. HIV and hepatotropic viruses interaction and treatments. Ind J Med Microbiol 1988;16(1):4-11.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Bodsworth N, Donovan B, Nightingale B. The effect of concurrent human immunodeficiency virus infection in chronic hepatitis B. A study of 150 homosexual men. J Infect Dis 1989;160:577-582.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Devi S, Brajachand N, Ibotoma Y. Prevalence of HIV antibodies in hepatitis patient: A preliminary study. Ind J Med Microbiol 1994;12(2):142-144.  Back to cited text no. 5    
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